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A Cheyenne Proverb


During the early 19th century, the Cheyenne migrated to the center of Great Plains. ... In 1879, Little Wolf and his band surrendered and were taken to Fort ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Cheyenne Proverb

A Cheyenne Proverb
  • "A nation is not conquered
  • Until the hearts of its women are on the ground.
  • Then it is finished,
  • No matter how brave its warriors
  • Or how strong their weapons."

The Cheyenne
Welcome! va'ôhtama!
  • Presented By Annie

Who Are The Cheyenne?
  • The Cheyenne are North American Plains Indian
    people who speak a dialect of Algonkian.
  • Cheyenne means people of a different speech.

Who Are The Cheyenne?
  • The ancient Cheyenne called themselves
    TsistsistaThe People.

A Brief of History
  • The Cheyenne originated on the west shore of the
    Great Lakes area, where they had a sedentary and
    peaceful life.
  • They fished and lived in bark- covered huts.

A Brief of History (continued)
  • In the late 1600s, the Cheyenne began their long
    journey to the west.
  • During that time, the Cheyenne farmed, fished,
    hunted, and made pottery.

A Brief of History (continued)
  • In the late 1700s, the Cheyenne moved to the
    Black Hills of South Dakota , where they
    developed their unique nomadic Plains culture and
    gave up agriculture and pottery.

A Brief of History (continued)
  • During the early 19th century, the Cheyenne
    migrated to the center of Great Plains.

The Cheyenne
  • Location and Environment
  • Economy Sources
  • Homes and Camps
  • Food
  • Clothing
  • Weapons for Hunting and Fighting
  • Arts and Crafts
  • Customs, Beliefs, and Religion
  • Role of Men, Women, and Children
  • Leadership and Government
  • Interactions with the Europeans

Location and Environment (Location)
  • The territory of the Cheyenne could be as far
    north as the Black Hills of South Dakota and as
    far south as the Staked Plain of the Texas. It
    was between the western Rocky Mountains and the
    east bank of the Mississippi River.

Location and Environment (Location)
  • Generally, the plains area between the North
    Platte and Arkansas Rivers was the true home of
    the Cheyenne. It included Eastern Colorado and
    Wyoming, western Kansas and Nebraska.

Location and Environment(Environment)
  • The center high plains, where the Cheyenne
    settled, lies in the center of Great Plains. It
    is extremely difficult for humans to settle in
    the land.

Location and Environment(Environment)
  • The climate of the land is harsh. There are
    frigid winds and blizzards in the winter, and
    thunderstorms and hailstones in the summer.

Location and Environment(Environment)
  • The land is nearly treeless and is thickly
    carpeted with tall, native grasses. This gives no
    protection from harsh weather.
  • Also, the land has no main rivers. It is dry and
    lacks water.

Location and Environment(Environment)
  • Why did the Cheyenne choose this harsh place to
  • Millions of buffalo herds roamed the center
    high plains, since there was abundant buffalo

Economy Sources
  • The Cheyenne were very dependent on the buffalo
    for food, housing, clothing and other items like
    tools and jewelry, they also traded buffalo hides
    for other things.

Homes and Camps
  • The tepee was the home of the Cheyenne, it was a
    conical structure
  • framed by angled poles and covered by buffalo
  • It was designed to keep the inside cool in summer
    and warm in winter.

Homes and Camps (Continued)
The Cheyenne tepee was unique because of its big
size and beauty.
  • The tepee was white and shining under the sun
    since the Cheyenne used the buffalo skin that was
    specially treated.

Homes and Camps (Continued)
What did it look like inside the tepee?
  • The fireplace was in the center, and the
    furniture and belongings were arranged
    symmetrically around the fireplace.

Homes and Camps (Continued)
  • The backrest, made of willow, made sitting more

Homes and Camps (Continued)
  • The Cheyenne Camps were large, since more hunters
    were needed.
  • The Cheyenne broke and formed their camp
    repeatedly and frequently, their campsites
    followed the trail of buffalo.

Homes and Camps (Continued)
  • During winter, the Cheyenne built their camp in a
    sheltered place and enjoyed their peaceful and
    restful life.

  • Buffalo was the main food of the Cheyenne they
    used the fresh buffalo meat to make soup or dried
    it in the sun.
  • Other animals and birds like deer, moose, elk,
    and rabbits were also their food sources.

Food (Continued)
  • The Cheyenne favorite vegetable was the Indian
  • The Cheyenne also ate some wild fruits such as
    chokeberry, plums, sand-berry, and currants

  • The most common Cheyenne footwear was the
  • The leggings were worn in the winter.

  • Cheyenne women wore the dress made of soft
    deerskin in the warm weather,

and wore the buffalo skin dress in the winter.
  • Cheyenne men usually wore breechcloth with a belt
  • When it was cold, they wore a robe made of
    buffalo skin.

