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Chapter Six Language and Cognition

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Title: Chapter Six Language and Cognition


1
Chapter SixLanguage and Cognition
2
1. What is Cognition?
  • Mental processes, information processing
  • Mental process or faculty of knowing, including
    awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment.

3
  • The formal approach structural patterns,
    including the study of morphological, syntactic,
    and lexical structure.
  • The psychological approach language from the
    view of general systems ranging from perception,
    memory, attention, and reasoning.
  • The conceptual approach how language structures
    (processes patterns) conceptual content.

4
2. Psycholinguistics
  • Psychological aspects of language.
  • Psychological states and mental activity with the
    use of language.
  • Language acquisition, language production
    comprehension.

5
Related fields
  • Structural linguistics
  • Cognitive psychology
  • Anthropology
  • Neurosciences

6
Six subjects of research
  • Language acquisition (L1 / L2)
  • Language comprehension
  • Language production
  • Language disorders
  • Language and Thought
  • Neurocognition

7
2.1 Language Acquisition
  • Holophrastic stage
  • Languages sound patterns
  • Phonetic distinctions in parents language.
  • One-word stage objects, actions, motions,
    routines.

8
Two-word stage around 18m
9
(No Transcript)
10
  • Three-word-utterance stage
  • Give doggie paper.
  • Put truck window.
  • Tractor go floor.

11
Fluent grammatical conversation stage
  • Embed one constituent inside another
  • Give doggie paper. ?
  • Give big doggie paper.
  • Use more function words missing function words
    and inflection in the beginning but good use
    (90) by the age of 3, with a full range of
    sentence types.
  • All parts of all language are acquired before the
    child turns four.

12
2.2 Language comprehension
  • Mental lexicon information about the properties
    of words, retrievable when understanding language
  • For example, we may use morphological rules to
    decompose a complex word like rewritable the
    first few times we encounter it and after several
    exposures we may store and access it as a unit or
    word.
  • It means that frequency of exposure determines
    our ability to recall stored instances.

13
  • Connectionism readers use the same system of
    links between spelling units and sound units to
    generate the pronunciations of written words like
    tove and to access the pronunciations of familiar
    words like stove, or words that are exceptions to
    these patterns, like love.
  • Similarity and frequency play important roles in
    processing and comprehending language, with the
    novel items being processed based on their
    similarity to the known ones.

14
Word recognition
  • Cohort theory
  • Marslen-Wilson Welsh (1978)
  • The first few phonemes of a spoken word activate
    a set of word candidates that are consistent with
    the input.

15
  • Interactive model
  • Higher processing levels have a direct,
    top-down influence on lower levels.
  • Lexical knowledge can affect the perception of
    phonemes. There is interactivity in the form of
    lexical effects on the perception of sub-lexical
    units.
  • In certain cases, listeners knowledge of words
    can lead to the inhibition of certain phonemes
    in other cases, listeners continue to hear
    phonemes that have been removed from the speech
    signal and replaced by noise.

16
  • Race model
  • Pre-lexical route computes phonological
    information from the acoustic signal
  • Lexical route the phonological information
    associated with a word becomes available when the
    word itself is accessed
  • When word-level information appears to affect a
    lower-level process, it is assumed that the
    lexical route won the race.

17
  • Factors involved in word recognition
  • Frequency effect the ease with which a word is
    accessed due to its more frequent usage in the L.
  • Recency effects the ease with which a word is
    accessed due to its repeated occurrence in the
    discourse or context.
  • Cotext We recognize a word more readily when the
    preceding words provide an appropriate context
    for it.

18
Lexical ambiguity
  • All the meanings related to the word are
    accessed.
  • Only one meaning is accessed initially.

19
  • Are you engaged ?
  • My friend drove me to the bank.
  • They passed the port at midnight.
  • Please give me a camel.
  • ??
  • ???

20
  • The clerk (entering) Are you engaged?
  • Augustus What business is that of yours?
    However, if you will take the trouble to read the
    society papers for this week, you will see that I
    am engaged to the Honourable Lucy Popham,
    youngest daughter of. . .
  • The clerk That isnt what I mean. Can you see a
    female?
  • Augustus Of course, I can see a female as easily
    as a male. Do you suppose I am blind?
  • (George Bernard Shaw Augustus Does His Bit)

21
Comprehension of sentences
  • Serial models the sentence comprehension system
    continually and sequentially follows constraints
    of a languages grammar
  • Describe how the processor quickly constructs one
    or more representations of a sentence based on a
    restricted range of information that is
    guaranteed to be relevant to its interpretation,
    primarily grammatical information.
  • Any such representation is then quickly
    interpreted and evaluated, using the full range
    of information that might be relevant.

