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Managing an Effective Job Search

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Title: Managing an Effective Job Search


1
Managing an Effective Job Search
  • American Chemical Society
  • Department of Career Services
  • 2004

2
Your Personal Network
  • ....part of your Market Development
  • ....used to obtain Leads and Information about
    potential clients and jobs
  • ....built and maintained by means of Personal
    Contact and Communication
  • ....comprised of Everyone You Know

3
Finding Companies
  • Help-Wanted Classified Ads
  • Chemical Engineering News
  • Science The Scientist
  • Library Reference Books
  • Standard Poors Register of Corporations,
    Directors and Executives
  • Directory of American Research and Technology
  • Thomas Register of American Manufacturers
  • Job Seekers Guide to Public and Private
    Companies
  • Dun Bradstreet Catalogue of American Business
  • World Wide Web
  • Company Home Pages
  • JobSpectrum.org
  • Regional Newspapers

4
Finding Companies, Continued
  • Talk to
  • Chemical/Pharmaceutical representatives
  • Instrument vendors
  • Service and repair technicians
  • Department colleagues
  • Alumni
  • Librarians
  • Investigate
  • Chambers of Commerce
  • Better Business Bureaus
  • Business development corporations
  • Reference libraries
  • World-Wide Web Internet
  • And Practice Cold Calling

5
Building Your Network 1
  • Anybody you know and feel comfortable talking to
  • can be part of your Network
  • Schoolmates
  • Recent graduates
  • Collaborators
  • Friends from High School or College
  • Past bosses and colleagues
  • Family
  • People you meet at seminars, conferences and
    workshops
  • Other people who are looking for jobs and
  •  Anybody they know
  • The most valuable people in your network are
    those already
  • established in the career field that interests
    you and who are
  • willing to give you help.

6
Building Your Network - 2
  • Contact and Communication How?
  • Have conversations with members of your network
  • Attend presentations and meet the speakers and
    other attendees
  • Join professional organizations and attend
    meetings. Volunteer to participate on committees
  • Practice small talk. Use your telephone. Use
    your computer

7
Maintaining Your Network - 1
  • Keep track of all members of your network
  • Hand out business cards
  • Develop communication skills. Be assertive but
    be polite
  • Follow up on all conversations and leads
  • Read about networking, and practice developing
    your communication skills
  • Initiate conversation or other communication.
    Tell people about your activities and needs

8
Maintaining Your Network - 2
  • Return the Favor
  • Keep your contacts informed of your progress
  • Send thank-you notes for job leads and other
    ideas
  • Share job-search techniques that you have found
    to be effective with other members of your
    network
  • Be attentive to the needs of all members of your
    network. Take the opportunity to refer people
    who have skills that an employer might want

9
Résumé Preparation
10
Employers strongly favor those prospective
employees with skills in
  • Communications, both written and oral
  • Computer / information technology
  • Team interaction and team management
  • Effective presentations
  • Product stewardship / Responsible Care
  • Initiative
  • Vision and maturity

11
Look at Your Credentials
(Make A List Of Your Credentials For Your Resumes
And For Use in Interviewing and Other Discussions)
  • EDUCATIONAL DEGREE
  • Advanced Ph.D., M.S., Foreign Equivalent
  • College B.S., B.A
  • AA 2-year
  • JOB EXPERIENCE
  • Professional Positions Held
  • Professional Achievements and Contributions
  • PATENTS AND PUBLICATIONS
  • Patents Original Papers
  • Books Chapters Review
  • Monographs

12
Credentials(Continued-1)
  • REFERENCES
  • Professors
  • Supervisors Managers
  • Colleagues
  • Community Leaders
  • PRESENTATIONS
  • Invited Talks
  • Research Presentations
  • College or University Courses
  • Workshops, seminars, Confrences
  • PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES
  • President, Chairman, Officer
  • Committee Chair, Officer
  • Member of Task Group
  • Member of Society

