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Multimedia Devices


Understand the software associated with CD and DVD drive installation. ... DirectX is a Microsoft DVD technology that integrates multimedia drivers, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Multimedia Devices

Multimedia Devices
  • Definitions and Terms

Chapter Objectives
  • After completing this chapter you will
  • Understand various CD and DVD technologies.
  • Understand the meaning of a CD or DVDs X factor.
  • Understand how a CD drive works.
  • Know the different interfaces used with CD and
    DVD drives and be able to configure the drive.
  • Understand the basic operation of a sound card.
  • Understand the software associated with CD and
    DVD drive installation.
  • Be able to install a sound card.
  • Be able to use various operating system tools to
    verify drive and sound card installation.

Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  • After completing this chapter you will
  • Troubleshoot CD drive, DVD drive, and sound card
  • Understand the basics of how a scanner works and
    be able to install a USB or parallel port
  • Understand basic digital camera concepts.

Multimedia Overview
  • The term multimedia has different meanings to
    different people because there are so many
    different types of multimedia devices. This
    chapter focuses on the most popular areas and you
    will find that other devices are similar to
    install and troubleshoot.
  • Multimedia devices
  • CD and DVD technologies
  • Sound cards
  • Speakers

CD-ROM Drive Overview
  • CD-ROM terms
  • CD-ROM (Compact Disk-Read Only Memory) Drive is a
    device that holds CDs and is used for audio and
    data files.
  • CD (Compact Disk) is a disk that holds large
    amounts of data (628MB and higher), such as
    audio, video, and software applications.
  • A list of common controls can be found on 10-4.

CD-ROM Drive Speeds
  • CD-ROM drives operate much slower than hard
  • CD-ROM drive specifications
  • Average Seek Time is the time required for a
    drive to move randomly about the disk.
  • Average Access Time is the time required to find
    and retrieve data on a disk or in memory.

CD-ROM Drive Speeds
CD-ROM Transfer Speeds
Multimedia Table 1
CD-ROM Drive Speeds
CD-ROM Access Times
Multimedia Table 2
CD-ROM Drive Buffers/Cache
  • Ways to increase CD-ROM data transfers
  • Buffer memory located on the CD-ROM drive
  • Adjust the CD-ROM cache

Theory of CD-ROM Drive Operation
  • Data is stored on a CD with pits and flats.
  • Pits are indentations along the track of a CD.
  • Flats are lands that separate the pits in a CD.

Theory of CD-ROM Drive Operation
Inside a CD-ROM Drive
Multimedia Figure 2
Internal and External CD-ROM Drives
  • Types of CD-ROM drives
  • Internal CD-ROM drives using either IDE or SCSI
  • External CD-ROM drives using the SCSI interface

CD-ROM Disk Loading
  • Methods for inserting a compact disk into a
    CD-ROM drive
  • Tray Loaded is a method to insert a CD or DVD
    into a drive. They are less expensive but more
    likely to have lower MTBFs.
  • MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) is the average
    number of hours before a device fails.
  • Caddy Loaded is a term used to describe how a CD
    inserts into a CD drive using a special holder.
  • Caddy is a holder for a compact disk that inserts
    into the CD drive.
  • Slot Loaded is a term used to describe how a CD
    loads into a slot in the CD drive. This has the
    disadvantage of disk jams.

CD-ROM Disk Loading
CD-ROM Drive with Tray and CD-ROM Caddy
Multimedia Figure 3
CD-R and CD-RW
  • CD-R (Compact Disk Recordable) is a CD drive that
    can create a compact disk by writing once to the
  • UDF (Universal Disk Format) is a CD-R drive
    standard used by some manufacturers.
  • DDCD (Double Density CD) is a CD disk format that
    extends to 1.3GB. Drives that use this
    specification can also read regular CDs, CD-R
    disks, and CD-RW disks.
  • WORM (Write Once-Read Many) is a technology that
    writes data once to a disk. It is often used to
    make backups or distribute software.

CD-R and CD-RW
  • CD-RW (Compact Disk ReWritable) or CD-E is a CD
    drive that can write data multiple times to a
    particular disk.
  • PD (Phase-Change Dual) is a laser technology used
    to make CD-E and CD-RW disks.
  • Dye-Polymer is a technology for making CD-E or
    CD-RW disks by laser-heating the disk surface to
    produce light reflecting bumps.
  • MultiRead or MultiRead2 is an OSTA specification
    that states the CD-RW drive is backward
    compatible with CD-ROM and CD-R disks.

CD Standards
CD Standards
Multimedia Table 3
Magneto-Optical Drives
  • MO (Magneto-Optical) Drive is a type of drive
    that uses a special technology for reading and
    writing multiple times to a compact disk. After
    the disk is heated by the laser to produce a
    bump, a magnet applies a charge to the surface.

