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LocationBased Services


The newest Nokia smart phones provide the Series 60 platform which runs on top ... These are used for ringtones and logos services for instance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LocationBased Services

Location-Based Services
  • Introduction to Mobile Technologies
  • Vespucci Summer School

Introduction to Mobile Technologies
  • Cellular systems
  • WLANs
  • Operating systems
  • Messaging
  • Mobile Internet
  • Java
  • Voice XML
  • SyncML
  • Bluetooth
  • Positioning

Cellular Systems
  • Cellular phones
  • Radio-based technology including circuit board,
    liquid crystal display, keyboard, microphone,
    speaker, battery and SIM cards (removable disks
    that are inserted into GSM cell phones)
  • Radio wave is an electromagnetic wave propagated
    by an antenna
  • GSM picks up signals in the 900MHz, 1800MHz and
    1900MHz range

Cellular Systems
  • Cells and base stations
  • Division of space into cells
  • Each cell has a base station (tower and radio
  • Base stations coordinate themselves to offer
    access to the network to users on the move

Cellular Systems
  • Architecture of a GSM Network - Subsystems
  • Mobile Stations are the mobile phones
  • Base Station Sub-system provides the air link for
    the MS
  • Network Sub-System connects calls between network
  • Operation Sub-System provides network
    administrators with remote network monitoring and
    management capabilities

Cellular Systems
  • Architecture of a GSM Network - Subsystems
  • Mobile Stations - MS Subscriber Identity Module
    (SIM) Mobile Equipment (ME)
  • Base Station Subsystem - BSS Base Station
    Controller (BSC) (includes the TransCoder Unit
    (TCU)) Base Transceiver System (BTS)
  • A BTS serves a cell or a small number of cells
    and is responsible for the communication with the
  • Several BTSs are controlled by a BSC, which is
    responsible for the communication with the NSS
    and OSS

Cellular Systems
  • Architecture of a GSM Network - Subsystems
  • Network Sub-System - NSS connects calls among
    mobile subscribers of the same network or to
    other networks
  • Composed of several Mobile Switching Centres
    (MSC) in conjunction with location registers
    (Home Location Register HLR, Visitor Location
    Register VLR) and authentication centres (AUC).
  • Operations and Maintenance Centre (OMC) provides
    the network with remote monitoring and
    maintenance as well as with alarm functions and
    event logging

Cellular Systems
  • Architecture of a GSM Network - Subsystems

Cellular Systems
  • GSM Network - Handovers
  • As you move toward the edge of your cell, its
    base station notes that your signal is
  • The base station in the cell you are toward sees
    your phones signal strength increasing.
  • The two base stations coordinate with each other
    and, at some point, your phone switches to the
    new cell.
  • This is process is called a handover and must
    occur before the perceived quality of the
    communication falls under an admissible threshold.

Cellular Systems
  • Cellular access technologies
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
  • A narrow band that is 30 kHZ wide and 6.7
    millisecond long is split time-wise into three
    time slots.
  • Each conversation gets the radio for one-third of
    the time. Voice data is converted into digital
    information and compressed so that it takes up
    less transmission space.
  • TDMA is used as the access technology for Global
    System for Mobile communications (GSM)

Cellular Systems
  • Cellular access technologies
  • Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)

Cellular Systems
  • Cellular access technologies
  • GPRS (General Packet Radio Service)
  • Packet radio upgrade to GSM - IP-based data
  • Can have speeds of up to 114kbps
  • Makes it possible for users to make telephone
    calls and transmit data at the same time
  • GPRS systems enable constant access to the
    Internet, and send and receive multimedia
    messages (MMS)
  • Performance degrades with number of users
    (bandwidth shared with voice calls)
  • Known as 2.5G Services similar to those
    proposed for 3G
  • Always On - Pay what you use users pay data
    transfer, not air time

Cellular Systems
  • Cellular access technologies
  • Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA)
  • Digital wireless technology that allows multiple
    users to share radio frequencies at the same time
    without interfering with each other. A telephone
    or data call is assigned a unique code.
  • High speed CDMA or Wideband CDMA will be used in
    Europe for the Universal Mobile Telephony Systems
    (UMTS) and in Japans third generation. W-CDMA
    was co-developed by NTT DoCoMo.

