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ReOrienting the West through Latin American Media

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Title: ReOrienting the West through Latin American Media


1
ReOrienting the West through Latin American
Media
  • Presentation by
  • Dr. Celeste Gonz├ílez de Bustamante
  • Developing and Assessing Intercultural Competence
    Conference
  • October 10-11, 2008
  • Tucson, Arizona

2
  • The nations of contemporary Asia, Latin America,
    and Africa are politically independent but in
    many ways are as dominated and dependent as they
    were when ruled directly by European powers.
  • Edward Said, Culture and Imperialism

3
Three-Fold Purpose
  • Answer How do media in Latin America portray the
    West?
  • Discuss examples of Latin American media and how
    they relate to the highly industrialized world
  • Offer some tools for analyzing media

4
What is the West?
  • Western Civilization?
  • Western Europe?
  • Western Hemisphere?
  • Industrialized nations?
  • Brazil, 9th largest economy
  • Mexico, 13th largest economy

5
(No Transcript)
6
The idea of the West
  • Is a historical fabrication of Western European
    Powers and the United States
  • Social and political theories since 1800 have
    privileged the West
  • Modernization theory
  • Dependency theory
  • World Systems (core-periphery)
  • All explain why the West won

7
  • The West the developed world, industrialized
    nations, World economic powers (excluding the
    Americas, south of the United States Middle
    East the East)
  • Lets settle on highly industrialized nations

8
What is Latin America?
A geographical region that includes two
continents, 17 countries, 18 including Puerto
Rico and much of the rest of the Caribbean
excluding Belize, Guyana, Suriname, French
Guyana, U.S. Virgin Islands, Jamaica, Haiti, and
Bahamas
9
Defining Latin America
  • Latin America is a 19th century French invention
  • Culturally extremely different
  • Linguistically Spanish, Portuguese
  • Historically colonized, but different

10
Latin American Media
  • How are highly industrialized nations such as the
    United States visible in Latin American media?
  • It depends on the historical period
  • Generally two camps
  • Reaffirms industrialized model of modernity
  • Resists or critiques industrialized model of
    modernity

11
Reaffirming the model of modernity
  • Television news in Brazil
  • Jornal Nacional http//jornalnacional.globo.com/
  • Television news in Mexico
  • Televisa News http//www2.esmas.com/noticierostele
    visa/mexico/
  • Entertainment in Brazil
  • Paraiso Tropical http//www.youtube.com/watch?vL
    LdJZvqgb3gfeaturerelated
  • Entertainment in Mexico
  • Maria del Barrio http//www.youtube.com/watch?vLL
    dJZvqgb3gfeaturerelated

12
Observations
  • Consumer, upper-middle class values celebrated
  • Indigenous groups are Orientalized and/or
    excluded
  • Afro-Mexicans excluded
  • Afro-Brazilians highly sexualized

13
Resistance to or critiques of the model of
modernity (industrialized nations)
  • Print News Media

Friendships. I help him, I help him not, I help
him, I help him not Lifesaver Rescue package
for 40 billion dollars. Source El Norte
(Monterrey) January 27, 1995. In Stephen Morris,
Gringolandia.
14
Resistance to or critiques of the model of
modernity (industrialized nations) (2)
Partners. Source El Excelsior (Mexico City),
January 30, 1995. In Stephen Morris, Gringolandia.
The gringos are going to invade us in 2003!
Going to? Source Ocho Columnas (Guadalajara),
November 14, 1996. In Stephen Morris,
Gringolandia.
15
Resistance to or critiques of the model of
modernity (industrialized nations) (3)
Source El Fisgon, Those wetbacks! La Jornada,
1995. In Stephen Morris, Gringolandia.
Source El Norte (Monterrey), January 17, 1995.
In Stephen Morris, Gringolandia.
16
Resistance to or critiques of the model of
modernity (industrialized nations) (4)
El Ahuizotl cartoons equate Spaniards and gringos
as a means of suggesting a new conquest.
Christopher Columbus recruits marines for the
colonization of the New World using Uncle Sams
slogan I WANT YOU! Source Rocha. In Carrie
Chorba, Mexico, From Mestizo to Multicultural.
17
Resistance to or critiques of the model of
modernity (industrialized nations) (5)
  • Hugo Chavez, Vayanse al carajo!
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vtoKXMcwfOBYfeature
    related
  • Evo Morales, Speech at UN General Assembly,
    September 23, 2008
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vADPa-Ewqt7w

18
Observations
  • U.S. and industrialized world as threat to the
    nation
  • Re-conquest, Neo-colonialism

19
Analyzing the Media
20
Production
  • Who controls production?
  • How is the image (report, movie) produced?
  • For what end?

21
Content
  • What was the focus?
  • What images/voices were included?
  • What images were excluded?
  • What is/are the message(s)?
  • Who plays a prominent role in the film, report?
  • How are various groups portrayed?

22
Interpretations
  • How was the report/program received?
  • By the public?
  • By the individual?
  • Possible political, social, cultural change as a
    result of the reports?

23
Conclusions
  • Latin America occupies a peculiar space
  • Media produced reaffirm and resist industrialized
    model of modernity
  • Indigenous and Afro-Brazilian, Afro-Mexican
    voices often excluded or Orientalized in
    mainstream media
  • Three level analysis production, content,
    interpretations useful in understanding the
    diverse perspectives that emerge from Latin
    America

24
  • A whole range of people in the so-called
    Western or metropolitan world, as well as their
    counterparts in the Third or formerly colonized
    world, share a sense that the era of high or
    classical imperialism, which came to a climax in
    what the historian Eric Hobsbawm has so
    interestingly described as the age of empire
    and more or less formally ended with the
    dismantling of the great colonial structures
    after World War II, has in one way or another
    continued to exert considerable cultural
    influence in the present.-Edward Said, Culture
    and Imperialism

celesteg_at_email.arizona.edu
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