22
  • Parallel models emphasize that the comprehension
    system is sensitive to a vast range of
    information, including grammatical, lexical, and
    contextual, as well as knowledge of the
    speaker/writer and of the world in general.
  • Describe how the processor uses all relevant
    information to quickly evaluate the full range of
    possible interpretations of a sentence.
  • It is generally acknowledged that listeners and
    readers integrate grammatical and situational
    knowledge in understanding a sentence.

23
Structural factors in comprehension
  • Comprehension of written and spoken language can
    be difficult because it is not always easy to
    identify the constituents (phrases) of a sentence
    and the ways in which they relate to one another.
  • Psycholinguists have proposed principles
    interpreting sentence comprehension with respect
    to the grammatical constraints.

24
  • Minimal attachment the structurally
    simpler--structural simplicity guides all
    initial analyses in sentence comprehension.
  • The second wife will claim the inheritance
    belongs to her.

25
Garden path sentences
  • The horse raced past the barn fell.
  • The man who hunts ducks out on weekends.
  • The cotton clothing is usually made of grows in
    Mississippi.
  • Fat people eat accumulates.

26
Lexical factors in comprehension
  • The human sentence processor is primarily guided
    by information about specific words that is
    stored in the lexicon.
  • The salesman glanced at a/the customer with
    suspicion/ripped jeans.

27
Syntactic ambiguity
  • Different possible ways in which words can be fit
    into phrases.
  • Ambiguous category of some of the words in the
    sentence.

28
  • John painted the car in the garage.

29
  • May likes the vase on the cupboard which she
    bought yesterday.
  • The students will discuss their plan to hold a
    dancing party in the classroom.
  • I know Simon better than you.
  • Tell me if you have time.

30
  • My brother wasnt reading all the time.
  • The chairman appointed Mr. Brown an assistant.
  • The scholar wrote long thesis and books.
  • Flying planes can be dangerous.

31
Comprehension of text
  • Resonance model information in long-term memory
    is automatically activated by the presence of
    material that apparently bears a rough semantic
    relation to it.

32
Discourse interpretation
  • Schemata and drawing inferences
  • Schema a pre-existing knowledge structure in
    memory typically involving the normal expected
    patterns of things.

33
  • RESTAURANT Schema
  • Entering, ordering, eating and exiting.
  • Entering Scene
  • The customer enters a restaurant,
  • looks for a table,
  • decides where to sit,
  • walks to the table

34
  • John went into a restaurant. He asked the
    waitress for coq au vin. He ate it, paid the bill
    and left. (perfectly understandable)
  • John went into a restaurant. He saw a waitress.
    He got up and went home. (does not seem to make
    sense)

35
  • Apartment for rent. 500.
  • I stopped to get some groceries but there weren't
    any baskets left so by the time I arrived at the
    check-out counter I must have looked like a
    juggler having a bad day.

36
  • A Would you like a coffee?
  • B Yes, please.
  • B No and no.
  • A Right.

37
  • ??,??????????????????????????,?????????????????
    ????????????????,????????????????????????

38
Pragmatic ambiguity
  • There is a fly in my soup.
  • Today is Sunday.
  • Do you enjoy sitting beside me? she asked
    coldly.
  • Oh, no, I said.
  • Well, you are not wanted here.
  • (W. E. B. DuBois, On Being Crazy)

39
2.3 Language production
  • Access to words
  • Conceptualization what to express
  • Word selection a competitive process
  • Morpho-phonological encoding target words

40
  • Generation of sentences
  • Conceptual preparation deciding what to say a
    global plan is needed
  • Word retrieval and application of syntactic
    knowledge
  • Processes of sentence generation
  • Functional planning assigning grammatical
    functions
  • Positional encoding getting into positions for
    each unit

41
  • Written language production
  • Similar to spoken language.
  • Orthographic form instead of phonological form.
  • However, phonology plays an important role in
    this process.
  • Writers have more time available for conceptual
    preparation and planning.

42
3. Cognitive Linguistics
  • Cognition is the way we think.
  • Cognitive linguistics is the scientific study of
    the relation between the way we communicate and
    the way we think.
  • It is an approach to language that is based on
    our experience of the world and the way we
    perceive and conceptualize it.