Cellular Systems
  • Cellular access technologies
  • Universal Mobile Telephony Systems (UMTS)
  • UMTS or the third generation mobile telephony
    (3G) are generic names of mobile technologies
    that will use infrastructure networks, handsets,
    base stations, switches and other equipment to
    allow mobiles to offer high-speed Internet
    access, data, video and CD-quality music
  • UMTS will provide speeds of up to 2 Megabits per

Cellular Systems
  • Main actors
  • Major operators (Vodafone, T-Mobile, TIM,
    Telefonica, Orange, BT, NTT, China Mobile,
  • Major infrastructure providers (Alcatel,
    Ericsson, Siemens, Nokia, Nortel, Lucent,
  • Major device makers (Nokia, Motorola, Siemens,
    Sony Ericsson, Samsung)
  • Technology and standards (GSM Association, Open
    Mobile Alliance, UMTS Forum, Symbian)
  • http//www.gsmworld.com
  • http//www.wapforum.org
  • http//www.umts-forum.org
  • http//www.symbian.com

Wireless Local Area Networks - WLANs
  • Based on the IEEE 802.11 standard.
  • There are three physical layers for WLANs two
    radio frequency specifications (RF - direct
    sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum)
    and one infrared (IR).
  • Most WLANs operate in the 2.4 GHz license-free
    frequency band and have throughput rates up to 2
    Mbps. The 802.11b standard is direct sequence
    only, and provides throughput rates up to 11
  • 802.11g, is now emerging. It operates in the 5
    GHz license-free frequency band and provides
    throughput rates up to 54 Mbps.
  • http//www.80211hotspots.com/ (location of
    wireless access points around the world)

Wireless Local Area Networks - WLANs
  • Typical Architecture

Wireless Local Area Networks - WLANs
  • WLAN Configurations
  • Simple, independent, peer-to-peer connections
    between a set of personal computers

Wireless Local Area Networks - WLANs
  • WLAN Configurations
  • Intra-building infrastructure networks

Wireless Local Area Networks - WLANs
  • WLAN Configurations
  • Point-to-Point Point-to-Multipoint Wireless
  • A point-to-point solution (Fig.4) is used to
    bridge between two local area networks, and to
    provide an alternative to cable between two
    geographically distant locations (up to 50 kms)
  • Point-to-multi-point solutions connect several,
    separate locations to one single location or

Operating Systems
  • Symbian
  • Supports 3G mobile phones, mobile messaging
    (including MMS), mobile networking (Internet
    Protocol version 6) and C and Java development
  • It also supports
  • SyncML, allowing convenient over the air (OTA)
    synchronization of data
  • several audio/image formats
  • low level APIs for game developers (incl.
    Bluetooth control for multi-player games)
  • encryption and certificate management, and secure
    communications protocols
  • www.symbian.com

Operating Systems
  • Symbian
  • The newest Nokia smart phones provide the Series
    60 platform which runs on top of the Symbian OS
  • Publicly announced products based on Symbian OS
    for 2.5 and 3G networks include the BenQ P30,
    Samsung SGH-D700, Siemens SX-1, NTT DoCoMo FOMA
    F2051 and F2021V, both built by Fujitsu, Sony
    Ericsson P800, Nokia 9200 Communicator, 7650,
    6600, 3650 and N-Gage.

Operating Systems
  • Symbian Phones

Operating Systems
  • Symbian OS is characterised by
  • Integrated multimode mobile telephony Symbian
    OS integrates the power of computing with mobile
    telephony, bringing advanced data services to the
    mass market
  • Open application environment Symbian OS enables
    mobile phones to be a platform for deployment of
    applications and services (programs and content)
    developed in a wide range of languages and
    content formats
  • Open standards and interoperability With a
    flexible and modular implementation, Symbian OS
    provides a core set of application programming
    interfaces (APIs) and technologies that is shared
    by all Symbian OS phones. Key industry standards
    are supported

Operating Systems
  • Symbian OS is characterised by
  • Multi-tasking Symbian OS is based on a micro
    kernel architecture and implements full
    multi-tasking and threading. System services such
    as telephony, networking middleware and
    application engines all run in their own
  • Fully Object-oriented and component based The
    operating system has been designed from the
    ground up with mobile devices in mind, using
    advanced OO techniques, leading to a flexible
    component based architecture
  • Flexible user interface design By enabling
    flexible graphical user interface design on
    Symbian OS, Symbian is fostering innovation and
    is able to offer choice to manufacturers,
    carriers, enterprises and end-users. Using the
    same core operating system in different designs
    also eases application porting for third party
  • Robustness Symbian OS maintains instant access
    to user data. It ensures the integrity of data,
    even in the presence of unreliable communication
    and shortage of resources such as memory, storage
    and power.

Operating Systems
  • Symbian OS Version 7.0s

Operating Systems
  • Symbian OS Version 7.0s Key Features
  • Provides a rich core of application programming
    interfaces that are common to all Symbian OS
  • Suite of application engines the suite includes
    engines for contacts, schedule, messaging,
    browsing, utility and system control OBEX for
    exchanging objects such as appointments (using
    the industry standard vCalendar) and business
    cards (vCard) integrated APIs for data
    management, text, clipboard and graphics
  • Browsing a WAP stack is provided with support
    for WAP 1.2.1 for mobile browsing
  • Messaging multimedia messaging (MMS), enhanced
    messaging (EMS) and SMS internet mail using
    POP3, IMAP4, SMTP and MHTML attachments fax
  • Multimedia audio and video support for
    recording, playback and streaming image

