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General Basics of Islam


Islam stands for complete submission and obedience to Allah. Islam does not have any association whatsoever with any particular person or people or country. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Basics of Islam

General Basics of Islam
  • Hisham Farajallah
  • Islamic Center of Washington
  • Idriss Mosque
  • 206-363-3013

General Basics of Islam
  • Key Words
  • Allah
  • Islam
  • Muslims
  • Islam What Does it Mean?
  • Pillars of Islam
  • Articles of Faith

Islam What Does is Mean?
  • Islam is an Arabic word, it means submission,
    surrender, and obedience
  • As a Religion
  • Islam stands for complete submission and
    obedience to Allah.
  • Islam does not have any association whatsoever
    with any particular person or people or country.

Islam What Does is Mean?
  • Islam is an attributive title, any one who
    possesses this attribute, whatever race,
    community, country or group he / she belongs to,
    is a Muslim

  • Allah is the proper name of God in Arabic.
  • The term has no plural or gender
  • Also, Allah is the personal name of God in
    Aramaic, the language of Jesus (PBUH) and the
    sister language of Arabic

Pillars of Islam
  • Declaration of Faith
  • Perform Five Daily Prayers
  • Fasting During the Month of Ramadan
  • Zakah Obligatory Charity
  • The fifth pillar of Islam is Hajj Pilgrimage.

Articles of Faith
  • Belief in the Unity of God
  • Belief in all the Prophets with no distinction
    between them
  • Belief in all Divine Scriptures
  • Belief in the existence of Angels
  • Belief in the Day of Judgment and life after
  • Belief in the Divine Decree

Articles of Faith
  • Belief in the existence of God, Knowledge of Him,
    and in His Unity are the essential foundations of
  • Muslims believe that the Oneness of God is the
    essence of the Divine Message brought by ALL the

Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an
  • The Qur'an
  • Believed to have been revealed directly, word for
    word in Arabic, to Muhammad through the angel
  • Its contents originate entirely from God, having
    no human component.
  • Proper recitation and memorization of the Qur'an
    are a religious duties
  • Responsibilities that Allah has taken about the
  • The collection, composition and arrangement of
    the Q'uran
  • The Proclamation / promulgation of the Q'uran
  • The Preservation of the Q'uran

Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an
  • The Noble Qur'an
  • Alif Laam Raa. A book which we have revealed unto
  • you so that you may lead mankind from out
  • of the darkness into light. Qur'an 141
  • The Qur'an is a Message from Allah to humanity.
  • It was transmitted in a chain starting from the
    Almighty Himself to the angel Gabriel to the
    Prophet Muhammad.
  • It was given to the Prophet in pieces over a
    period spanning approximately 23 years.
  • The Prophet was 40 years old when the Qur'an
    began to be revealed to him, and he was 63 when
    the revelation was completed.
  • The language of the original message was Arabic

Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an
  • The Noble Qur'an (Continued)
  • The Qur'an is one leg of two which form the basis
    of Islam.
  • The second leg is the Sunnah of the Prophet.
  • What makes the Qur'an different from the Sunnah
    is primarily its form.
  • Unlike the Sunnah, the Qur'an is quite literally
    the Word of Allah, whereas the Sunnah was
    inspired by Allah but the wording and actions are
    the Prophet's.
  • The Qur'an has not been expressed using any
    human's words. Its wording is letter for letter
    fixed by no one but Allah.

Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an
  • The Noble Qur'an (Continued)
  • Prophet Muhammad was the final Messenger,
    therefore the Qur'an is the last Message which
    Allah has sent to us.
  • It is an obligation - and blessing - for all who
    hear of the Qur'an to investigate it and evaluate
    it for themselves.
  • Allah has guaranteed that He will protect the
    Qur'an from human tampering, and today's readers
    can find exact copies of it all over the world.
  • The Qur'an of today is the same as the Qur'an
    revealed to Muhammad more than 1400 years ago.
  • There are 114 Chapters in the Qur'an

Sunnah The Tradition of the Prophet
  • About Prophet Muhammad
  • Muhammad ibnu Abdullah was born in Mecca in the
    year 569 CE. He was known by his people as
    al-amin (The Trustworthy one).
  • At the age of 40, the angel Gabriel came to him
    with revelations that established his prophet
  • He is the last Prophet of Allah.
  • In the year 632, the year of his death, the
    Prophet delivered his famous last sermon.

Sunnah The Tradition of the Prophet
  • Sunnah and Hadith
  • And whatever the Messenger gives you, take it,
    and whatever he
  • forbids you, leave it. Qur'an 597
  • The Arabic word sunnah denotes the way Prophet
    Muhammad lived his life.
  • The Sunnah is the second source of Islamic
    jurisprudence, the first being the Qur'an.
  • Both sources are indispensable one cannot
    practice Islam without consulting both of them.
  • The Arabic word hadith is very similar to Sunnah,
    but not identical.
  • In the 7th and 8th centuries, Islamic scholars
    confronted with a daunting task to preserve the
    knowledge of the Sunnah.
  • Hence the science of hadith evaluation was born.

