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PERSONAL AND COMMUNITY RESILIENCE: BUILDING IT AND SUSTAINING IT

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RESPONSE OF CHILDREN TO DISASTER DEPENDS ON: Extent of exposure to the disaster. Family distress ... focus outward on the things that must be handled, not ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: PERSONAL AND COMMUNITY RESILIENCE: BUILDING IT AND SUSTAINING IT


1
PERSONAL AND COMMUNITY RESILIENCE BUILDING IT
AND SUSTAINING IT
  • SHEILA EMERSON KELLY
  • LICENSED PSYCHOLOGIST
  • ASSISTANT COMMISSIONER
  • BUREAU FOR BEHAVIORAL HEALTH
  • AND HEALTH FACILITIES

2
What is resiliency?
  • Resiliency is the process of adapting well in the
    face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats, or
    other significant sources of stress. Resiliency
    is the capacity to bounce back.

3
  • For a community to be resilient, its members must
    put into practice early and effective actions. If
    residents, agencies and organizations take
    meaningful and intentional actions before an
    event, communities can reestablish stability
    after an event.

4
  • Resilience implies that after an event, a person
    or community may not only be able to cope and to
    recover but also change to reflect different
    priorities arising from the disaster.

5
PERSONAL RESILIENCY DEVELOPMENT AND MAINTENANCE
OF PERSONAL RESILIENCE
6
Personal Resilience is related to
  • Biological factors (temperament, emotions,
    intelligence, creativity, resistance to disease,
    genetic and physical characteristics)
  • Attachment (capacity for bonding, for forming
    significant relationships with others the
    capacity for empathy, compassion caring and joy)
  • Control (capacity to manipulate ones
    environment, mastery, social competence
    self-esteem personal autonomy and sense of
    purpose)

7
People who are resilient demonstrate
  • Sociability (form healthy relationships)
  • Optimism (view self and future positively)
  • Flexibility (change is part of life)
  • Self-confidence (move toward goals, base
    decisions on confidence in ones abilities)
  • Competence (be good at something and take pride
    in it)
  • Insightfulness (understand people and situations
    be able to see other sides)
  • Perseverance (dont give up)
  • Perspective (view crises as challenges to be
    faced, not insurmountable obstacles)
  • Self control (manage strong feelings and
    impulses internalization of locus of control)

8
RESPONSE OF CHILDREN TO DISASTER DEPENDS ON
  • Extent of exposure to the disaster
  • Family distress
  • Loss of loved ones and/or property
  • Available support systems
  • Disruption of school programs
  • Communitys response to the disaster

9
What characterizes resilient children?
  • Positive peer and adult interactions
  • Low degrees of defensiveness and aggressiveness
    and high degrees of cooperation, participation
    and emotional stability
  • Positive sense of self
  • Sense of personal power rather than powerlessness
  • Internal locus of control (belief that one is
    capable of exercising control/impact over the
    environment)

10
What are signs of vulnerability to stress?
  • Substance abuse
  • Poor anger management
  • Lack of community integration/social isolation
  • Multiple chronic illnesses or symptoms with
    minimal, vague or inadequate organic basis
  • Chronic dysthymia and/or anxiety
  • Dysfunctional relationships
  • Inadequate school/work/community performance

11
PROTECTION VERSUS VULNERABILITY WHAT MAKES SOME
INDIVIDUALS RESILIENT AND SOME VULNERABLE TO LIFE
STRESSORS?
12
  • Risk Factors

13
Child Factors
  • Low self esteem
  • Poor social skills
  • Poor problem solving
  • Difficult temperament
  • Lack of empathy
  • Homelessness
  • Early school leaving

14
Family Factors
  • Family violence
  • Poor supervision
  • Harsh or inconsistent discipline
  • Lack of warmth or affections
  • Abuse or neglect

15
School context
  • School failure
  • Bullying
  • Peer rejection
  • Poor attachment to school
  • Deviant peer group

16
Life Events
  • Divorce and family breakup
  • Death of a family member

17
Community and cultural factors
  • Neighborhood violence and crime
  • Lack of support services
  • Social or cultural discrimination
  • Community norms concerning violence