13
Credentials(Continued-2)
  • ADDITIONAL STUDY
  • University, College, Technical school courses
  • Workshops, Seminars, Conferences
  • PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • (May have value, but may not)
  • Special Hobbies orator, writer, political
    organizer or advocate
  • Heritage bosss daughter, son-in-law
  • Money own part of the company, or will buy in

14
Why Should You Identify and Organize Your
Accomplishments and Skills
  • For self-confidence to market yourself
  • To identify areas in which you can help an
    employer
  • To include in your résumé
  • To help you answer classified help-wanted ads
  • For use in answering questions in interviews
  • To help you assess a good job fit

15
How Do You Identify YourAccomplishments and
Skills?
  • Generate a list of your personal and professional
    accomplishments
  • List skills that you developed for each
    accomplishment
  • Put your skills in active-voice descriptions
  • From the list, derive several general categories
    of skills, and assign each accomplishment to one
    or more of the skill categories

16
Some Examples of Categories of Skills(Not an
All-Inclusive List!)
  • Evaluating
  • Examining
  • Identifying
  • Improving
  • Instructing
  • Interpreting
  • Lecturing
  • Negotiating
  • Planning
  • Processing
  • Producing
  • Promoting
  • Representing
  • Serving
  • Solving
  • Administering
  • Advising
  • Analyzing
  • Building
  • Conducting
  • Consulting
  • Creating
  • Designing
  • Developing
  • Devising
  • Diagnosing
  • Directing
  • Discovering
  • Distributing

17
Some Typical Skills
  • Category Examples
  • Research Unique laboratory Skills
    specific results of your effort
  • Communication Publications oral presentations
    editing technical literature
  • Management Project direction team
    leadership laboratory supervision

18
There are Only Four BasicKinds of Skills
  • Skills in dealing with people
  • Skills in dealing with things
  • Skills in dealing with information or data
  • Skills in dealing with ideas or concepts
  •  
  • Each of these types of skills can be described
    with an appropriate action word, a verb

19
Desirable Skills and Traits
  • Technical Mastery of Chemistry
  • Broad Knowledge of (all) Science
  • Computer Literacy
  • Thinking / Problem Solving
  • Initiative and Follow Through
  • Creativity and Innovation
  • Business Orientation
  • Flexibility and Versatility
  • Leadership
  • Working Effectively With Others
  • Communication
  • Ethical Standards

20
Personal Data Formats
  • For employment in the format used is
  • Industry résumé
  • Academia Curriculum Vitae,
    or C.V.
  • Government form OF-612
    (Formerly form SF-171)

21
Your Résumé
  • A résumé is
  • A marketing tool your advertisement
  • A document stating (precisely and concisely) your
    professional objective and relevant credentials
  • The purpose of a résumé is
  • To obtain an interview
  • Not to obtain a job
  • A résumé is not
  • Your autobiography
  • Your curriculum vitae

22
A Well-Written Résumé Is...
  • Clear, well-written, and attractively formatted
  • Concise, with key information readily visible
  • Comprehensive, describing significant
    accomplishments
  • Containing measurable facts that appeal to an
    employer
  • Complete, with only brief job descriptions
  • Accurate credible
  • Error-free

23
A Poorly-Written Résumé Is...
  • Poorly organized or sloppy
  • Difficult to read or too long
  • Unable to sell your capabilities and skills
  • Containing insufficient information or difficult
    to evaluate
  • Confused between job function and individual
    accomplishments
  • Boastful, exaggerating or bragging

24
Tips for Drafting Your Résumé
  • Clean, simple layout
  • Good quality, bond paper white or slightly
    off-white
  • Black ink laser-printer quality
  • Single, simple font to maximize legibility
  • Adequate white space clearly delineated
    sections 1-inch margin
  • Clear, concise content
  • 30 seconds to read and evaluate usually 1 to 2
    pages
  • Keep descriptions of past employment brief
  • Do not exaggerate or embellish
  • Omit all personal data, such as age, marital
    status and number (or age) of children
  • Avoid the use of I and my.
  • Check carefully for correct grammar and correct
    spelling
  • Show it to friends who have a sound knowledge of
    English

25
As You Prepare Your Personal Data, Ask...
  • Where are you sending it?
  •  
  • Who will be reading it?
  • How will it be received?