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • Islamic Law The Shariah
  • It refers to the laws and way of life prescribed
    by Allah for man.
  • It deals with
  • the ideology and faith
  • Behavior and manners
  • All practical daily matters

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • The Shariah Rights and Obligation
  • The Rights of God
  • The Rights of Ones Own Self
  • The Rights of Other Men
  • The Rights of All Creatures

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • Sources of Islamic Law
  • Primary Sources
  • The Quran
  • The Sunnah
  • Secondary Sources (Dependent Sources)
  • Ijma (Consensus)
  • Qiyas (Analogy)
  • Ijtihad (progressive reasoning by analogy)

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • Figh
  • The legal rulings of the Muslim scholars based on
    their knowledge of the Shariah.
  • Started in the Second century after Hijrah
  • Four schools of thought
  • Figh Hanafi
  • Figh Maliki
  • Figh Shafii
  • Figh Hanbali

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • Rulings of the Shariah
  • Prescribed (Obligatory, Required, Mandatory)
  • Recommended (Desirable, Preferable)
  • Permissible / Allowed
  • Disliked (Offensive, Detested)
  • Unlawful / Prohibited

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • The conditions which are required for a scholar
    to master Islamic jurisprudence and enable him /
    her to issue a judicial ruling (fatwa).
  • It is not permissible for anyone to give a
    judicial ruling in the religion of Allah except
  • A man who is knowledgeable in the Book of Allah,
    its abrogate and abrogated verses, its decisive
    and allegorical, its interpretation, the
    revelation of verses in Mecca and Madinah.
    Moreover, he has to have the knowledge of its
    absolute, unrestricted, and restricted verses,
    and the reason for the revelation, its general
    and detailed verses and various aspects of its
    Quranic recitation.

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • Conditions Continued
  • He has to be very well acquainted with the
    tradition of the Prophet (peace be upon him) that
    he has committed it to memory, and he is
    knowledgeable with the abrogation in it, the
    authentic, the weak, and the good hadith. He has
    to be knowledgeable with the science of character
    of the narrators and the authentic chain of
    authority on narration
  • In addition, he has to be knowledgeable in the
    Arabic language and its science of rhetoric,
    styles of meaning, and metaphors.

Islamic Law The Shariah
  • Conditions Continued
  • He has to have depth of understanding of poetry
    and what he needs of it to interpret the Quran
    and the tradition (Sunnah).
  • He further has to be well acquainted with the
    study of the current reality of society as well
    as the diversity of people of various cities and
  • When the scholars meet the above conditions, he /
    she will be qualified for derivations and
    deduction of judicial rulings (Issuing Fatwa).

Islam vs. Culture
  • Both genders are entitled to equality before the
    law. Justice is genderless
  • There is sufficient historical evidence of
    participation by Muslim women in the choice of
    rulers, in public issues, in lawmaking, in
    administrative positions, in scholarship and
    teaching, and even in the battlefield

Islam vs. Culture
  • Anyone wishing to understand Islam must first
    separate the religion from the cultural norms and
    styles of a society
  • The Quran is addressed to ALL, and for the most
    part, it does not differentiate between male and
  • Men and Women were created from a single soul,
    and are equals in the sight of God
  • Women have the right to divorce, to inherit, to
    conduct business and to have access to knowledge

Islam vs. Culture
  • The search for knowledge is a duty for every
    Muslim male or female
  • The Quran states categorically that men and women
    who practice the principals of Islam will receive
    equal rewards for their efforts
  • According to Quran, men and women have the same
    spiritual human nature
  • Both genders are recipients of the divine
  • Both genders are dignified and are trustees of
    Allah on earth
  • According to the Quran, woman is not blamed for
    the fall of man

Islam vs. Culture
  • Men and Women have the same religious and moral
    duties and responsibilities. They both face the
    consequences of their deeds
  • The Quran makes it very clear that the sole basis
    for superiority of any person over another is
    piety and righteousness not gender, color, or
  • The Islamic Shariah recognizes the full property
    rights of women before and after marriage
  • Greater financial security is assured for women

Islam vs. Culture
  • Polygamy
  • One common myth is to associate polygamy with
  • Islam did not originate nor outlaw polygamy but
    regulated it
  • Options to reject marriage proposals or seek
    divorce is allowable

Women In Islam- Myths
  • Hijab imprisoned under burgas
  • Rights none
  • Education not allowed to go to school
  • Marriage against their will

Women In Islam -Hijab (body coverings)
  • Muslim women do not travel in societies
  • Women do not wear hijab because of coercion,
    custom, nor tradition
  • Hijab is worn on belief that it is a command from
    Allah (swt) revealed to protect women, make their
    character distinct and keep them away from
  • Hijab is worn willingly and with conviction

Women In Islam - Daughters
  • The Quran effectively ended the cruel pre Islamic
    practice of female infanticide
  • Parents are duty bound to support and show
    kindness and justice to their daughters
  • Education is not only a right but also a
    responsibility upon all females and males

Women In Islam - Wives
  • Marriage in Islam is based on mutual acceptance,
    peace, love, and compassion.
  • Women have the right to accept or reject marriage
  • The Quran, very clearly, urges husbands to always
    be kind and considerate to their wives
  • Marriage dissolutions include mutual agreement

Women In Islam - Mothers
  • Kindness to parents (especially mothers) is next
    to worship of Allah
  • Mothers are accorded a special place of honor in
    the sayings of the prophet

Women In Islam
  • During the life of the Prophet, many women were
    looked upon as vital custodians of knowledge and
    were consistently approached for guidance and
    instructions, by men and others
  • Aishah, is one of the most important women, above
    some men in Islam and within the whole history of
    the Hadith i.e., Sunnah
  • Women held important positions, in Islam and many
    men scholars were their students