Operating Systems
  • Symbian OS Version 7.0s Key Features
  • Graphics direct access to screen and keyboard
    for high performance graphics accelerator API
  • Communications protocols wide-area networking
    stacks including TCP/IP (dual mode IPv4/v6) and
    WAP, personal area networking support include
    infrared (IrDA), Bluetooth and USB
    Quality-of-Service (QoS) on GPRS/UMTS networks
  • Mobile telephony Symbian OS v7.0s is ready for
    the 3G market with support for GSM circuit
    switched voice and data (CSD and EDGE ECSD) and
    packet-based data (GPRS and EDGE EGPRS) CDMA
    circuit switched voice, data and packet-based
    data (IS-95, cdma2000 1x, and WCDMA) SIM, RUIM
    and UICC Toolkit Other standards can be
    implemented by licensees through extensible APIs
    of the telephony subsystem
  • International support conforms to the Unicode
    Standard version 3.0

Operating Systems
  • Symbian OS Version 7.0s Key Features
  • Data synchronization over-the-air (OTA)
    synchronization support using SyncML PC-based
    synchronization over serial, Bluetooth, Infrared
    and USB a PC Connectivity framework providing
    the ability to transfer files and synchronize PIM
  • Security full encryption and certificate
    management, secure protocols (HTTPS, WTLS and SSL
    and TLS), WIM framework and certificate-based
    application installation
  • Developing for Symbian OS content development
    options include C, Java (J2ME) MIDP 2.0 and
    PersonalJava 1.1.1a (with JavaPhone 1.0 option),
    and WAP tools are available for building C and
    Java applications and ROMs with support for
  • User Inputs generic input mechanism supporting
    full keyboard, 0-9 (numeric mobile phone
    keypad), voice, handwriting recognition and
    predictive text input.

Operating Systems
  • Multimedia in Symbian OS v7.0s

Operating Systems
  • Smartphone
  • Windows Powered environment using familiar
    Microsoft software
  • Outlook capabilities, Windows Media Player,
    infrared beaming, and MSN Messenger
  • Programmable using Microsoft Mobile Development
    Toolkit (incl. in The Smartphone Developer Kit)
  • www.microsoft.com/mobile/smartphone/default.asp

Operating Systems
  • Smartphone

  • Short Message Service (SMS)
  • Up to 160 characters of text in length words or
    numbers or an alphanumeric combination
  • Non-text based short messages (for example, in
    binary format) are also supported. These are used
    for ringtones and logos services for instance
  • SMS is a store and forward service short
    messages are not sent directly from sender to
    recipient, but always via an SMS Center (SMSC)
  • Short messages can be sent and received
    simultaneously with GSM voice, Data and Fax calls

  • Short Message Service (SMS)
  • Sending an SMS
  • The message originator addresses the short
    message to the receiver.
  • The phone contains information about SMSC (SMS
    Center), and the message is sent there.
  • SMSC attempts to forward the message to the

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • The data speed in the networks must be at least
    14.4 kbit/s for carrying MMS messages.
  • MMS messages are currently between 30 kB and 100
    kB in size
  • They can contain still images (JPEG, GIF, WBMP),
    text, voice (AMR voice), audioclips or
  • MMS transport is done using WAP over GPRS (or
    CSD) transport. WAP push features are used to
    deliver the message from server to receiving

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • MMS can then either be sent to a phone (via a
    notification message) or sent to the recipient's
    email account.
  • Content of MMS messages has been defined by the
    MMS Conformance Specification version 2.0.0
    written by the MMS Interoperability Group (CMG,
    Comverse, Ericsson, Logica, Motorola, Nokia,
    Siemens and Sony Ericsson).
  • Specifies SMIL 2.0 Basic profile for the
    presentation format, an XML-based standard that
    defines how the multimedia elements are
  • Multimedia Messaging Service Center (MMSC) is the
    store and forward network element that delivers
    the MMS messages from the sender to the
  • http//www.symbian.com/technology/mms.html
  • www.forum.nokia.com

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • Sending an MMS
  • The message originator addresses the multimedia
    message to the receiver.
  • The terminal contains information about MMSC (MMS
    Center), and the message is sent there.
  • MMSC attempts to forward the message to the
  • That Simple?

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • Types of MMS transactions
  • Mobile Originated Transactions (MO)
  • Mobile Terminated Transactions (MT)
  • Application Originated Transactions (AO)
  • Application Terminated Transactions (AT)

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • Mobile Originated Transactions
  • In mobile originated (MO) transactions, the
    sender is a Mobile Station (MS).
  • The message can terminate directly to another MS,
    or possibly go to an e-mail address. If a picture
    has to be converted into another format (for
    example from JPEG to GIF), it can be sent to an
    application that does the conversion. After the
    conversion, the message is sent to its

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • Mobile Terminated Transactions
  • In mobile terminated (MT) transactions, the
    message is sent to an MS.
  • The originator of the message can be another MS
    or an application, for example a Web-based
    picture-service application.