  • DVD-ROM is a technology that produces disks with
    superior audio and video performance and
    increased storage capacity.
  • In DVD drives, the MPEG-2 video must be
    converted, and the decoder is the way to convert
    the data.
  • DirectX is a Microsoft DVD technology that
    integrates multimedia drivers, application code,
    and 3-D support for audio and video.
  • Region Code is a setting on a DVD drive or disk
    that specifies a geographic region.

DVD Region Codes
Multimedia Table 5
  • Decoders are used to decompress the video and
    audio from a DVD.
  • Hardware Decoder requires a PCI adapter and
    handles the decoding.
  • Software Decoder is a type of DVD decoder that
    puts the burden on the CPU to decode and
    uncompress the MPEG-2 video data from the DVD.

Other DVD Technologies
  • Types of DVD Technologies
  • DVD-RAM uses a phase technology like CD-RW and
    allows data to be rewritten on a DVD-RAM disk.
  • DVD-R uses WORM technology to use one or two
    sides of the disk.
  • DVD-RW (DVD-ReWritable) uses 4.7GB disks that can
    be erased and rewritten to the disk.
  • DVDRW (DVD Read and Write) is a drive that can
    be read from, written to, and holds 3GB.

DVD Standards
DVD Specifications
Multimedia Table 5
CD/DVD Drive Interfaces and Connections
  • Types of CD and DVD Drive Interfaces
  • IDE most common
  • SCSI
  • USB
  • FireWire
  • Proprietary

Installing a DVD Drive and Hardware Decoder
  • To install a DVD drive and hardware decoder
    adapter, always follow the manufacturers
  • General guidelines are given for this
    installation procedure on page 10-22.

Drive Upgrades
  • Questions to analyze a CD-ROM Drive Upgrade
  • Are speakers or sound wanted?
  • What microprocessor is installed in the computer?
  • Is a slot available in the computer for a sound
  • Will video-intensive CDs be used?
  • Does the computer have enough RAM?
  • Does the computer have a sound system that
    accepts digital audio input and support Dolby
    Digital Surround Sound?

Preventive Maintenance for CD and DVD Drives
  • If the laser lens gets dust, dirt, or moisture on
    it, the drive may report data or read errors.
  • Laser Lens or Objective Lens is a special
    component of the CD-ROM drive that is responsible
    for reading information from the CD disk.

New Technologies
  • FML/C (Flourescent MultiLayer Disk/Card) is a new
    CD/DVD-type technology that uses a fluorescent
    dye embedded in pits and grooves on each layer of
    the disk or card.

CD and DVD Drive Installation
  • CD and DVD Drive Installation Steps
  • Install any necessary mounting brackets on the
  • Set the appropriate master/slave, SCSI ID, or
    termination for the drive interface.
  • Set any interrupt, I/O address, or DMA channel.
  • Attach the appropriate cables to the drive.

CD and DVD Driver Installation
  • Device Driver is a small piece of software that
    stays in RAM to allow communication with a piece
    of hardware.
  • MSCDEX.EXE is a program provided with DOS and
    Windows 3.x that assigns a drive letter to the
    CD-ROM drive.
  • Device Name is an eight-character name unique for
    each CD-ROM drive.

The MSCDEX.EXE Program
  • MSCDEX.EXE is a program provided with DOS and
    Windows 3.x that assigns a drive letter to the
    CD-ROM drive. It is included as a line in the
    AUTOEXEC.BAT file.

The MSCDEX.EXE Program
Multimedia Table 6
Troubleshooting the MSCDEX.EXE Installation
  • Troubleshooting the MSCDEX.EXE Installation
  • Verify the CD-ROM device driver in the CONFIG.SYS
    file loads correctly.
  • Verify the correct device name is used with the
    MSCDEX.EXE command
  • Verify the number of drive letters available.

CD/DVD Drives (Windows 9x/NT/2000/XP)
  • CDFS (CD-ROM File System) is the Windows
    9x/NT/2000/XP 32-bit protected mode CD drive file
    system driver.
  • Steps to disable the CD Autorun feature are given
    on page 10-30.

Troubleshooting CD/DVD Drive Problems
  • Troubleshooting CD/DVD Drive Problems
  • Always use the latest drivers.
  • Correct any interrupt, DMA channel, and I/O
    address conflicts.
  • Verify that the CD or DVD is installed in the
  • Check power connections, cabling, and
    configuration settings.
  • Additional troubleshooting tips can be found on
    page 10-31.

Sound Cards
  • Sound Card Features
  • MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) is
    used to create synthesized music and found on a
    sound card.
  • MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer-3) is a sound format that
    compresses an audio file and has the extension of
  • AAC (Advanced Audio Compression) is a sound file
    format that provides file compression.