18
Protective Factors
19
Child Factors
  • Social competence
  • Attachment to family
  • Empathy
  • Problem solving
  • Optimism
  • School achievement
  • Easy temperament
  • Good coping style

20
Family Factors
  • Supportive caring parents
  • Family harmony
  • Secure and stable family
  • Supportive relationship with an adult
  • Strong family norms and morality

21
School Context
  • Positive school climate
  • Prosocial peer group
  • Sense of belonging
  • Opportunities for success at school and
    recognition of achievement
  • School norms regarding violence

22
Life Events
  • Meeting significant person
  • Moving to new area
  • Opportunities at critical turning points or major
    life transitions

23
Community and Cultural Factors
  • Access to support services
  • Community networking
  • Attachment to the community
  • Participation in community group
  • Community/cultural norms against violence
  • Strong cultural identity/ethnic pride

24
Problem-focused coping increases resiliency
while emotion-focused coping impairs resiliency
25
When faced with a setback or challenge focus
outward on the things that must be handled, not
inward on emotions. Emotions cannot become the
focus of attention.
26
People who focus on solving their problems are
the most resilient (and are sick less often).
27
Problem solvers
  • Examine the situation to see what solutions may
    be possible
  • Consider various actions
  • Select the best
  • Take action
  • Observe effects of the action
  • Modify for best results

28
People bounce back from disaster, tragedy,
trauma, stress by having
  • Caring and support
  • High expectations for success
  • Opportunities for meaningful participation
  • Positive bonds
  • Clear and consistent boundaries
  • Life skills

29
Just as people can be taught to be resilient,
so can communities.
30
Community resilience
  • A resilient community can respond to crises in
    ways that strengthen community bonds, resources
    and the communitys capacity to cope. Community
    resilience is the individual and collective
    capacity to respond to adversity and change.

31
In communities, resilience is related to
  • Magnitude of shock a system can absorb and remain
    competent
  • Degree to which a system is capable of
    self-organization
  • Degree to which a system can build capacity for
    learning and adaptation

32
COMMUNITY VULNERABILITY
  • All vulnerability and resilience is local
  • Vulnerability is differential different people
    and communities are vulnerable in different ways
    to different hazards
  • Vulnerability and resilience must be assessed in
    the context of general social and economic
    circumstances
  • Strategies developed must be specific to the
    locale and the issue

33
Building resilient communities
  • Is a long term project
  • Grows through support and extension of natural
    caring relationships that must be nurtured
  • Starts with strengthening natural helping
    institutions in neighborhoods
  • Builds on strengths not weaknesses
  • Arises from self-organization and self-control
    arising from mastery

34
Elements important to building resilience include
  • Connectedness, commitment and shared values
  • Participation
  • Structure, roles and responsibilities
  • Support and nurturance
  • Critical reflection and skill building
  • Resources
  • Communication

35
Connectedness, commitment and shared values
  • Children and families are more likely to feel
    part of a community when there is shared history
    customs, beliefs and values. This is influenced
    by
  • How families perceive their own well-being as
    tied to the well-being of the overall community
  • How families perceive respect for and sensitivity
    toward their ethnic and cultural identification

36
Strong connectedness results in
  • Increased trust in community leaders
  • Increased compliance with messages and
    instructions in the event of an emergency
  • Decreased conflict among diverse groups and
    individuals in the community

37
PARTICIPATION
  • Families are more likely to participate in their
    community when
  • Community leaders encourage active involvement
  • They believe their contributions and ideas are
    valued by community leaders
  • They can see the benefit of being involved for
    themselves, their children and the entire
    community

38
Structure, roles and responsibilities
  • Communities need clear organizational structure.
  • After a disaster, new roles may emerge. Conflict
    over roles can adversely impact resilience.
  • Anticipating changes in roles and incorporating
    them into disaster drills can improve resilience.