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • Application Originated Transactions
  • In application originated (AO) transactions, the
    sender is an application.
  • The message can be terminated directly to an MS
    or to another application.
  • The message can be processed in one or more
    applications before it is sent to the receiving

  • Multimedia Message Service (MMS)
  • Application Terminated Transactions
  • In application terminated (AT) transactions, the
    message receiver is an application.
  • The message originator can be an MS or another
    application, e.g., if a message was sent for
    JPEG-to-GIF conversion before being sent to the
    shoebox storage of the TGW.

Mobile Internet
  • Wireless Application Protocol
  • WAP replaces a Web browser with a WAP browser,
    which can also request data from a Web site.
  • A WAP browser requires a WAP gateway an
    intermediary between the mobile and Internet
  • When placed between a WAP browser and a Web
    server, it takes care of the necessary binary
    encoding of content and can also translate
    Wireless Markup Language (WML) from HTML.
  • WML is a markup language based on XML that was
    developed and is maintained by the WAP Forum
  • http//www.wapforum.org

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution
  • WAP is a global standard for mobile Internet
    applications and browsing.
  • Functionally similar to the WWW, it is designed
    to accommodate small devices with limited memory
    and small screens, as well as low bandwidth
    connections to the Internet that may be
    unreliable and have high latency.
  • The first generation of WAP specifies an
    application environment including WML 1.x and a
    stack of optimized communication protocols.

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution
  • For mobile devices, the future of WAP lies in its
    close alignment with widely accepted Internet
  • The former WAP Forum and the World Wide Web
    Consortium (W3C) have successfully defined mobile
    Internet standards over a period of several
  • To enable the convergence of mobile and wired Web
    content development, the WAP Forum adopted the
    XHTML standard with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
    from the W3C as the basis for WAP 2.0.
  • Since mid-2002, the WAP Forum's specification
    work is being continued in Open Mobile Alliance
  • The transition to XHTML MP (Mobile Profile) and
    WAP CSS strengthens the mobile browsers position
    within the Internet mainstream and allows for a
    far greater range of presentation design and
    formatting possibilities than previously possible.

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution
  • WML
  • WML is a markup language based on the Extensible
    Markup Language (XML).
  • The official WML specification was initially
    developed and maintained by the WAP Forum, an
    industry-wide consortium founded by Nokia,
    Openwave, Motorola, and Ericsson.
  • HTML
  • Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is a markup
    language used to create hypertext documents that
    are portable from one platform to another.
  • HTML documents are SGML (Standard Generalized
    Markup Language) documents with generic semantics
    that are appropriate for representing information
    from a wide range of applications. HTML has been
    the lingua franca of WWW publishing.

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution
  • XHTML, according to the W3C, represents the first
    major change to HTML since HTML 4.0 was released
    in 1997.
  • The latest version of HTML (Version 4.1) forms
    the basis of XHTML all tag definitions and
    syntax are the same. XHTML simply adds modularity
    and enforces strict adherence to language rules.
  • As a result, XHTML brings clean structure to Web
    pages, which is especially important given the
    small screens and limited power of mobile
  • W3C is recommending XHTML for all future Web
    development for desktops, as well as all other
    devices, including mobile handsets.

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution
  • Is the mobile version of XHTML 1.1.
  • Designed for Web clients that do not support the
    full set of XHTML features, for example, Web
    clients such as mobile phones, PDAs, pagers, and
    set-top boxes.
  • XHTML MP is a strict subset of XHTML, starting
    with XHTML Basic and adding a few elements and
    attributes from full XHTML 1.1 that are useful in
    mobile browsers including additional presentation
    elements and support for internal style sheets.

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution
  • Cascading Style Sheets describe how documents are
    presented on screen in the browser.
  • CSS separates the presentation from the content.
    Changes to the presentation can be made in the
    style sheet and the changes are automatically
    reflected throughout the entire document (like
    the Master slide in this ppt).
  • WAP CSS is the mobile version of CSS defined by
  • It is a subset of CSS, omitting features that are
    not appropriate for very small devices and adding
    a few WAP-specific extensions to CSS.

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution
  • WML 1.x Compatibility Extensions
  • The WML 2.0 specification defines WML 1.x
    compatibility extensions, which are used to
    achieve backward compatibility instead of
    implementing full WML 1.x functionality.
  • These extensions make it possible to use WML 1.x
    specific features in WAP 2.0-compliant clients
    that do not have dual browsers supporting both
    XHTML MP and WML 1.x.
  • Figure in the next slide displays the
    relationships between markup languages.

Mobile Internet
  • WAP Evolution

Mobile Internet
  • WAP - Evolution

Mobile Internet
  • Comparing WML 1.X XHTML MP CSS

Mobile Internet
  • But do not forget
  • A good mobile service is not dependent on the
    technology behind the service.
  • Despite the standard used, differences are based
    on smart design, a strong brand, enhanced
    services, and the ability to listen to the
    consumer's needs.