26
Basic Components of a Chronological Résumé
  • Heading
  • Objective
  • Highlights or summary
  • Education
  • Work Experience
  • Skills
  • Professional certifications, awards, honors, and
    activities
  • Separate list of patents, publications, and
    invited presentations
  • References separate listing

27
Heading
  • Name
  • Address
  • Home
  • Work (for graduates and postdoctorates)
  • Telephone
  • Home
  • Business (to be handled discreetly)
  • Answering machine or service
  • E-mail address

28
Highlights / Summary
  • Highlight 3 5 key accomplishments or areas that
    you want to sell to a prospective employer
  • Use short, action-oriented descriptions
  • Include the details later on in your resume
  • Essence of who you are as a professional.

29
Accomplishments and Skills
  • Use key words or phrases
  • Include summer internships or co-op experience
  • List 4 to 6 of your strongest skills, as
    illustrated by significant accomplishments
  • Include specialized laboratory, instrumentation,
    and computer skills
  • List special teaching assignments and any foreign
    languages
  • Dont forget basic skills in areas outside of
    your specialty

30
Education
  • Use reverse chronological order begin with most
    recent degree
  • Year in which degree was granted (month and year
    for expected degree).
  • Omit if you are a mature career chemist.
  • Degree and major include relevant minor and any
    honors
  • University and location (city)
  • For B.S. or B.A.
  • Include the subject of any undergraduate research
  • Include significant coursework or projects
  • For M.S. and Ph.D.
  • Include your thesis or dissertation title and
    your advisor
  •     

31
Work Experience
  • Use reverse chronological order begin with most
    recent or current employer
  • Dates of employment
  • Employer and location (city)
  • Job titles, job descriptions for more than one
    job title, list in reverse chronological order
  •  
  • For description of contributions or
    accomplishments, be brief, to the point use
    action words

32
Publications, Patents, and Presentations
  • Use complete bibliographic style.
  • Authors
  • Complete title
  • Journal or book citation
  • Full pagination (beginning and end)
  • Include invited or keynote presentations only
  • For numerous publications and/or patents, refer
    to total number and list important ones
  • Prepare full list as an appendix to the resume.

33
Honors, Awards, and Activities
  • Professional awards
  • Academic awards, including cum laude, etc.
  • Professional certifications
  • Professional organizations
  • Include offices held
  • Include "non-scientific" activities that show
  • Leadership
  • Entrepreneurship
  • Business understanding

34
References
  • List at least three references
  • Academic or business relationship
  • People who can confirm your ability to handle the
    job you seek
  • List name, title, address, phone number, and
    e-mail
  • Ask permission to use their name
  • Suggest topic to cover, besides other information
  • Keep your references informed of your progress.
    Give them a copy of your résumé
  • May say References available upon request if
    you are currently in a permanent job
  • Prepare as an appendix to the resume

35
Remember, You are Marketing Yourself
  • You are trying to sell
  • Your experience,
  • Your education,
  • Your accomplishments, and
  • Your transferable skills
  • Be sure to structure your resume with the
  • most important information FIRST

36
To Make Your RésuméComputer Scannable
  • Prepare a simple, unadorned résumé
  • Use standard fonts, 10- to 14-point (preferably
    12-point)
  • Avoid script, italics, and underlining
  • Avoid graphics, shading, and columns
  • Use a high-quality laser printer
  • Black ink on white paper
  • Single-sided copy, not stapled
  • Send an original or a high quality copy
  • Do not fax
  • Do not fold
  • Use a keyword summary

37
Curriculum Vitae (C.V.)
  • Used when applying for academic positions
  • Longer and more detailed than the traditional
    private-sector résumé
  • Search committees will focus on your
    publications, presentations, and notable research