43
Three main approaches
  • The Experiential View
  • The Prominence View
  • The Attentional View

44
Experiential view
  • Car a box-like shape, wheels, doors, windows
  • comfort, speed, mobility, independence,
  • social status

45
Prominence view
  • The selection and arrangement of the information
    that is expressed.
  • The car crashed into the tree.
  • The tree is hit by the car.

46
Attentional view
  • What we actually express reflects which parts of
    an event attract our attention.
  • The car crashed into the tree.
  • How the car started to swerve
  • How it skidded across the road
  • How it rumbled onto the verge.

47
3.1 Construal
  • Construal the ability to conceive and portray
    the same situation in different ways

48
  • 1. Attention / salience
  • We activate the most relevant concepts more than
    concepts that are irrelevant to what we are
    thinking about.
  • We drove the road.
  • She ran across the road.
  • The workers dug through the road.

49
  • 2. Judgment / Comparison, Figure / Ground
  • We cannot attend to all facets of a scene at the
    same time.
  • We cannot pay attention to everything. Instead,
    we focus on events of particular salience.
  • Figure-ground organization
  • The ground seems to be placed behind the figure
    extending in the background.
  • The figure is thus more prominent, or even more
    interesting, than the ground.

50
  • Figure-ground reversal

51
  • Figure-ground also seems to apply to our
    perception of moving objects.
  • In order to distinguish between stationary and
    dynamic figure-ground relations, some cognitive
    linguists (eg Ronald Langacker) use the term
    trajector for a moving figure and landmark for
    the ground of a moving figure.

52
  • Theres a catfigure on the matground
  • There are still some peanutsfigure in the
    bagground
  • Batmanfigure was standing on the roofground
  • The computerfigure under the tableground is
    mine
  • The spacecraftfigure was hovering over
    Metropolisground

53
  • Tarzantrajector jumped into the riverlandmark
  • Spidermantrajector climbed up the
    walllandmark
  • The birdtrajector winged its way out the
    windowlandmark
  • Wetrajector went across the fieldlandmark
  • Itrajectorm going to Londonlandmark

54
  • 3. Perspective generally depends on two things.
  • where we are situated in relation to the scene
    we're viewing.
  • how the scene is arranged in relation to our
    situatedness.
  • The man is in front of the tree.
  • The tree is behind the man.

55
  • The tree is in front of the man.
  • The man is behind the tree.

56
3.2 Categorization
  • The process of classifying our experiences into
    different categories based on commonalities and
    differences
  • A major ingredient in the creation of human
    knowledge
  • Allows us to relate present experiences to past
    ones
  • Three levels
  • basic level
  • superordinate level
  • subordinate level.

57
Basic level Superordinate level
Animal Horse Dog Cat
Chihuahua German dachshund
shepherdSubordinate level Vertical
organization
58
3.3 Image Schema
  • Johnson, Mark. 1987.The body in the mind The
    bodily basis of meaning, imagination, and reason.
    Chicago University of Chicago Press.

59
  • An image-schema is a skeletal mental
    representation of a recurrent pattern of embodied
    (especially spatial or kinesthetic) experience.
  • They are highly schematic representations of
    perceptually grounded experience.
  • They emerge from our embodied interactions with
    the world.

60
Center-periphery schema
  • Involves
  • a physical or metaphorical core and edge, and
  • degrees of distance from the core.
  • Examples (English)
  • The structure of an apple
  • An individuals perceptual sphere
  • An individuals social sphere, with family and
    friends at the core and others having degrees of
    peripherality

61
Containment schema
  • Involves a physical or metaphorical
  • boundary
  • enclosed area or volume, or
  • excluded area or volume.

62
  • Bodily experience human bodies as containers.
  • Structural elements interior, boundary, exterior
  • Basic logic For all A, X, either IN (X,A) or
    not.
  • For all A, B, X, if CONTAINER (A) and CONTAINER
    (B) and IN (A, B) and IN (X, A), then IN (X, B).
  • The ship is coming into view.
  • Shes deep in thought.
  • We stood in silence.

63
Cycle schema
  • Involves repetitious events and event series. Its
    structure includes the following
  • A starting point
  • A progression through successive events without
    backtracking
  • A return to the initial state
  • The schema often has superimposed on it a
    structure that builds toward a climax and then
    goes through a release or decline.

64
  • Examples (English)
  • Days
  • Weeks
  • Years
  • Sleeping and waking
  • Breathing
  • Circulation
  • Emotional buildup and release

65
End-of-path schema
  • An image schema in which a location is understood
    as the termination of a prescribed path
  • Example (English) In the following sentence, it
    is understood that one must traverse the hill
    before reaching Sams home, which is at the end
    of the path
  • Sam lives over the hill.

