Week Three: Mastery and Interactivity - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Week Three: Mastery and Interactivity PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 2ea33-ZGJkM



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Week Three: Mastery and Interactivity

Description:

Street Fighter: arcade game introduces the 'beat em ups' genre --adapted from ... Game industry leaders in the mid to late 1990s push for networked or online ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:51
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 13
Provided by: annaev
Learn more at: http://ucsbvg.angelfire.com
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Week Three: Mastery and Interactivity


1
Week Three Mastery and Interactivity
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Steven Malliet and Gust de Meyers, and Aphra
    Kerrs essays are effective origin narratives
    about the historical and economic rise of
    computer games.
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer
  • Periodize certain important games and the
    innovations they brought to the gaming culture
    and business models
  • Forerunners of computer games are board games,
    childrens hide and seek, cops and robbers
  • 1962 a pivotal moment when the first video as we
    recognize it today emerged
  • Roles of the godfathers of the computer game
    (23) Willy Higgenbotham, Steve Russell, Ralph
    Baer and Nolan Bushnell and their particular
    contributions
  • Higgenbotham brought interest in scientific
    instrumentation to nonscientific audiences with
    his creation of the abstract simulation game
    Tennis for Two (23)--innovation interactivity
    and limited player control --no reward system
  • In 1962 Steve Russell developed Spacewar at MIT
    --considered the first computer game

2
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer (continued)
  • Ralph Baer developed first in-home videogame
    through cable technology-- innovation merged
    television and computer gaming (console idea)
    (24)
  • Nolan Bushnell developed Computer Space game in
    1970--innovation a computer game in the pinball
    tradition, first arcade game first created to
    make money (not popular game) developed Pong
    first game hit (arcade idea)
  • Videogame industry launched in 1970s standards
    for platforms and genres emerge
  • Arcade and console vie for market dominance
  • Bushnells Atari corporation dominates and runs a
    near monopoly over the coin-operated arcades game
    market
  • Kee Games innovates the ROM chip that improves
    graphics and gameplay accuracy with Tank (which
    introduced the kill or be killed play mode--the
    father of the shoot-em-up
  • Midway games innovates microprocessors, and
    introduces the early joystick and fake guns--its
    racing simulator innovates the bonus points
    system for violence--runnig over live creatures
    crossing the road (GTA elevates this gameplay
    element)

3
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer (continued)
  • 1978 - 1984-- Games industry has first crisis and
    see Japanese games invasion
  • Japans history of game machines helps it rise
    quickly in computer games industry
  • Taito develops Space Invaders (1978), in
    partnership with Midway --innovations first with
    narrative structure, elevates the reward
    system--endless points, endless play--aliens keep
    coming, used functional sound
  • Namecos 1981 launch of Pac-Man pefects the maze
    game genre innovations non-violent content
    appeals to girls, found in arcades and family
    friendly spaces, and becomes the first star of
    the gaming era
  • Nintendo and Sega develop new genre the climbing
    or obstacle game, Donkey Kong and Frogger
    respectively
  • Ataris Adventure game innovation first
    graphics-based versus text-based adventure game
    it Battlezone game innovation image processing
  • Computing power and content development improve
    simultaneously in the early 1980s

4
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer (continued)
  • Game platforms and genres
  • a) Arcades simulation games
  • b) Handheld maze and climbing games
    (innovation LCD screen)
  • c) Home consoles adventure games
  • Nintendo rises to global dominance when U.S.
    games market declines in 1983--oversaturation of
    poor games driven by console market
  • Miyamoto develops Mario Brothers from Donkey Kong
  • Mario Brothers Innovations (content and
    technology)
  • a) Human-like characters (Japanese Manga cartoon
    tradition)
  • b) Multi-player mode
  • c) Level system--levels of play (analogous to
    chapters)
  • d) New opponents, new obstacles, new goals or
    quests
  • Super Mario Brothers
  • a) Eight worlds and thirty -two levels
  • b) Character movements left and right
  • c) Power-ups

5
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer (continued)
  • Although Ninendo supplanted Atari after the
    crisis of overproduction of bad games in the
    1980s, Atari remained competitive with the new
    games leader of that era
  • Nintendos lead in the industry was helped by its
    Gameboy handheld gaming technology
  • Gameboy revolution
  • a) First true handheld game computer
  • b) Featured Tetris (addictive and popular --
    psychological hook--making order from chaos
  • c) Featured non-violent game
  • d) Popularized the puzzle game genre
  • Roberta Williams (and husband) developed first
    graphically controlled adventure game Kings
    Quest (w/type in commands)
  • Lucasfilm Games developed point and click
    technology--key tech advance typed commands
    replaced with computer mouse
  • Rise of strategy game genre (aka God game Sim
    City, Civilization)
  • a) highly addictive play(good storytelling, user
    friendly interface--the mouse point and click)
  • b) isometric perspective (37)

6
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer (continued)
  • c) gamers now control who populations, not
    single character
  • Adventure and Role-playing games helped make
    console games strong in the market
  • Legend of Zelda console game, a major
    breakthrough in role-playing adventure game
    (solve puzzles, earn power-ups, but emphasis on
    character development)
  • Street Fighter arcade game introduces the beat
    em ups genre --adapted from martial arts
    movies--Draws attacks from parents and civic
    groups
  • Early 1990s sees technology advances and war of
    the bits
  • The 16-bit, 32-bit, 64-bit, 128 processors change
    console games forever--Sonic the Hedgehog and
    Virtua Racing games emerge
  • Sony Playstation is introduced in 1994 Other
    tech advances
  • a) Cartridges challenged with CD-ROM format
  • b) Connecting game console to Internet
  • c) Color comes to handhelds
  • d) Networked consoles and PC games displace
    arcades significantly
  • e) 3-D graphics introduced in 1992 ID Game
    developer

