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Safety and EMC Rules and Regualtions

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Title: Safety and EMC Rules and Regualtions


1
Regulatory Compliance An Introduction to Rules
and Regulations and Best EMC Practices Scope and
objectives Date April, 22 2009
2
Introduction
This presentation is presented by Chaman
Bhardwaj Sr. Engineer, Global Compliance SHURE
Incorporated. Dated April 22, 2009
3
Rules regulations
  • There are the following types of Rules
  • Regulations.
  • Mandatory Laws imposed by the
  • government are mandatory. For
  • example, FCC-15, FCC-74, and FCC-
  • 90 etc.
  • Recommendatory Product
  • Safety rules.
  • Contractual Laws These are agreed
  • upon between the supplier and buyer
  • of products.

4
Terms and Definitions
  • European Directive
  • Legal Document adopted by EC (EU Commission)
    Council of Ministers
  • Must be adopted into National Law by each EC
    member state
  • Does not call out technical standards refers to
    private standards-making bodies to draw up
    product standards
  • European Norm (EN)
  • Harmonized Standard Common Standard used for
    determining conformity
  • Committee process
  • ENs based on existing standards (CISPR, IEC)
  • Must be adopted into National Standards by each
    EC Member state
  • CENELEC (Comite Europeen de Normalisation
    Electrotechnique)
  • European Committee for Electrotechnical
    Standardization responsible for generating
    European Norms
  • CE Communaute Europeenne
  • CISPR Comite International Special des
    Perturbations Radioelectriques or in English the
    International Special Committee on Radio
    Interference

5
New approach directives
  • Objective Elimination of Technical Barriers
  • New Approach calls out Essential Requirements
  • Technical Details Left to Committees
  • Harmonization of European Norms (Standards)
  • CENELEC
  • Conformity to European Norms demonstrates
    compliance
  • Products meeting essential requirements eligible
    for CE Marking

6
Scope of New EMC DirectiveDirective
2004/108/EC
Article 1 1. This Directive regulates the
electromagnetic compatibility of equipment. It
aims to ensure the functioning of the
internal market by requiring equipment to comply
with an adequate level of electromagnetic
compatibility. This Directive applies
to equipment as defined in Article 2. 2. This
Directive shall not apply to (a) equipment
covered by Directive 1999/5/EC
7
Article 2 of New Approach EMC Directive
Definitions 1. For the purposes of this
Directive, the following definitions shall
apply (a) equipment means any apparatus or
fixed installation (b) apparatus means any
finished appliance or combination thereof made
commercially available as a single
functional unit, intended for the end user and
liable to generate electromagnetic disturbance,
or the performance of which is liable to be
affected by such disturbance (c) fixed
installation means a particular combination
of several types of apparatus and, where
applicable, other
8
Article 2, Continued
devices, which are assembled, installed and
intended to be used permanently at a predefined
location (d) electromagnetic compatibility
means the ability of equipment to function
satisfactorily in its electromagnetic
environment without introducing intolerable
electromagnetic disturbances to other equipment
in that environment and so on ..
9
Essential requirements Article 5
  • Apparatus
  • Electromagnetic disturbances generated do not
    exceed level to interfere with operation of
    radio, telecommunications or other equipment
  • Has a level of immunity to electromagnetic
    disturbances expected in its intended
    environment
  • Fixed installations
  • Use good engineering practices with a view to
    meeting apparatus requirements. Document those
    practices with the documentation on file as long
    as installation is in operation.

10
Equipment Exclusions
11
Flow Chart Notes
  • 1. Equipment without electrical or electronic
    parts is except
  • 2. Excluded
  • RTTE (covered by 1999/5/EC)
  • Aeronautical parts, products and appliances
  • Radio equipment used by radio amateurs
  • 3. Equipment covered by other specific community
    directives
  • Motor vehicles (2004/104/EC)
  • Medical devices (various directives)
  • Marine equipment (6/98/EC)
  • Agricultural and forestry tractors (75/332/EEC)
  • Two or three wheeled motor vehicles (97/24/EC)
  • Measuring instruments (immunity excluded see
    2004/22/EC)
  • Non-automatic weighing instruments (immunity
    excluded see 90/334/EEC)
  • 4. Inherently benign equipment
  • Incapable of generating or contributing to
    emissions
  • Operate without degradation in the presence of
    EMI normally present
  • 5. Apparatus or fixed installation
    classification (to flowchart 4)

12
CE MARKING
  • There is no such thing as a CE approval or CE
    certification!
  • CE is not a mark or approval, its a marking
    which is only a self declaration under the
    suppliers own responsibility.