  • Cheyenne men liked to wear the war bonnet made
    of eagle feathers.
  • They believed that it would protect them in the

  • Cheyenne women decorated the clothing

with beads, feathers, fringes, and quills. They
also painted the clothing.
Weapons for Hunting and Fighting
  • Cheyenne men used shields to protect themselves
    from the enemies.
  • To show their bravery, they liked to use the
    lances to attack the enemies

Weapons for Hunting and Fighting(Continued)
  • Cheyenne men usually used arrows and bows to hunt
    animals and attack their enemies.
  • Their arrows were pointed with various shapes and
    tailed with feathers.

Weapons for Hunting and Fighting(Continued)
  • The Cheyenne used war clubs in the fighting. The
    club was made of a stone attached to a stick.
  • They also used spears for buffalo hunting .

Arts and Crafts
  • The Cheyenne had various tools included
  • Stone maul used to peg the tepee into the ground
    and smash the animal bones to make soup.

2. Flesher, made from a buffalo bone, used to
scrape animal hides clean.
Arts and Crafts(Continued)
  • The Cheyenne made spoons and decorated them with
    strings and paints.
  • They also made cradle board to carry the  baby
    safely as they were moving on the horse.

Arts and Crafts(Continued)
  • Cheyenne women were famous for making,
    decorating, and painting animal hinds.
  • They used hinds to make clothing, bedding,
    storage, and tepee covers.

Arts and Crafts (Continued)
  • They used a tanning process to produce white and
    shining buffalo skin.
  • They used powdered earth, porous bones, and the
    special glue to paint the hinds.
  • They also decorated the hinds with beads,
    feathers, fringes, and quills in a pattern.

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Beliefs)
  • The Cheyenne believed that Maheo was the creator
    of the world.
  • Four Sacred Persons, the Maheyuno, were
    positioned at four directions east, west, north,
    and south, where they guarded Maheos creation.
  • The Maheyuno controlled Maiyun, lesser spirits
    who are in many forms like animal or birds.

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Beliefs)
  • The Cheyenne believed that the dead lived in
    harmony with Maheo.
  • They worshiped their deity by dancing and
    performing rituals.

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Sacred Objects)
  • One of the most important sacred objects was the
    Four Medicine Arrows.
  • The Cheyenne believed that two of the arrows had
    great power over buffalo and the other two over

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Sacred Objects)
  • Bear Butte in the Black hills, South Dakota was a
    sacred mountain to the Cheyenne.
  • It was mentioned in many of the Cheyenne's sacred

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Rituals)
  • One of the most important rituals, the Sun Dance,
    was held in the summer and lasted four days.
  • The dancer kept dancing without eating and
    drinking and ended up with his chest pierced.
  • This ritual was to show the bravery and the
    ability of standing pain.

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Rituals)
  • The most sacred ritual was the Renewal of the
    Four Medicine Arrows.
  • The religion leaders opened a leather bundle that
    held the arrows in the Sacred Arrow Lodge on the
    longest day of the year when all the tribe
    gathered together.
  • It was believed that the arrows would make
    buffalo and the enemies of the Cheyenne

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Marriage)
  • The boy asked a respected elder woman to propose
    to the girls family.
  • The bride rode the finest horse of her family and
    was led by an elder woman to the house of the
  • The relatives of the groom carried the bride into
    the house and prepared her for the ceremony.

Customs, Beliefs, and Religion(Burial Customs)
  • The dead were buried with some possessions at a
    location far from the camp.
  • After painted and dressed, the dead were placed
    on a high platform, either in a tree or on a

Role of Men, Women, and Children(Men)
  • Cheyenne men were the masters of hunting. They
    provided main economy sources for the family.
  • Cheyenne men were full of bravery and courage,
    they protected their family and properties and
    served as warriors for their tribe.

Role of Men, Women, and Children(Women)
  • Raising children and caring for all the
    housework were the key responsibilities of
    Cheyenne women.
  • They cooked food, made clothing, bedding, tepees,
    and tools, dressed hinds, and saddled their
    husband's horses .

Role of Men, Women, and Children(Games for adult)
  • The Cheyenne played games at their free time. One
    of the popular games was the hoop and poles.
  • To play the game, you needed to shoot the pole
    across the hoop when it passed.

Role of Men, Women, and Children(Children)
  • Cheyenne children played around and learned the
    skills they should have as grownups.
  • Boys learned to become hunters and warriors.
  • gtgt They used mini weapons to practice and rode
  • gtgt They played games mocking hunting and

Role of Men, Women, and Children(Children)
  • Girls helped their mothers and learned how to
    take care of children and housework.

gtgt They played with dolls and mini
cradleboards to pretend to be a mother . gtgt They
set up small tepees and pretended to move
their camps.  
Leadership and Government
  • The Cheyenne was well organized into 10 bands and
    governed by the Council of Forty-Four.
  • The council was made of 44 chiefs who served for
    10 years. It was held annually.