Mobile Internet
  • Scalable Applications
  • In addition to the availability of various markup
    languages, there is also a broad selection of
    terminals with different screen sizes and
  • Therefore, it is wise to create applications that
    are not tied to any specific screen size or UI
  • When designing an application, these two aspects
    need to be considered
  • 1. The independence of the markup language
  • 2. The independence of the devices display
  • The result will be applications that are scalable
    and rich. The biggest advantage of scalability in
    this case is that developers are able to generate
    the same content to a new markup language and
    display it on different devices with specific
    display capabilities.

Mobile Internet
  • Scalable Applications

Mobile Internet
  • CSS How do they work?
  • 1. Browser fetches the first page of the
  • 2. Server returns the content page.
  • 3. Browser fetches the style sheet.
  • 4. Server returns the appropriate style sheet for
    the browser type and the style sheet is cached in
    the browser so all subsequent pages are rendered
  • 5. Browser fetches subsequent pages.

Mobile Internet
  • CSS How do they work?
  • Even though the content for both wired and
    wireless Internet is authored with XHTML, it is
    good to remember that not all Web content becomes
    directly mobile just by changing the style sheet.
  • The benefit is that the same standard can be used
    for creating mobile services.
  • However, the services need to be designed and
    defined separately from Web applications due to
    the different uses and display and bandwidth
  • XHTML is only the presentation layer of the
    service, and good mobile applications also need
    working functional logic.
  • In addition, wireless applications must be
    practical for mobile use.

Mobile Internet
  • Delivering Mobile Content
  • XHTML MP content and WAP CSS do not require
    anything from WAP gateways, because there is no
    need for encoding.
  • XHTML content goes through the gateway in text
    format, unlike WML, which is binary encoded.
  • WAP gateways are still required because in the
    first phase of evolution towards next-generation
    mobile browsing, XHTML enabled terminals use the
    WAP stack for the transport, meaning that XHTML
    is delivered to the terminal using the WAP stack.
  • In phase 2, the TCP/IP stack is used, and then an
    update is needed to the WAP gateway to support
  • In true WAP 2.0 architecture (XHTML MP content
    over TCP/IP stack) the role of the WAP gateway
    changes to WAP 2.0 proxy, enabling, for example,
    subscriber identification, service access
    control, privacy, charging, push services.

Mobile Internet
  • Delivering Mobile Content

Mobile Internet
  • Links
  • Browsing on Mobile Devices, http//www.forum.nokia
  • Introduction to WAP over GPRS, http//www.forum.no
  • Nokia Mobile Internet Toolkit XHTML Guidelines,
  • WAP 2.0 Specifications, http//www.wapforum.org/wh
  • XHTML Basic Specification, http//www.w3.org/TR/20
  • XHTML Media Types, http//www.w3.org/TR/xhtml-medi

  • J2ME Java 2 Micro Edition
  • Javas J2ME technology enables the download of
    life management tools, information tools, and
    interactive games.
  • Applications can be searched using the wireless
    application protocol (WAP) browser, and bookmarks
    and push messages are provided to direct the user
    to sites with Java applications.
  • http//wireless.java.sun.com/j2me/index.html

  • J2ME Java 2 Micro Edition
  • MIDP
  • The Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP),
    combined with the Connected Limited Device
    Configuration (CLDC), is the Java runtime
    environment for today's mobile information
    devices (MIDs) such as phones and entry level
  • MIDP provides the core application functionality
    required by mobile applications - including the
    user interface, network connectivity, local data
    storage, and application lifecycle management -
    packaged as a standardized Java runtime
    environment and set of Java APIs.


  • Widely adopted as the platform of choice for
    mobile applications
  • Deployed globally on millions of mobile phones
    and PDAs and supported by Java Technology
    Integrated Development Environments (IDEs).
  • MIDP applications are installed and run locally
    on the mobile devices
  • Can operate in both networked and disconnected
  • The GUI is optimized for small displays

  • MIDP UI functionality includes pre-defined
    screens for displaying and selecting lists,
    editing text, popping up alert dialogs, and
    adding scrolling tickers.
  • Forms
  • Screens including any number of pre-defined
    items images, read-only or editable text fields,
    editable date and time fields, charts, and choice
  • Any custom items added by developers to provide
    unique functionality and graphics

  • Multimedia Games
  • Low-level API complements high-level API giving
    developers greater control of graphics and inputs
    when needed.
  • Game API
  • Game-specific functionality that takes advantage
    of native device graphics capabilities. Exs
  • Sprites (bitmaps that can have transparency and
    be manipulated on the screen).
  • Tiled layers
  • Built-in audio provides support for tones, tone
    sequences and WAV files
  • Mobile Media API (MMAPI) optional package for
    MIDP to add video and other rich content