38
Basic Components of Curriculum Vitae
  • Heading, Curriculum vitae, followed by name,
    address, telephone numbers, e-mail
  • Education start with highest degree provide
    year, degree and discipline, title of thesis if
    appropriate, and name of advisor
  • Research interests, stated briefly in one or two
    sentences
  • Work experience in reverse chronological order,
    noting mentors or research advisors
  • Professional activities and honors
  • Publications and oral presentations and patents

39
For Government EmploymentForm OF-612
  • Always complete the entire form OF-612
  • Review the job announcement carefully, and
    address the knowledge, skills, and abilities
    required for the position
  • If a supplemental statement is declared optional,
    provide it. It is not optional.
  • Be sure to file the OF-612 by the stated deadline
  • Points are assigned to each response your rating
    represents the total of these points
  • Telephone the staffing specialist to determine if
    you are on the certification list

40
Cover Letters
  • 1. A cover letter should always accompany your
    résumé
  • 2. Address the cover letter to an individual.
  • 3. A recommended structure for a cover letter
  • The opening paragraph should explain your purpose
    in writing
  • The middle paragraph(s) should explain how your
    skills could be useful to the organization, and
    indicate how your personality would fit into the
    company culture
  • The third (closing) paragraph should reiterate
    your desire to work with the organization, and
    state that you will follow up your letter with a
    phone call

41
Thomas E. Lee Chemistry
Department College of William and
Mary Williamsburg, VA 23185 April
2, 2002    Dr. Al Peyton Corporate
Recruitment Research Laboratories Eli Lilly and
Company Indianapolis, IN 46285   Dear Dr.
Peyton   I am writing in response to the report
of Eli Lilly in the CPC Annual. In Aug. 2002 I
will be graduating from the College of William
and Mary with a Bachelor of Science degree in
chemistry. I want to pursue a career as a
synthetic research chemist upon completion of my
degree.   Through participating in undergraduate
organometallic synthetic research for the past
eighteen months, I have developed and improved
valuable laboratory skills. The goals of my
research project include optimizing reaction
conditions and purification methods for each of
the four steps in the synthesis of the unreported
ligand, 4-cyanobenzo-18-crown-6, and its rhodium
complex. Currently, binding and extraction
constants for the ligand and complex, as well as
changes in behavior at the rhodium center, are
being studied by UV/VIS and NMR
spectroscopy.   Last May I presented this work
at the Virginia Academy of Sciences in
Blacksburg. In May I shall present current
results at the National Conference of
Undergraduate Research in Kalamazoo, Michigan.
Final results will be summarized in my honors
thesis.   I look forward to the opportunity to
interview for this position with you in the near
future. My telephone number is (703) 555-6463.
Thank you for considering my resume.   Sincerely,
Thomas E. Lee Enclosure
42
Interview Skills
43
Some Personality Styles(from I SPEAK, Drake,
Beam, Morin, Inc.)
  • Feeler
  • Talks about the past easy to talk to
    empathetic thinks about the effect of a proposal
    on the people involved
  • Sensor
  • Results-oriented discusses whats important
    today asks for details assertive talks about
    the bottom line
  • Intuitor
  • Future-oriented visionary global thinker may
    have difficulty communicating clearly considers
    the long-term prospects of a proposal
  • Thinker
  • Considers past, present, and future likes to put
    things in context analytical asks for details
    linear, step-by-step thinking may be slow to act

44
Listening Tips
  • Watch facial expressions
  • Note the tone of voice
  • Try to match the interviewers style
  • Paraphrase questions when possible
  • Clarify the answers you receive. If you need
    more specific information, ask for it
  • Confirm the accuracy of your understanding As I
    understand it
  • Find common areas of interest

45
Why Have an Interview?("Getting to Know You")
  • To clarify the responsibilities of the position
  • To determine your skills and competency
  • To determine your motivation
  • To determine your probable fit in the corporate
    culture
  • Remember Every contact that you have with any
    potential employer is an interview!