39
  • Identify the responsibilities of community
    leaders, agencies and organizations prior to the
    event
  • Provide information to the public about the
    structure and responsibilities of different
    sectors in the community
  • Provide information to the general public about
    what families can do to help themselves in the
    event of a disaster.

40
  • Knowledge of roles and responsibilities during
    disasters will enhance the publics acceptance of
    directives and compliance with procedures.
  • Parents need to help children to know what is
    expected of them and what to do in case of
    disaster. The more their responsibilities are
    defined, the better they are prepared to cope.
    This will reduce anxiety and worry.,

41
SUPPORT AND NURTURANCE
  • Community resilience is enhanced when families
    perceive support from community leaders
  • Opportunities to express concerns and ideas
  • Provide feedback to leaders
  • See their concerns addressed by actions such as
    community development, attracting new businesses,
    upgrading common areas, etc.

42
CRITICAL REFLECTION AND SKILL BUILDING
  • Self-evaluation of
  • Successes or strengths
  • Areas needing improvement
  • Challenges or barriers to implementing planned
    responses
  • Unanticipated problems
  • Solutions
  • Planning ahead (learn how to manage symptoms that
    arise in disasters in advance)

43
RESOURCES
  • Must be made available in an equitable manner
  • Distributed with input from families
  • Used effectively in adverse situations
  • Expanded through accessing additional resources
    and supplies (e.g., Red Cross, FEMA, etc)
  • Available resources need to be identified in
    advance.

44
COMMUNICATION
  • Must be understood by all ages
  • Consistent themes but multiple messages (school,
    church, public health, etc)
  • Must be two ways (families need to be able to
    express concerns, needs etc.,)
  • Should convey that leaders have as priority the
    well-being of families and overall good of the
    community

45
Policy development and implementation leads to
public awareness and community participation
which leads to less vulnerability and enhanced
resilience to disaster.
46
What can faith-based organizations do?
  • Join faith-based organizations such as VOAD and
    the American Red Cross. Help disseminate
    important disaster information within and outside
    traditional cultural and faith-based settings
  • Work with others to designate potential shelters
    and distribution centers within buildings owned
    by the organization
  • Provide joint programs with other community and
    religious leaders to strengthen respect for
    diversity

47
  • Deliver disaster-related information to all
    residents through cultural and faith-based
    avenues (sermons, teaching programs) including
    referral sheets with names of mental health
    practitioners
  • Develop alternative locations for worship
  • Review, self-evaluate, adapt

48
What can community leaders do?
  • Develop a community disaster plan
  • Ensure effective communication between leadership
    and families
  • Create a centralized victims assistance
    organization that has information about available
    services
  • Work with non-profits with expertise in
    large-scale distribution of resources during
    disasters

49
  • Implement guidelines for rotating, distributing
    and disposing of food stuffs to prevent health
    hazards related to food donations, working with
    public health
  • Establish a system to control donations to
    community response and recovery to ensure
    equitable allocation of financial and other
    resources
  • Implement a media plan to provide important
    updates to the community
  • Review efforts, self-evaluate, adapt.

50
What can mental health providers do?
  • Develop and activate a mental health triage
    system
  • Aid community leaders and others in
    distinguishing appropriate and inappropriate
    disaster mental health services for community
    residents
  • Assist in training community volunteers
  • Provide emotional support to community responders

51
  • Supplement existing mental health resources that
    may need assistance in disaster (e.g., school
    counselors)
  • Promote programs for mental health responders on
  • Disaster mental health and children
  • Child bereavement and traumatic grief
  • Interventions for children and families after
    disaster

52
Create informational materials on
  • Building resilience in children and families
  • Preparedness
  • Stress and coping
  • Managing a crisis
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder
  • Pediatric bereavement
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Substance abuse

53
  • Anger management
  • Behavior management/positive behavior supports
  • Self-care
  • Mental health concerns
  • Community resources for mental health

54
  • Provide interviews to the media about resilience
    and emotional recovery after disaster
  • Evaluate capacity for mental health response
  • Help to create a fund to support long term mental
    health treatment for survivors when necessary
  • Review, evaluate, adapt
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