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Safety Fundamentals

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Title: Safety Fundamentals


1
Safety Fundamentals
 
Graphic from www.glenngraphics.com
2
This module on Safety Fundamentals is divided
into three sections
  • Standards
  • Occupational Health Safety
  • Personal Protective Equipment

3
Well start here
  • Standards
  • Occupational Health Safety
  • Personal Protective Equipment

4
Whos who in the Standards world?
  • Firstly, what are standards?
  • Standards are documented agreements that
    establish technical specifications and other
    precise criteria to ensure that materials,
    products, processes and services are fit for
    their purpose

5
Definition cond
  • Standards ensure
  • the compatibility of products for performance
  • for example, that all credit cards have the same
    thickness, or that a CD you buy in Europe can be
    played on your CD player in Canada
  • The quality of products
  • The safety / reliability of products
  • By applying standards, organizations and
    manufacturers help ensure that their products and
    services are consistent, compatible, safe, and
    effective.

6
Starting at the top ISO
7
ISO
  • A worldwide federation of national standards
    bodies from 145 countries.
  • A non-governmental organization established in
    1947
  • Mission to promote the development of
    standardization in the world

8
ISO cond
  • ISO is made up of member bodies
  • A member body of ISO is the national body that is
    most representative of standardization in its
    country
  • The technical work of ISO is carried out by 2850
    technical committees and subcommittees.
  • The major responsibility of administrating a
    standards committee (committees that develop ISO
    standards) is accepted by one of the national
    member bodies.

9
ISO cond
  • Only one member body per country, please!
  • Canadas member body to the ISO is the Standards
    Council of Canada (SCC)
  • United States member body to the ISO is the
    American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

10
So now there were three…
(Other countries member bodies to the ISO)
11
Standards Council of Canada - SCC
  • Heres how they describe themselves
  • The SCC is the focal point for standardization
    and conformity assessment in Canada. We dont
    develop standards or verify the conformity of
    products or services to standards, but we
    accredit the organizations that do

12
Whoa! Time out for more definitions!
  • Conformity Assessment the process of
    determining whether a product, process, service,
    or system meets the requirements of an applicable
    a standard.
  • Company XYZ develops a new light bulb.
    Conformity assessment would determine whether the
    new light bulb meets all the applicable standards
    that define light bulb characteristics, quality,
    safety, etc.

13
Definitions cond
  • Accreditation formal recognition of the
    competence of an organization to perform a
    particular function or carry out specific tasks.
  • So, when the SCC accredits an organization, it is
    putting its official stamp of approval on that
    organization that actually does the work of
    developing standards and testing products to see
    that they meet international standards
    (conformity assessment).

14
Okay, back to the SCC…
  • In addition, SCC
  • represents Canada in the ISO
  • Oversees Canadas National Standards System
  • The National Standards System is organizations
    and individuals involved in voluntary standards
    development, promotion, and implementation in
    Canada.
  • calls itself Canadas best source for standards
    information.

15
American National Standards Institute - ANSI
  • Heres how they describe themselves
  • ANSI is a private, non-profit organization that
    administrates and coordinates the voluntary
    standardization and conformity assessment systems
    in the U.S.

16
ANSI cond
  • Parallel to the SCC, ANSI also
  • represents the United States on the ISO
  • Is a good source for standards information
  • Like the SCC, one of ANSIs important functions
    is accreditation. ANSI and SCC both accredit
    standard developers and certification bodies.

17
Just to be clear…
  • Standard Developers those organizations or
    individuals that actually develop the standards
    for quality, safety, use, etc.
  • Certification Bodies those organizations or
    individuals that carry out conformity assessment,
    or certify that a product or service meets the
    applicable standards.
  • Often, one organization will be both a Standards
    Developer and a Certification Body.