46
Types of Interviews
  • Screening
  • By telephone
  • In person (examples NECH or campus interviews)
  • Provides an initial assessment
  • In-depth, or site visit
  • Arranged by the organization
  • Includes seminar and in-depth discussions
  • Will determine the offer of a job

47
Preparing for Interviews - 1
  • Practice interviewing
  • Be prepared to ask questions.
  • Build rapport make the interview a dialogue.
  • Review your résumé
  • To explain your suitability for the position.
  • To answer relevant questions.
  • Do ample research on the company/employer
  • To make an informed decision.
  • To ask pertinent questions, such as
  • Publicly or privately held?
  • Products on the market?
  • Type of research conducted?
  • Who are the key people?

48
Preparing for Interviews - 2
  • Review the proper etiquette
  • Be punctual arrive on time, well rested
  • Dress appropriately
  • Wear quality accessories
  • Observe proper personal hygiene
  • Maintain eye contact and positive body language
  •  
  • Determine in advance what questions you need
    answered, and ask them
  •  
  • Expect specific questions about your education in
    Chemistry/Engineering and your interests and
    goals

49
The Interview Logistics
  • Review the itinerary for your interview
  • Directions
  • Time, location
  • Name and phone number of your contact
  • Travel arrangements
  • Bring money
  •  Forms and paperwork
  • Completed forms
  • Paper, pen
  • Extra copies of résumé and publications list
  • Extra copies of list of references
  •  List of job-related questions

50
Department Interview
  • Develops a collective opinion of your
    capabilities
  • Assesses your potential ability to contribute and
    to advance
  • Relates your skills to the job
  • Attracts you to the companys staff and to their
    current projects

51
The Research Seminar
  • Prepare a 30 to 45-minute seminar, which should
    include
  • Background material
  • A concise statement of the problem
  • A description of the techniques you used, and the
    reasons for using them
  • Conclusions
  • Acknowledgements
  •  
  • Remember
  • Use professional-quality, original slides or
    overheads
  • There may be an expert in the audience don't try
    to bluff
  • You are there to teach them about your area of
    research
  • Leave adequate time for questions

52
Research Presentation - 1Planning
  • Determine your audience beforehand
  • Cover your research in 3 to 5 main points
  • Tie your presentation to the strategic mission of
    the company if possible
  • Stay within the time limit
  • Provide handouts to clarify the material
  • Summarize the main points in the introduction and
    at the conclusion

53
Research Presentation - 2Delivery
  • Practice in front of anyone who can provide
    feedback
  • Visualize success
  • Stand it gives better control of audience
  • Be animated, enthusiastic, natural
  • Speak conversationally, with a strong, clear
    voice
  • Do not read from a text maintain eye contact
    with the audience
  • Practice. Practice. Practice.

54
Research Presentation - 3Handling Questions
  • Maintain a controlled delivery style
  • Repeat or rephrase the question so all can hear
  • Involve the entire audience in your answer
  • Remember to make eye contact with the person who
    asked the question

55
Human Resources Interview
  • Discusses possible career progression and
    opportunities
  • Gives opportunity to explain previous salary,
    responsibilities and gaps in employment
  • Assesses your personality and potential fit
  • Explains organizational benefits, policies

56
Academic InterviewsThe Research Proposal
  • Proposal(s) should be reasonable in scope and
    effort
  • Proposal(s) should outline projects adequately,
    but need not be as complete as an NIH or NSF
    grant request
  • Have a realistic idea of the agencies you would
    approach for support be especially realistic
    about obtaining support from industry
  • Request for startup funds should include any
    necessary equipment however, be aware of
    existing facilities such as capital equipment,
    supplies, student support, and summer salary

57
Interview "Knock-Out" Factors
  • Lack of preparation
  • Vague goals
  • Passivity lack of interest or inquisitiveness
  • Lack of measurable achievements
  • Low self-confidence
  • Lack of enthusiasm

58
How Negotiable is the Salary?
  • Internal salary equity and benefits package
  • Availability of other qualified candidates
    difficulty in filling the position
  • Importance of filling the position
  • Organization's interest in the candidate
  • Candidate's potential for future promotion
  •  
  • It is important to recognize the difference
    between salary and total compensation.