  • Connectivity
  • MIDP enables truly networked, event-driven
  • Supports leading standards HTTP, HTTPS, and
    serial port communications, among others.
  • Wireless Messaging API (WMA) optional package
  • Supports SMS and Cell Broadcast Service (CBS)
    capabilities of GSM and CDMA networks
  • Server push model
  • A push registry keeps track of applications
    registered to receive inbound information from
    the network
  • When info arrives, the device decides whether to
    start the app based on user preferences
  • Enables developers to include alerts, messaging
    and broadcast in MIDP applications and to take
    advantage of the event-driven capabilities of
    devices and networks

  • OTA Provisioning of Applications
  • Major benefit of MIDP is the ability to
    dynamically deploy and update apps Over The Air.
  • The MIDP specification defines how apps are
    discovered, installed, updated and removed on
    mobile devices.
  • MIDP enables a service provider to identify which
    apps will work on a mobile device and obtain
    satus reports after installation, update or

Voice XML
  • Voice Extensible Markup Language (Voice XML)
  • Designed for creating audio dialogs that feature
    synthesized speech, digitized audio, recognition
    of spoken and recording of spoken input, and
  • http//www.voicexml.org/

  • SyncML (based on XML) is the industry standard
    for universal synchronization of remote data and
    personal information across multiple networks,
    platforms and devices.
  • It enables over the air (OTA) synchronization of
    data between devices.
  • http//www.syncml.org

  • Bluetooth is a technology specification for small
    form factor, low-cost, short-range wireless links
    between mobile personal computers, mobile phones,
    and other portable handheld devices, and
    connectivity to the Internet.
  • Bluetooth covers a range of up to 100 meters in
    the unlicensed 2.4GHz band.
  • Because IEEE 802.11b WLANs also operate in the
    same band, there are interference issues to
  • As current WLANs are migrating to the 5 GHz band
    (IEEE 802.11g), this problem will be minimized.
  • http//www.bluetooth.com/

  • Bandwidth
  • Maximum gross bit rate is 1Mbps, although
    protocol overhead limits the net throughput to
    722Kbps for asynchronous transfer and 433Kbps for
    symmetric transfer
  • Link Types
  • Synchronous Connection-Oriented (SCO)
  • Especially suitable for circuit-switched services
    (e.g. Voice) where very low delay and high QoS is
  • The channels offered are symmetric (same speed in
    both directions) and synchronous (both parties
    know exactly when the next packet will come).

  • Link Types (...cont.)
  • Asynchronous Connection-Less (ACL)
  • More efficient for data transfer and other
    asynchronous services
  • This link offers packet switching and
    transmission slots are not reserved but rather
    are granted by a polling access scheme.
  • A Piconet is a collection of up to 8 BT units
    where one is a master unit that controls the
    transmission and hopping scheme.
  • The master indicates to a slave that it wants to
    send and the slave then receives.
  • Slaves can send on slots only when they are in
    agreement with the master.

  • Link Types (...cont.)
  • One connection can contain several links of
    either type
  • Two phones can maintain a voice conversation
    while simultaneously exchanging data.
  • Using a Piconet one master could maintain various
    SCO and ACL connections with several slaves
  • 3 voice call limit within a Piconet

  • Piconet Scatternet
  • One device can also be connected in two or more
    piconets. The set-up is called scatternet.
  • A device can, however, only be a master to one
    piconet at a time.
  • Support for hold, park, or sniff mode is needed
    for a device to be part of the scatternet.
  • In these modes a device does not actively
    participate in a piconet, leaving time for other
    activities such as participating in another
    piconet, for example.
  • The master/slave roles are not necessarily fixed
    and can also be changed during the connection if,
    for example, the master does not have enough
    resources to manage the piconet.
  • Master/slave switch is also needed in the
    scatternet. Master/slave switch support is not
  • Most of current Bluetooth implementations support
    piconets only. Point-to-multipoint support
    depends on the implementation.

  • Piconet Scatternet
  • a) Point-to-point connection between two devices
  • b) Point-to-multipoint connection between a
    master and three slaves
  • c) Scatternet that consists of three piconets

  • Bluetooth in the home

  • Bluetooth on the road

  • Frequency Hopping
  • Bluetooth technology uses a frequency hopping
    technique, which means that every packet is
    transmitted on a different frequency.
  • In most countries, 79 channels can be used. With
    a fast hop rate (1600 hops per second), good
    interference protection is achieved.
  • Another benefit is a short packet length. If some
    other device is jamming the transmission of a
    packet, the packet is resent in another frequency
    determined by the frequency scheme of the master.
  • This scenario is depicted in the next Figure
    where packets of device 1 (colored packets) and
    device 2 (banded packets) are trying to use the
    same frequency.
  • Note that this case only refers to situations
    where there are two or more simultaneous active
    piconets or a non-Bluetooth device using the same
    frequency in range. The error correction
    algorithms are used to correct the fault caused
    by jammed transmissions

  • Frequency Hopping

  • Frequency Hopping
  • Subsequent time slots are used for transmitting
    and receiving.
  • The nominal slot length is 625 µs. A packet
    nominally covers a single slot, but can be
    extended to cover three or five slots, as
    depicted in the next Figure.
  • In multi-slot packets the frequency remains the
    same until the entire packet is sent.
  • When using a multi-slot packet, the data rate is
    higher because the header and a 220 µs long
    switching time after the packet are needed only
    once in each packet.
  • On the other hand, the robustness is reduced in
    a crowded environment the long packets will more
    probably be lost

  • Frequency Hopping
  • Three-slot and five-slot long packets reduce
    overhead compared to one-slot packets. 220 µs
    switching time after the packet is needed for
    changing the frequency.