Leadership and Government
  • The 44 chiefs -4 principal chiefs representing
    all numbers of tribes plus 4 chiefs elected from
    each of their 10 bands-discussed the issues- like
    when and where to hunt or move or with whom they
    should form an alliance.

Leadership and Government
  • These chiefs were peace makers, they were elected
    for their sagacity, courage, generosity, and

Leadership and Government
  • However, the Cheyenne also had seven war
    societiesBowstring Soldiers, Wolf Soldiers,
    Crazy Dogs, Red Shields, Dog Soldiers, Kit Foxes,
    and Elk Soldiers.

Leadership and Government
  • Each Society was governed by major and minor
  • The societies were responsible for defense and
    for avenging deaths.
  • The Dog Soldiers were well known as hostile,
    relentless warriors.

A Dog Soldier
Interaction With the European Settlers(Early
  • In 1806, the Cheyenne met Merewether Lewis and
    William Clark , the first two representatives of
    the U.S. government.
  • A chief refused to take the peace medal offered
    by Clark.

Interaction With the European Settlers(Trade)
  • In 1834, Chief Yellow Wolf and his partner
    William Bent, a fur trader, built Bents fort, a
    trading fort, on the Arkansas River near the
  • Through trading, the Cheyenne became stronger and

Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties
and wars)
  • In 1825, the Cheyenne signed their first peace
    agreement with the U.S. government.
  • In 1851, the Cheyenne, along with other Indian
    tribes, signed the Treaty of Fort Laramie. The
    goal was set to bring peace by establishing
    specific boundaries for Indian territories.

A note on the division of the Cheyenne
  • By 1859, the Cheyenne were no longer united.
    They were divided into Northern Cheyenne who
    stayed in the north and Southern Cheyenne who
    stayed in the south.
  • From then on, each tribe would fight its own
    battles and sign its own treaties.

Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties
and wars)
  • The Treaty of Fort Laramie did not bring the
    peace. Both settlers and the Cheyenne attacked
    each other.
  • The U.S. government sent their soldiers to fight
    the Cheyenne.

Interaction With the European Settlers(The Sand
Creek Massacre)
  • In 1864, Between 400 and 500 Cheyenne men, women
    and children were slaughtered in a brutal,
  • unprovoked assault by Colonel Chivington and
    his soldiers at Sand Creek, Colorado.

Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties
and wars)
  • In 1867, Chief Black Kettle signed the Treaty of
    Medicine Lodge which confined the Southern
    Cheyenne to a reservation in Oklahoma.

Interaction With the European Settlers(The
Custers Last Stand)
  • The Northern Cheyenne, along with the Teton
    Sioux, continued to fight the U.S. troops.
  • In 1876, they killed General Custer and his 265
    men in the battle of Little Big Horn, often
    referred as Custers Last Stand.

Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties
and wars)
  • After the battle, the Northern Cheyenne retreated
    into the deep hills to hide.
  • In 1877, they turned themselves over the U.S.
    authorities, and were forced to travel 70 days on
    foot to join their Southern kin at Darlington
    Agency, Oklahoma.

Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties
and wars)
  • The Northern Cheyenne missed their north home,
    but they were not allowed to leave.
  • Dull Knife and Little Wolf and their 300 follower
    escaped from the reservation of Oklahoma.

Dull Knife
Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties
and wars)
  • Dull Knifes band were captured and some of them
    escaped again to join their Sioux friends in the
    South Dakota.
  • In 1879, Little Wolf and his band surrendered and
    were taken to Fort Keogh in Montana.

Little Wolf
Interaction With the European Settlers(Treaties
and wars)
  • In 1884, most of the Northern Cheyenne moved to a
    reservation in Montana.

Todays Cheyenne
  • Today, the Northern Cheyenne Reservation is in
    Montana and the Southern Cheyenne Reservation is
    in Oklahoma.
  • They live a life much like their non-Indian
  • However, they still keep some of their traditions.

Thank you! Néáee!
Once, we were great and powerful nation our
hearts were proud and our arms were strong
-Porcupine Bear Virgina Driving Hawk Sneve
  • Sally Sheppard. The Cheyenne. United states of
    America franklin Watts Inc, 1976
  • Evelyn Wolfson. From Abenaki to Zuni. United
    States of America Walker Publishing Company Inc,
  • Stan Hoig. The Cheyenne. United States of
    America Chelsea house of publisher, 1989

  • Colin Caylor. What do we know about the Plain
    Indians?. New York, New York Peter Bedricks
    Books, 1993
  • Liz Sonneborn. The Cheyenne Indians. New York,
    New York Chelsea House of Publisher, 1992
  • Robin May. The Plain Indians of North America.
    Vero beach, Florida Rourke Publications Inc, 1987

  • Virgina Driving Hawk. Sneve The Cheynnes. United
    States of America Holiday House, 1996
  • www.cheyenneindian.com
  • www.cheyenneoutpost.com
  • montanafilm.com
  • www.americanhistory.com
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