13
CE DIRECTIVES
  • Directives tell us why we must comply (consumer
    safety / EMC) and what may happen if we ignore
    laws (withdraw products).
  • Its the European standards that show us how to
    comply (design and assessment).

14
Implementation of CE marking
  • Implementation of the CE Marking
  • Must be affixed to
  • Product
  • Packaging
  • Instructions for use, OR
  • Guarantee certificate
  • Can be used with other marks providing they do
    not reduce the visibility and legibility of the
    mark
  • The marking may include
  • The identification of a notified body involved in
    assessment

15
Europa Web site
  • http//eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?
    uriOJC200828000140032ENPDF

16
On line Implementation Guide
17
Safety Standards
  • IEC 60065 7th edition
  • IEC 60950 2000
  • IEC 60065 Standard
  • Title Audio, Video and similar Electronic
    Apparatus, Safety Requirements
  • IEC 60950 Standard
  • Title Safety of Information Technology
    Equipment

18
Scope of Safety Standards
  • Scope of IEC 60065
  • International Safety Standard applies to
    electronic apparatus designed to be fed from
    MAINS, from a SUPPLY APPARATUS, from Batteries or
    from REMOTE POWER FEEDING and intended for
    reception, generation or reproduction
    respectively of audio, video and associated
    signals. It also applies to apparatus designed to
    be used exclusively in combination with above
    mentioned apparatus.


19
Scope of Safety Standards
  • Scope of IEC 60950
  • This standard is applicable to mains-powered
    ITE, including electrical business equipment and
    associated equipment, with RATED Voltage not
    exceeding 600V.
  • This standard is also applicable to such ITE
    designed and intended to be connected directly
    to TELECOMMINICATION NETWORK, regardless of the
    source of power
  • It is also applicable to such ITE designed to
    use the AC mains Supply a telecommunication
    transmission medium

20
Principles of Safety
  • Electric Shock
  • Excessive Temperatures
  • Radiation (ionization and Lasers)
  • Implosion (Picture Tubes)
  • Mechanical hazards
  • Fire
  • Chemical hazard

21
Energy Efficiency and Environmental Regulations
  • Energy Efficiency Rules and Regulations
  • USA
  • California Energy Commission (CEC) regulations
    for external Power supplies.
  • ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND SECURITY ACT OF 2007.
    Also called PUBLIC LAW 110140DEC. 19, 2007,
    Effective July 2008
  • Europe
  • Code of Conduct (Its a voluntary standard at
    this time). It is similar to CEC rules.
  • Directive 2005/32/EC, ECO Design

22
Energy Efficiency Requirements continued..
  • Australia New Zeeland
  • Per Standard AS/NZS 4665.12005 and AS/NZS
    4665.22005. These are similar to Tier I
    requirements of CEC and effective date for these
    requirements is October 1st, 2007. Tier II has
    not been on the horizon as of today for this
    market.
  • China, Japan and S. Korea
  • watch out for updates

23
External Power Supplies EE limits
24
New Ecodesign EE requirements for Europe
25
Environmental Regulations
  • RoHS (Restrictions of Hazardous Substances
  • USA
  • California Proposition 65 and OSHA Regulations
  • Europe
  • Per ROHS and WEEE directives
  • RoHS-Directive 2002/95/EC
  • WEEE-Directive 2002/96/EC for consumer
    electronics items and there is another directive
    for consumer batteries, Directive 2006/66/EC
    dated September 6, 2006
  • China and other Asian countries
  • Watch out for upcoming news, for China it will be
    in phases I and II etc.

26
EMI and EMC regulations
  • EMC issues have been around since radio
  • USA Communications Act of 1934
  • Regulation of EMC started after WWII.
  • Military, aircraft EMC standards
  • Automotive EMC standards
  • Medical EMC standards
  • Personal computers spurred emissions rules
    starting 1979.
  • EMC Directive required commercial immunity
    regulations by 1996.