7
FM 150 VG VIDEOGAME HISTORY AND STRATEGIES
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer (continued)
  • Castle Wolfenstein first 3-D game, highly
    violent
  • Doom and Quake First person shooter (FPS) 3-D
  • a) Inaugurates first person perspective
  • b) Required high level of skill
  • c) Heightened realism
  • d) Heightened violence
  • e) Quake was networked online
  • f) Gamers play against other gamers (not
    computer opponent only)
  • g) QuakeC-computer language uploaded to Internet
    for gamers to co-create the game--birth of the
    Mod phenom
  • 34. Sports, simulation, action adventure games
    also benefit from 3-D technology advances
  • Electronic Arts game publisher becomes lucrative
    with NBA Basketball, NHL Hocky and FIFA Soccer
  • Tomb Raider interjects gender difference
    --heroine--less violence Lara Croft become
    gamings superstar--Feminism??
  • 2-D games persist strategy and RPGs/ Cut scenes
    introduced (42)

8
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Key Ideas from Malliet and deMeyer (continued)
  • 38. Playstation 2, X-Box, and Game Cube consoles
    remain vital even with strong competition from PC
    games
  • 39. Game industry leaders in the mid to late
    1990s push for networked or online gaming --
    their future vision MMORPGs
  • 40. Playstation 2 Innovation--creation of
    computer console as multimedia machine
  • Justin Halls Future of Games Mobile Gaming
  • Considers the development of new communication
    technologies that keep us connected to machines
    during every waking moment. Thinks about how
    mobile communication technologies affects new
    modes of gaming, human interaction with machines,
    and social structures.
  • Key concepts
  • pervasive electronic play
  • digital distraction
  • cell phone games
  • Bot-fighters and SMS gaming movement
  • Counter Strike MMOG (anyone familiar with this
    game)
  • Read page 52 on surrogate gaming --discuss

9
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
Key Ideas from Aphra Kerr, Ian Bogost Kerr on
Digital Games as Text Games as textual systems
emerged in the US during the era of rock roll
music (Nintendo equates with the Beatles, Sega,
the Stones), the Space Race and the Cold
War Games developed by playful hackers embedded
in Military industrial complex--driven by
intrinsic pleasure of experimenting not search
for profit Media discourse about games in 70s-80s
tended to reflect and influence the conservative
political climate culminating with the Reagan
Administration and its subsequent negative
associations--moral panics about health risks of
playing games effects of game content on
values, attitudes and behaviors but some
positive views games provide a safe/alternative
play environment Belief that computers are good
object associated with work education games
conversely are bad object associated with waste
of time waste of human resources
Bogost on The Rhetoric of Video Games Extends
Salen and Zimmermans work, following Johan
Huizinga, on meaningful play (all play means
something--an intricate relationship among game
design, play, and meaning)
10
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Bogost on The Rhetoric of Video Games
    (continued)
  • Key Concepts
  • Community of practice (a subculture of sorts
    organized around a particular game and its
    values, strategies, ideas and approaches to play
    itself
  • Recuperating the nature of play from charges of
    unproductive , trifle and leech on normal
    childhood develolpment to useful definition of
    the term--rejoin the functions of play and
    learning
  • Possibility space the free space of movement
    within a more rigid structure--rules make play
    possible in the first place (the childhood
    playground is example--children negotiate the
    rules of play)
  • Procedurality process is static course of
    action--games represent things through
    procedurality (systems of behaviors based on
    rule-based models--computational algorithms)
  • Rhetoric persuasive speech (Plato and
    Aristotle) one example visual rhetoric (ads,
    photos, illustrations) at work in videogames, but
    add to that process-or procedurality
  • Procedural Rhetoric--new ways to make claims
    about how things work videogames make persuasive
    arguments with processes (for example filght
    simulators--model rules of how aviation works)
  • a) Animal Crossing and the McDonalds advergame

11
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Bogost on The Rhetoric of Video Games
    (continued)
  • Key Concepts
  • 6. Procedural Rhetoric (cont)
  • b) Americas Army Operations (military-entertain
    ment complex) claims about US military ideology
  • Epistemic games (model how a profession works)
  • Critical gameplay (reinforcing or challenging
    dominant ideas, social norms and values, and
    understanding gamings truth claims)
  • Joost Raessens Computer Games as Participatory
    Media Culture
  • Caution against buying into the rhetorics of
    gaming cultures remediation of earlier
    practices of interactivity and participatory
    culture as somehow unique in gamings medium
    specificity
  • Earlier moments of participatory culture,
    Bertolt Brecht and Walter Benjamin (373)
  • Radio, film and TV had moments and expressions
    of interactivity and participation
  • Three specific characteristics of computer games
    as digital media multimediality. virtuality, and
    interactivity (374)

12
FM 187 VG TOPICS IN VIDEO/DIGITAL GAME STUDIES
  • Joost Raessens Computer Games as Participatory
    Media Culture
  • Some Key Words
  • Self-organizing communities
  • British Cultural Studies
  • Frankfurt School
  • Media-Effects Determinism
  • Coercion (375)
  • Hegemony
  • Ideology
  • Polysemic
  • Negotiated /oppositional reading practices
  • Turkels culture of simulation (read pg. 377)
About PowerShow.com