  • Connection Establishment
  • The connection to a desired device is made by a
    page message.
  • If the address of the recipient is unknown, an
    inquiry message is needed before paging.
  • Before any connections are made, all units are in
    standby mode. A unit in a standby mode wakes up
    every 1.28 seconds to listen to page/inquiry
  • Each time a unit wakes up, it listens on one of
    the 32 defined hop frequencies.

  • Connection Establishment
  • The page message will be sent on 32 different
  • Initially the message is sent on the first 16
    frequencies, 128 times, and if no response is
    received, the master sends a page message on the
    remaining 16 frequencies, 128 times.
  • The maximum connection time is 2.56 seconds
  • When paging, the master must know the slaves
    Bluetooth address and system clock to calculate
    the proper access code and the wake-up sequence
    phase. That information was provided in the
    inquiry process.
  • In inquiry, the master sends an inquiry access
    code, and other devices respond with their
    identity and system clock.

  • Connection Establishment
  • In connection state, the Bluetooth unit can be in
    several modes of operation. Sniff, hold, and park
    modes are used to save power or to free the
    capacity of a piconet
  • Active mode In the active mode, the Bluetooth
    unit actively participates on the channel.
  • Sniff mode In the sniff mode, the duty cycle of
    the slaves listen activity can be reduced. This
    means that the master can only start transmission
    in specified time slots.
  • Hold mode While in connection state, the ACL
    link to a slave can be put in a hold (possible
    SCO links are still supported). In hold mode, the
    slave can do other things, such as scanning,
    paging, inquiring, or attending another piconet
    (scatternet scenario, see Section 3.1).
  • Park mode If a slave does not need to
    participate in the piconet but still wants to
    remain synchronized to the channel (to
    participate in the piconet again later), it can
    enter the park mode. It gives up its active
    member address. Park mode is useful if there are
    more than seven devices that occasionally need to
    participate in the same piconet. The parked slave
    wakes up regularly to listen to the channel in
    order to re-synchronize and to check for
    broadcast messages sent by the master.

  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • The Bluetooth Special Interest Group (SIG) has
    defined a number of usage models for Bluetooth
  • They describe the main Bluetooth applications and
    the intended devices, e.g., the synchronization
    between a handheld device and a PC, and
    connecting to the Internet wirelessly using a
    mobile phone or a cordless modem.
  • Profiles specify how the interoperable solution
    for the functions described in the usage models
    is provided (defines the protocols and protocol
    features supporting a particular usage model).
  • Some profiles are dependent on other profiles.
    For example, three profiles (File Transfer
    Profile, Object Push Profile, and Synchronization
    Profile) are dependent on the Generic Object
    Exchange Profile. All profiles are dependent on
    the Generic Access Profile, i.e., they are
    reusing it.

  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • Bluetooth v1.1 profiles

  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • The Four General Profiles in the Bluetooth
    Specification v1.1
  • Generic Access Profile defines the generic
    procedures related to discovery of Bluetooth
    devices and link management aspects of connecting
    to Bluetooth devices.
  • It also defines procedures related to use of
    different security levels.
  • In addition, this profile includes common format
    requirements for parameters accessible on the
    user interface level.
  • Every Bluetooth device has to support the Generic
    Access Profile.
  • Service Discovery Application Profile defines the
    features and procedures for an application in a
    Bluetooth device to discover services of another
    Bluetooth device.
  • Serial Port Profile defines the requirements for
    Bluetooth devices necessary for setting up
    emulated serial cable connections using RFCOMM
    between two peer devices.
  • Generic Object Exchange Profile defines the
    protocols and procedures that will be used by
    applications that need object exchange
    capabilities. Possible scenarios are
    synchronization, file transfer, and object push.

  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • Usage Model-Oriented Profiles
  • Cordless Telephony Profile and Intercom Profile
    define the features and procedures required for
    interoperability between different units active
    in the "three-in-one phone" usage model (the same
    phone can be used as a cordless phone, a
    walkie-talkie, and a cellular phone).
  • The Cordless Telephony Profile is used when the
    phone is connected to a base station of fixed
    telephony network via Bluetooth and the Intercom
    Profile implements so-called "walkie-talkie"
    usage between Bluetooth phones.
  • Dial-Up Networking Profile describes how to use a
    cellular phone or a modem beside a computer as a
    wireless modem.
  • Fax Profile defines how a computer can use a
    Bluetooth cellular phone or modem as a wireless
    fax modem to send or receive a fax.
  • Headset Profile defines the requirements for
    Bluetooth devices necessary to support the
    headset use case. Wireless headsets can be used
    with cellular phones and laptops.