27
EMC Rules and Regulations
  • EMC Directive 89/336/EEC
  • mandatory 1992 (delayed to 1996)
  • first standards harmonized 1996
  • EMC Directive 2004/108EEC
  • mandatory July 20, 2008
  • R TTE Directive 1999/5/EC (radio/telecom)
  • safety, including RF exposure
  • EMC
  • protection of spectrum

28
Immunity Requirements Standards
Electrostatic discharge IEC 61000-4-2 RF
radiated immunity IEC 61000-4-3 Fast transient
burst (EFT/B) IEC 61000-4-4 Lightning induced
surge IEC 61000-4-5 RF conducted immunity IEC
61000-4-6 Harmonics/ interharmonics IEC
61000-4-7 Radiated magnetic immunity IEC
61000-4-8 Pulsed magnetic immunity IEC
61000-4-9 Damped oscillatory magnetic
IEC 61000-4-10 Voltage dips/interrupts IEC
61000-4-11 a guide, not a standard
29
EMC Environment

Class A
non-residential
industrial
residential, commercial, light industrial
Class B
residential
Emissions increase
Immunity disturbances increase
30
EMC Environment
  • Emissions
  • radiated
  • conducted
  • low-frequency
  • high-frequency
  • Immunity
  • compliance criteria
  • radiated conducted phenomena

31
EMC Environment
Where does undesired EMI enter/exit?
32
EMC Environment
How undesired EMI happen?
33
EMC environment - radiated
Important to remember!
Interference from unintentional radiators does
not usually come from the clock frequency, but
from harmonics of the clock frequency.
34
EMC- Conducted Emissions
Low frequency ( 0 - 2 kHz) Harmonics flicker high
frequency (150 kHz - 30 MHz)

35
EMC Environment Radiated
  • Intentional radiators
  • radio/TV stations
  • remote controls
  • paging, cell phones
  • Wi-Fi hotspots
  • Unintentional radiators
  • digital electronics
  • microwave ovens
  • appliances

36
EMC Environment Radiated

Comparison of maximum radiated interference field
strength at 10 meters for FCC and CISPR
specifications.
37
AC Power- Conducted Emissions
  • Considered a threat because power cord can be an
  • effective antenna at low frequencies.
  • Also, power cord couples radio noise into AC
    power
  • network.

38
Immunity
  • compliance criteria
  • phenomena

39
Immunity compliance criteria
Performance criterion A - The apparatus shall
continue to operate as intended during and after
the test. Performance criterion B - The
apparatus shall continue to operate as intended
after the test. Performance criterion C -
Temporary loss of function is allowed, provided
the loss of function is self recoverable or can
be restored by the operation of the controls.
40
The design process
Typical Steps or phases of design process
41
The design process
Concept the idea Target specifications the
details (include functional and regulatory -
EMC) System architecture the structure and
details - EMC Design rules the circuit and
layout constraints- EMC Initial
design build it Functional evaluation does it
work? If not, modify. Regulatory evaluation is it
legal? If not modify - EMC Release it meets the
(modified) specs.
42
The design process- check
Target specifications the details (include
functional and regulatory - EMC) - Are
all the jurisdictions specified? -
Have the requirements changed? - Is
the environment correct?
43
The design process
System architecture the structure and details
EMC -How many layers in PCBs? -Are reactive
circuits located away from I/O ports? -Are
I/O ports isolated/shielded? -Are IC families
appropriate for speeds needed? -Will housing
provide shielding?
44
Design for compliance
  • Initial Design must consider the following
  • design goals
  • Components
  • PCB architecture
  • PCB layout and I/O
  • Cables
  • enclosures and shielding
  • software/firmware

45
The design process
Design rules the circuit and layout constraints
EMC - Are RF signal traces short and/ or
embedded? - Are bypass caps located and sized
optimally? - Are ground planes low-Z, and earth
bypass provided? - Have sensitive designs been
modeled? -Consider use of Signal Integrity and
Quiet expert, EMC Flo simulation tools
46
Design for compliance software and firmware

Design for robustness -
checkpoint routines and watchdog timers. -
checksums, error detection/correction codes. -
sanity checks of measured values. - poll status
of ports, sensors, actuators. - read/write to
digital ports to validate.
47
The design process
  • To increase the EMC success rate, the design
    process
  • must have following checks
  • Be sure the regulatory specifications are correct
    and current.
  • Take into account the impact of equipment
    architecture
  • on EMC. Assure that purchased modules also
    comply.
  • Consider EMC design rules, manual and/or
    automatic.
  • Include places for EMC compliance modifications.
  • Perform pre-compliance testing where possible.