59
Things to RememberFor an Industrial Interview
  • Make sure you understand the job description and
    responsibilities fully, in advance
  • Review company literature for any recent
    developments
  • Take extra copies of your résumé, your
    publications list, and your references
  • Talk to your host about the products manufactured
    or services provided

60
Things to RememberFor an Academic Interview
  • Make sure you know the institution and the
    department fully, in advance
  • Review the institutional catalogue, departmental
    literature, and the ACS Directory of Graduate
    Research
  • Be aware of individual faculty research interests
  • Take extra copies of your c.v., publications
    list, references, sample reprints and preprints,
    research proposal(s), and a reasonable estimate
    of startup costs

61
Research and Development
Academe
Industry
Purposes
  • Increase body of knowledge
  • Impart knowledge
  • Basic research
  • Applied research (minor)
  • Teaching
  • Greater specialization
  • Can follow own ideas, if you get funding
  • Collaboration can be somewhat difficult
  • Train students
  • Develop new products and processes to increase
    sales and profit
  • Basic research (minor) 
  • Applied research
  • Product development
  • Generalists valued
  • Projects assigned
  • Team collaboration
  •  Funding not a problem

Type of Work
Degree of Independence
62
Research and Development
Academe
Industry
Lifestyle
  • Usually higher salary 
  • May work fewer hours (not if you want to be truly
    successful)
  • From management, occasionally peers
  • Patent before publishing
  • Usually lower salary
  • Longer hours, especially for tenure
  • Sabbaticals
  • More travel opportunities
  • Peers, students, administrators
  • Publish, publish, publish

Recognition
63
How to Consider Job Offers
  • Assemble information
  • Analyze
  • Prioritize alternatives
  • Decide

64
Assemble Information
  • Bring together everything that might bear on your
    decision
  • 1. Know Yourself
  • Your resume
  • A list of your skills values
  • 2. Know the Company
  • Information from your network
  • The job description
  • Annual reports
  • Other company information
  • Correspondence, interview notes
  •  

65
Analyze
  • The skills needed to do the job
  • From the job description
  • From your interview notes
  •  
  • The principle values of the organization
  • From company literature
  • From correspondence
  •  
  • The communication style of your future supervisor
  • From your Interview notes

66
Prioritize Alternatives
  • 1. What are the alternatives to this job offer?
  • Other offers of employment
  • Remain where you now work
  • Continue your education
  • Take an interim job
  • 2. What are the consequences of each?
  • Better / worse values fit
  • More pay
  • More suitable benefits
  • Better location
  • More agreeable boss
  • Better use of your skills

67
Decide
  • Weigh your choices
  • Decide
  • Telephone the company to accept or reject the job
    offer
  • Follow up in writing

68
Recommendations for Career Enhancement
  • 1. Develop your professional network
  • Maintain contact with former colleagues and
    professional associates
  • Participate fully in local professional
    organizations (ACS Local Sections)
  •  2. Expand your knowledge/skill base
  • Keep current in your field and what is generally
    happening in chemistry
  • Develop your interpersonal skills and ability to
    work on a team
  • Develop your communication skills
  • Learn another language, especially German,
    Chinese, Spanish, Russian, or Japanese
  • Learn or develop business skills
  • Expand or develop skills/knowledge in related
    disciplines (physics, biology, engineering)
  •  

69
Recommendations for Career Enhancement
  • 3. Make yourself and your abilities very visible
  • Emphasize what makes your special
  • Publish and present, if possible
  •  
  • 4. Be flexible. Keep your options open by
  • Furthering your education in a new or related
    field
  • Taking a new track in your career, making a
    lateral move, taking a short-term assignment
  • Considering a career outside research
  •  

70
The ACS Department of Career Services
  • Provides products and services to strengthen ACS
    members career self-management through
  •  
  • Career assistance
  • Employment Services
  • Workforce Analysis
  • Publications
  • Workshops and Presentations
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