66
Force schema
  • Involves physical or metaphorical causal
    interaction. It includes the following elements
  • A source and target of the force
  • A direction and intensity of the force
  • A path of motion of the source and/or target
  • A sequence of causation

67
  • Examples (English)
  • Physical Wind, Gravity
  • Structural elements force, path, entity, etc.
  • Interaction, directionality, causality
  • Compulsion
  • Blockage
  • Counterforce
  • Diversion
  • Removal of restraint

68
Link schema
  • Consists of two or more entities, connected
    physically or metaphorically, and the bond
    between them.
  • Entity A Entity B

69
  • Examples (English)
  • A child holding her mothers hand
  • Someone plugging a lamp into the wall
  • A causal connection
  • Kinship ties

70
Part-whole schema
  • Involves physical or metaphorical wholes along
    with their parts and a configuration of the
    parts.
  • Examples (English)
  • Physical The body and its parts
  • Metaphorical The family
  • The caste structure of India

71
Path schema
  • Involves physical or metaphorical movement from
    place to place, and
  • consists of a starting point, a goal, and a
    series of intermediate points.

72
  • Examples (English)
  • Physical Paths Trajectories
  • Metaphorical The purpose-as-physical-goal
    metaphor, as expressed in the following
    sentences
  • Tom has gone a long way toward changing his
    personality.
  • You have reached the midpoint of your flight
    training.
  • She's just starting out to make her fortune.
  • Jane was sidetracked in her search for
    self-understanding.

73
Scale schema
  • Involves an increase or decrease of physical or
    metaphorical amount, and
  • consists of any of the following
  • A closed- or open-ended
  • progression of amount
  • A position in the progression
  • of amount
  • One or more norms of amount
  • A calibration of amount

74
  • Examples
  • Physical amounts
  • Properties in the number system
  • Economic entities such as supply and demand

75
Verticality schema
A
  • Involves up and down relations.
  • Examples
  • Standing upright
  • Climbing stairs
  • Viewing a flagpole
  • Watching water rise in a tub

B
76
3.4 Metaphor
  • George Lakoff and Mark Johnson (1980). Metaphors
    We Live By. University of Chicago Press.

77
Conceptual Metaphor Theory
  • Metaphors are actually cognitive tools that help
    us structure our thoughts and experiences in the
    world around us.
  • Metaphor is a conceptual mapping, not a
    linguistic one, from one domain to another, not
    from a word to another.

78
  • Target domain - what is actually being talked
    about.
  • Source domain - the domain used as a basis for
    understanding target
  • Ontological correspondence
  • Epistemic correspondence
  • Target domain Source domain

RATIONAL ARGUMENT
WAR
79
The epistemic correspondence
80
Example LIFE IS A JOURNEY
  • Ontological correspondence

81
Epistemic correspondence
82
Structural Metaphor
  • Provides rich highly structured, clearly
    delineated source domain to structure target
    domain.
  • The nature of the mapping The mapping involves
    two types of correspondence between target and
    source domain, which are both grounded in our
    experiences in the world.

83
  • Example
  • ARGUMENT IS WAR
  • Your claims are indefensible.
  • He attacked every weak point in my argument.
  • His criticisms were right on target.
  • I demolished his argument.
  • Ive never won an argument with him.
  • You disagree? OK, shoot!
  • If you use that strategy, hell wipe you out.
  • He shot down all of my arguments.

84
Orientational Metaphor
  • Gives a concept a spatial orientation
  • Characterized by a co-occurrence in our
    experience
  • Grounded in an experiential basis, which link
    together the two parts of the metaphor
  • The link verb is, part of the metaphor, should
    be seen as the link of two different co-occurring
    experiences.

85
  • For example,
  • MORE IS UP
  • This metaphor is grounded in the co-occurrence of
    two different kinds of experiences
  • adding more of a substance, and
  • perceiving the level of the substance rise.

86
  • Examples
  • HAPPY IS UP SAD IS DOWN
  • That boosted my spirits
  • Im feeling down
  • Im depressed
  • CONSCIOUS IS UP UNCONSCIOUS IS DOWN
  • Wake up
  • He fell asleep
  • Hes under hypnosis

87
3.5 Metonymy
  • It is a cognitive process in which one conceptual
    entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to
    another conceptual entity, the target, within the
    same domain.
  • The reference point activates the target.