48
The design process
Regulatory evaluation is it legal? If not modify
EMC - Were places provided for optional
filtering/bypassing? - Are ferrites
cost-effective? - Can spring fingers be added
to the enclosure? - Will a shielded cable
help? - Board re-spin?
49
Design for compliance logic families
  • EMI increases with power consumption
  • EMI increases with slew rate/clock speed
  • EMI increases with ground bounce
  • EMI increases with output loading
  • Differential drive can reduce EMI (LVDS)

50
Design for compliancePCB architecture
  • Adjacent ground and power planes act as very good
    decoupling capacitors.
  • ground and power planes can shield high-speed or
    low-level signal traces between.
  • separate ground and chassis planes can reduce
    noise.
  • 16-planes (layers) design is common for back
    planes

51
Design for compliance reduce emissions
  • Short straight current elements radiate fields
    that are
  • Proportional to the current they carry (l)
  • Proportional to their (electrical) length (L)
  • Increasing with frequency (f)
  • Small current loops radiate fields that are
  • Proportional to the current
  • Proportional to the square of the loop radius --
    and the square of frequency

(E,H) (f, L, l)
(E,H) (f2, a2, l)
52
Design for compliance
  • Locate I/O drivers away from sources of high
    frequency and near the connectors they serve.


Clock
I/O Driver
Edge Connector
Clock Buffer
53
Design for compliance

Cables
54
Common Mode and Differential Signals
  • Differential Signals
  • Convey the desired information
  • Dont cause interference The fields generated by
    differential currents oppose each other and
    nearly cancel.
  • Common Mode Signals
  • Are the major source of cable radiation
  • Have no useful purpose
  • Cause the cabling to act as a monopole antenna

55
Design for compliance

Shielding
56
Design for compliance enclosure openings

Radiated Signal
57
Design for compliance aperture size and
shielding effectiveness

58
Design for complianceshielding of I/O, using
chassis

Signal Ground
59
Test for Compliance
  • pre-compliance EMI site
  • pre-compliance tools

60
Pre-compliance tools
To pre-test for RF immunity use licensed
transmitters for radiated fields. use coupling
networks and transformers for conducted
disturbances. To mitigate RF immunity
problems try ferrites and spring fingers above
50 MHz try filters below 50 MHz, bypassing
anywhere.
61
Pre-compliance EMI sites
  • 1 m site
  • minimizes factory ambient.
  • good for small EUT, frequencies 100 MHz.
  • screened room
  • inexpensive, OK for regulatory conducted
    emissions and conducted immunity tests.
  • can be used for radiated emissions, with
    precautions.

62
Pre-compliance EMI site
Pre-Compliance test setup
1 m
analyzer
EUT
floor - not a ground plane
63
Pre-compliance tools
  • Immunity
  • disturbance generators (ESD, surge)
  • radio transmitters
  • ferrites
  • filters and filtered connectors

64
Pre-compliance tools
  • EMI
  • cable manipulation
  • ferrites
  • filters and filtered connector
  • EMI probes

65
Pre-compliance testingEMI probes

50 ? cable to analyzer 39 pF capacitor
on center conductor
contact probe
Contact probes are useful in finding - reactive
component pins - reactive PC board traces and
planes - reactive I/O and connector pins -
driven areas of enclosures
66
Pre-compliance testingEMI probes

50 ?? cable to analyzer center conductor
looped back to shield and soldered
proximity probe
Proximity probes are useful in localizing -
reactive PC board areas and components -
reactive signal, I/O and power cables - reactive
enclosure gaps and openings - by pumping signal
in, as immunity probe
67
Pre-compliance testingradio transmitters
CB radio 27 MHz Portable phone handset 49 MHz
/2500 MHz Garage door opener 300
MHz Walkie-talkie 460 MHz Cell phone,
analog/TDMA 900 MHz Cell phone, PCS 1900
MHz Wireless LAN 2450 MHz
68
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