Sound Cards
CD Drive with Sound Card
Multimedia Figure 6
Sound Cards
Sound Blaster Live Platinum 5.1 Sound Card Ports
Multimedia Figure 7
Sound Cards
PC Design Symbols
Multimedia Figure 8
Sound Card Theory of Operation
  • The sound card must take the analog signal and
    convert it to a digital format to send the sound
    into the computer. To convert an analog waveform
    to 1s and 0s, samples of data are taken.
  • Frequency Response is the number of samples taken
    by a sound card.
  • It is recommended to purchase a PCI sound card
    that uses a minimum of 16 bits for sampling.

Sound Card Theory of Operation
Sound Wave
Multimedia Figure 9
Sound Card Theory of Operation
8-Bit Sampling
Multimedia Figure 10
Sound Card Theory of Operation
16-Bit Sampling
Multimedia Figure 11
Installing Sound Cards
  • The steps to installing a sound card are similar
    to any other adapter. The onboard sound must be
    disabled before installing a new sound adapter.

Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP
  • Audio Drivers
  • WDM (Windows Driver Model) is a kernel mode
    process that handles audio management such as
    multiple streams of real-time audio.
  • DS3D (DirectSound3D) is a Microsoft development
    included in DirectX3 that adds more 3D audio
    effect commands.
  • A3D is an audio standard developed by Aureal
    Semiconductor that supports hardware acceleration
    and allows simulation of sounds in certain
    environments such as a tunnel or under water.
  • EAX (Environmental Audio Extensions) is Creative
    Labs development that allows software and game
    developers to create a realistic audio
    environment such as muffling effects and audio
    directional effects.

Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP
NTs Multimedia Control Panel Tabs
Multimedia Table 9
Sound Cards Using Windows 9X/NT/2000/XP
2000s Sounds and Multimedia Control Panel Tabs
Multimedia Table 10
  • Speaker Features
  • Power Rating is how loud the volume can go
    without distorting the sound and is expressed in
  • Frequency Response Range is the range of sounds a
    speaker can reproduce.
  • Shielding cancels out and keeps magnetic
    interference from devices.
  • Listen to speakers with an audio CD and without
    headphones to hear the quality of the speakers.

  • The following is a list of extras for speakers
  • An external volume control
  • Headphone jacks
  • Headphone and microphone pass-through connectors
  • AC adapter
  • Proper connectors to connect speakers to the
    sound card
  • If the sound card is capable of 3D sound, a four
    or six speaker system is an enhancement.

Troubleshooting Sound Problems
  • Troubleshooting Sound Problems
  • Verify that the sound card is secured in a PCI or
    ISA slot and no cuts are present in the speaker
  • Verify installation of the correct sound drivers.
  • Verify that there are not any resource conflicts.
  • Check the speakers connection to the back of the
  • An enhanced list can be found on 10-45.

Troubleshooting Sound Problems (MS-DOS Mode)
  • Troubleshooting Sound Problems for DOS
    applications or DOS games
  • Verify the audio CD is inserted in the CD-ROM
  • Play the audio CD from the DOS CD-ROM control
  • Check the connection of the speaker cables.
  • Verify that there are not any resource
  • Verify installation of the correct sound drivers.
  • Check the speakers connection to the back of the
  • Locate the speakers away from the monitor.
  • Always refer to the documentation of the sound
    card or CD drive manufacturer.

  • A Scanner is an input device that allows
    documents including text and pictures to be
    brought into the computer and displayed, printed,
  • The most common types of scanners
  • Flatbed
  • Sheetfed
  • Handheld
  • Film
  • Scanners attach to the computer using one of
    three methods
  • Parallel
  • USB
  • SCSI

  • How a scanner operates can be found on page
  • The most common scanner file formats
  • JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) is good
    for web pictures and master copies
  • GIF (Graphic Interchange Format) is limited to
    256 colors and good for web pictures
  • TIFF (Tag Image File Format) is good for master
  • PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is the newest
    type and supports 24 and 48-bit color.
  • Scanner Terms
  • Resolution is measured in dots per inch and
    determined by the number of sensors in the CCD
  • Bit depth is the number of bits used for color.
    The more bits, the more colors and color depth
  • Interpolation is software used by the scanner to
    achieve a greater resolution
  • OCR (Optical Character Recognition) is software
    that processes printed or written text characters
  • TWAIN is a driver used that allows applications
    to access and acquire images directly from the

Digital Cameras
  • Digital camera stores photographs in digital
  • Digital cameras connect to the computer with
    several different interfaces
  • Serial
  • Parallel
  • USB
  • SCSI
  • FireWire
  • The most common types of Digital Camera
  • AA
  • NiCad
  • NiMH (Nickel Metal Hydride)
  • Li-Ion (Lithium Ion)

Digital Cameras
  • The most common types of Digital Camera Data
  • CF (Compact Flash)
  • SmartMedia
  • Memory Stick
  • Secure Digital
  • PC Card drives