88
  • It is modeled as
  • idealized cognitive models (ICMs) by Lakoff
    (1987),
  • conceptual mappings by Radden Kovecses (1999),
  • domain highlighting by Croft (2002),
  • combinations of mappings and highlighting by Ruiz
    de Mendoza (2000),
  • scenarios by Panther Thornburg (1999) and
  • more generally as reference-point activation by
    Langacker (1999) and Barcelona (2000).

89
  • On the basis of the ontological realms, we may
    distinguish three categories
  • the world of concept
  • the world of form
  • the world of things and events
  • They roughly correspond to the three entities
    that comprise the well-known semantic triangle.
  • The interrelations between entities of the same
    or from different ontological realms lead to
    various ICMs and possibilities for metonymy.
  • Thus, we have three ICMs in ontological realms
    Sign ICMs, Reference ICMs and Concept ICMs.

90
  • Two general conceptual configurations
  • whole ICM and its part(s)
  • parts of an ICM.
  • (1) Whole ICM and its part(s)
  • (i) Thing-and-Part ICM, which may lead to
  • two metonymic variants
  • WHOLE THING FOR A PART OR THE THING America for
    United States
  • PART OF A THNG FOR THE WHOLE THING England for
    Great Britain

91
  • (ii) Scale ICM. Scales are a special class of
    things and the scalar units are parts of them.
    Typically, a scale as a whole is used for its
    upper end and the upper end of a scale is used to
    stand for the scale as a whole
  • WHOLE SCALE FOR UPPER END OF THE SCALE Henry is
    speeding again for Henry is going too fast.
  • UPPER END OF A SCALE FOR WHOLE SCALE How old are
    you? for what is your age?

92
  • (iii) Constitution ICM. It involves matter,
    material or substances which are seen as
    constituting a thing.
  • OBJECT FOR MATERIAL CONSTITUTING THE OBJECT I
    smell skunk.
  • MATERIAL CONSTITUTING AN OBJECT FOR THE OBJECT
    wood for forest 

93
  • (iv) Event ICM. Events may be metaphorically
    viewed as things which may have parts.
  • WHOLE EVENT FOR SUBEVENT Bill smoked marijuana.
  • SUBEVENT FOR WHOLE EVENT Mary speaks Spanish.

94
  • (v) Category-and-Member ICM. A category and its
    members stand in a kind of relation.
  • CATEGORY FOR A MEMBER OF THE CATEGORY the pill
    for birth control pill
  • MEMBER OF A CATEGORY FOR THE CATEGORY aspirin
    for any pain-relieving tablet

95
  • (vi) Cateory-and-Property ICM. Properties may
    either be seen metaphorically as possessed
    objects (PROPERTIES ARE POSSESSIONS) or
    metonymically as parts of an object.
  • CATEGORY FOR DEFINING PROPERTY jerk for
    stupidity
  • DEFNING PROPERTY FOR CATEGORY blacks for black
    people

96
  • (vii) Reduction ICM. A final type of a PART FOR
    WHOLE metonymy is found in the reduction of the
    form of a sign.
  • PART OF A FORM FOR THE WHOLE FORM crude for
    crude oil

97
  • (2) Parts of an ICM
  • (i) Action ICM. It involves a variety of
    participants which may be related to the
    predicate expressing the action or to each other.
  • AGENT FOR ACTION to author a new book to
    butcher the cow
  • ACTION FOR AGENT writer, driver

98
  • INSTRUMENT FOR ACTION to ski, to hammer
  • ACTION FOR INSTRUMENT pencil sharpener
    screwdriver
  • OBJECT FOR ACTION to blanket the bed to dust
    the room
  • ACTION FOR OBJECT the best bites the flight is
    waiting to depart

99
  • RESULT FOR ACTION to landscape the garden
  • ACTION FOR RESULT the production the product
  • MANNER FOR ACTION to tiptoe into the room
  • MEANS FOR ACTION He sneezed the tissue off the
    table.