  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • Usage Model-Oriented Profiles ( Cont.)
  • LAN Access Profile defines how Bluetooth-enabled
    devices can access the services of a local-area
  • File Transfer Profile covers the scenarios that
    enable the user to browse and edit objects (files
    and folders) in the file system of another
    Bluetooth device and to transfer objects between
    two Bluetooth devices.
  • Object Push Profile covers the scenarios that
    enable users to push, pull, and exchange simple
    objects such as business cards between two
    Bluetooth devices such as notebook PCs, PDAs, and
    mobile phones.
  • Synchronization Profile covers the following
    scenarios PIM data exchange between two devices
    and automatic synchronization of data (e.g.,
    calendar items) when a device enters the
    proximity of the computer. Synchronization can be
    used between notebooks, PDAs, and mobile phones.

  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • Additional Profiles
  • To guarantee interoperability in many application
    areas, the working groups of the Bluetooth SIG
    are specifying new profiles.
  • These will be published independently.
  • Twelve additional profiles have already been
  • Generic Audio/Video Distribution Profile (GAVDP)
    defines a generic part of the protocols and
    procedures that realize distribution of
    audio/video content using ACL channels.
  • Advanced Audio Distribution Profile (A2DP)
    defines distributing of audio content of high
    quality in mono or stereo on ACL channels. A2DP
    is dependent upon GAVDP.
  • Audio/Video Remote Control Profile (AVRCP)
    defines transmission of a user-activated A/V
    control signal to a remote Bluetooth device.
  • Basic Imaging Profile (BIP) is an OBEX-based
    profile that enables devices to negotiate the
    size and encoding of imaging data to be exchanged.

  • Bluetooth Profiles
  • Additional Profiles
  • Basic Printing Profile (BPP) is an OBEX-based
    profile that enables printing of text e-mails,
    short messages, and formatted documents from
    mobile devices.
  • Hardcopy Cable Replacement Profile (HCRP) is a
    lightweight profile implementation for printing
    and scanning any type of document. HCRP is
    implemented directly on top of L2CAP avoiding the
    overhead from OBEX, RFCOMM, or PAN.
  • Bluetooth Extended Service Discovery Profile
    (ESDP) for Universal Plug and PlayTM (UPnPTM) is
    a profile for discovering other devices that
    support UPnP services and retrieve information
    about the services.
  • Hands-Free Profile (HFP) defines a case where a
    mobile phone can be used in conjunction with a
    hands-free device (e.g., a car kit). HFP provides
    a wireless means for both remote control and
    voice connections
  • Human Interface Device Profile (HID) defines
    usage of wireless keyboards, pointing devices,
    gaming devices, and remote monitoring devices.
  • Common ISDN Access Profile defines how
    applications access ISDN over Bluetooth.
  • Personal Area Networking Profile (PAN) defines
    IP-based personal networking. PAN also provides
    support for network access points (e.g., LAN or
  • SIM Access Profile (SAP) defines how to access a
    SIM card via a Bluetooth link.

  • Bluetooth protocol stack v1.1

  • Bluetooth protocol stack v1.1
  • Baseband and Link Control together enable a
    physical RF link between Bluetooth units forming
    a piconet. This layer is responsible for
    synchronizing the transmission-hopping frequency
    and clocks of different Bluetooth devices.
  • Audio is routed directly to and from Baseband.
    Any two Bluetooth devices supporting audio can
    send and receive audio data between each other
    just by opening an audio link.
  • Link Manager Protocol (LMP) is responsible for
    link set-up (authentication and encryption,
    control, and negotiation of baseband packets)
    between Bluetooth devices and for power modes and
    connection states of a Bluetooth unit.
  • Logical Link Control and Adaptation Protocol
    (L2CAP) takes care of multiplexing, reassembly,
    and segmentation of packets.
  • Service Discovery Protocol (SDP) is needed when
    requesting device information, services, and the
    characteristics of other devices. Devices have to
    support the same service in order to establish a
    connection with each other.

  • Bluetooth protocol stack v1.1
  • RFCOMM emulates RS-232 signals and can thus be
    used in applications that were formerly
    implemented with a serial cable (e.g., a
    connection between a laptop computer and a mobile
  • Telephony Control Protocol Binary (TCS-BIN)
    defines the call control signaling for the
    establishment of speech and data call between
    Bluetooth devices. AT commands provide means for
    controlling a mobile phone or a modem.
  • OBEX (Object Exchange) is adopted from IrDA. It
    is a session protocol that provides means for
    simple and spontaneous object and data transfer.
    It is independent of the transport mechanism and
    transport Application Programming Interface

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