100
  • TIME FOR ACTION to summer in Paris
  • DESTINATION FOR MOTION to porch the newspaper
  • INSTRUMENT FOR AGENT the pen for writer

101
  • (ii) Perception ICM. Perception plays such an
    outstand role in our cognitive world that it
    merits an ICM of its own. Since perceptions may
    also be intentional, the Perception ICM may
    cross-classify with the Action ICM.
  • THING PERCEIVED FOR PERCEPTION There goes my
    knee for There goes the pain in my knee
  • PERCEPTION FOR THING PERCEIVED sight for thing
    seen

102
  • (iii) Causation ICM. Cause and effect are so
    closely interdependent that one of them tends to
    imply the other. Moreover, they probably account
    for the fact that people often confuse causes and
    effects. In principle, the causation ICM may give
    rise to reversible metonymies
  • CAUSE FOR EFFECT healthy complexion for the
    good state of health bringing about the effect of
    healthy complexion
  • EFFECT FRO CAUSE slow road for slow traffic
    resulting from the poor state of the road

103
  • (iv) Production ICM. It involves actions in which
    one of the participants is a product created by
    the action. The production of objects seems to be
    a particularly salient type of causal action.
  • PRODUCTION FOR PRODUCT Ive got a Ford for car

104
  • INSTRUMENT FOR PRODUCT Did you hear the whistle?
    For its sound
  • PRODUCT FOR INSTRUMENT to turn up the heat for
    the radiator
  • PLACE FOR PROCUCT MADE THERE china, mocha,
    camembert

105
  • (v) Control ICM. It includes a controller and a
    person or object controlled. It gives rise to
    reversible metonymic relationships
  • CONTROLLER FOR CONTROLLED Nixon bombed Hanoi.
  • CONTROLLED FOR CONTROLLER The Mercedes has
    arrived.

106
  • (vi) Possession ICM. The possession ICM may lead
    to reversible metonymies
  • POSSESSOR FOR POSSESSED Thats me for my bus
    I am parked there for My car
  • POSSESSED FOR POSSESSOR He married money for
    person with money

107
  • (vii) Containment ICM. The image-schematic
    situation of containment is so basic and
    well-entrenched that it deserves to be treated as
    an ICM of its own among locational relations.
  • CONTAINER FOR CONTENTS The bottle is sour for
    milk
  • CONTENTS FOR CONTAINER The milk tipped over for
    the milk container tipped over

108
  • (viii) Location ICMs. Places are often associated
    with people living there, well-known institutions
    located there, events which occur or occurred
    there and goods produced or shipped from there.
    Hence, we find the following metonymies
  • PLACE FOR INHABITANTS The whole town showed up
    for the people
  • INHABITANTS FOR PLACE The French hosted the
    World Cup Soccer Games for France

109
  • PLACE FOR INSTITUTION Cambridge wont publish
    the book for Cambridge University Press
  • INSTITUTION FOR PLACE I live close to the
    University.
  • PLACE FOR EVENT Waterloo for battle fought at
    Waterloo
  • EVENT FOR PLACE Battle, name of the village in
    East Sussex where the Battle of Hastings was
    fought.

110
  • (ix) Sign and Reference ICMs. They lead to
    metonymies cross-cutting ontological realms. In
    sign metonymy, a (word-)form stand for a
    conventionally associated concept in reference
    metonymies, a sign, concept or (word-)form stands
    for the real thing.
  • WORDS FOR THE CONCEPTS THEY EXPRESS a
    self-contradictory utterance

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  • (x) Modification ICM. It mainly applies to
    variant forms of a sign apart from reduction.
  • SUBSTITUTE FORM FOR ORIGINAL FORM Do you still
    love me? Yes, I do.

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3.6 Blending Theory
  • Also known as the integration theory, proposed by
    Gilles Fauconnier Mark Turner (1994, 1995).
  • A cognitive operation whereby elements of two or
    more mental spaces are integrated via
    projection into a new, blended space which has
    its unique structure.

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  • Blending operates on two input mental spaces to
    produce a third space, the blend.
  • The blend inherits partial structure from the
    input spaces and has emergent structure of its
    own.
  • There are some conditions needed when two input
    spaces I1 and I2 are blended

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  • Cross-Space Mapping there is a partial mapping
    of counterparts between the input spaces I1 and
    I2.

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  • Generic Space It maps onto each of the inputs.
  • It reflects some common, usually more abstract,
    structure and organization shared by the inputs.
  • It defines the core cross-space mapping between
    them.

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  • Blend the inputs I1 and I2 are partially
    projected onto a fourth space, the blend.

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  • Emergent Structure the blend has emergent
    structure not provided by the inputs. This
    happens in three interrelated ways
  • Composition Taken together, the projections from
    the inputs make new relations available that did
    not exist in the separate inputs.
  • Completion Knowledge of background frames,
    cognitive and cultural models, allows the
    composite structure projected into the blend from
    the inputs to be viewed as part of a larger
    self-contained structure in the blend.
    Elaboration The structure in the blend can then
    be elaborated.

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