18
So who do they accredit?
  • SCC accredits over 300 organizations
  • ANSI accredits some 270 organizations
  • They include
  • Standard developers
  • Certification organizations
  • Testing and calibration laboratories
  • And others…

19
The big ones
  • Accredited organizations include
  • In Canada,
  • Canadian Standards
  • Association (CSA)
  • Underwriters Laboratories
  • of Canada (ULC)
  • In the U.S.,
  • Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

20
So now there were six…
The parent body ?
Member Bodies of the ISO ? Oversee standardiza- t
ion and accredit the organizatns below ?
Other countries member bodies to the ISO
Other standard developers and certification
bodies
Accredited Organizations ? Standards
developers and certification bodies
21
The bottom right corner of the picture
Other standard developers and certification
bodies
  • SCC and ANSI also accredit organizations that
    develop standards and certify products specific
    to your current or future engineering discipline.
  • For example,
  • Canadian Plywood Association American Society of
    Agricultural Engineers
  • American Society of Civil Engineers American
    Society of Mechanical Engineers
  • American Society of Safety Engineers Institute
    of Electrical Electronics Engineers
  • Institute of Industrial Engineers Society of
    Automotive Engineers

22
An overview of CSA
  • Canadian Standards Association (CSA)
  • is a non-profit association
  • works in Canada and around the world to develop
    standards that enhance public safety health,
    preserve the environment, and facilitate trade
  • tests products for compliance to national and
    international standards, and issues certification
    marks to qualified products

23
Time-out! Yet another definition…
  • Certification marks tell potential customers and
    users that a product has been evaluated by a
    formal process. It has been tested by experts
    and meets recognized standards for safety and
    performance.

24
CSA cond
  • The CSA certification mark appears on over one
    billion products worldwide.
  • Electrical, electronics telecommunications
    Occupational health safety Health care Sports
    recreation Business environmental
    management Construction building products…
  • Everything from adhesive labels to… bicycle
    helmets to…fire alarms to…panelboards to…CT
    scanners to…information technology to…water
    heaters.
  • To see the full range of CSA-certified products,
    go to http//directories.csa-international.org

25
And overview of UL and ULC
  • Underwriters Laboratories (UL) and Underwriters
    Laboratories of Canada (ULC)
  • are non-profit organizations
  • carry out product safety testing,certification,
    and standards development

26
UL / ULC cond
  • The UL and ULC certification marks appear on
    billions of products worldwide.

UL and ULC investigate and tests thousands of
types of products, materials, constructions, and
systems to evaluate electric, fire, and casualty
hazards burglar resistance or ability to
detect, control, or limit fires. From home
appliances to… firefighting equipment to…
ultrasound machines… to plumbing
27
What does a Standard look like, and where do you
find them?
  • Standards are published documents, usually
    available on their own or compiled, by similar
    topics, into books.
  • Finding out about a standard and finding the
    right document can be challenging.
  • The websites of standard developers are good
    places to start looking for standards (see later
    slide for listings)
  • Talk to someone knowledgeable in the field
    students, your profs are good resources
  • Use the university libraries

28
Some typical Standards
  • Remember, Standards regulate product performance,
    quality, and safety
  • For example, from CSA

CAN/CSA-Z267-00 Safety Code for Amusement Rides
Devices This Standard provides requirements for
the design, manufacture, construction,
modification, erection and dismantling,
operation, inspecting, testing, and maintenance
of amusement devices and rides.
29
  • From Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC)

CAN/ULC-S701-01 Polystyrene Boards and Pipe
Coverings
  • From Underwriters Laboratories (UL)

UL-48 Standard for Electric Signs
30
  • From American Society of Civil Engineers

SEI/ASCE 7-02 Minimum Design Loads for
Buildings And Other Structures (BOOK)
 
  • From American Society of Agricultural Engineers

 
  • ASAE Standards 2003, S365.5 JAN01 (Safety)
    Braking system test procedures and braking
    performance criteria for agricultural field
    equipment
  • (Book)

sorry, graphic not available
31
  • From Society of Automotive Engineers

sorry, graphic not available
  • AS9100 Quality Systems - Aerospace - Model for
    Quality Assurance in Design, Development,
    Production, Installation and Servicing
  •  

 
  • From American Society of Mechanical Engineers

 
  • OM-1998
  • Code for the Operation and Maintenance of
    Nuclear Power Plants

32
So…are we done…?
  • Just one more thing!
  • Lets go back to the ISO for a minute.
  • The scope of ISO is not limited to any particular
    branch. It covers all technical fields except
    electrical and electronic engineering standards,
    which is the responsibility of the International
    Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)

33
International Electrotechnical Commission
  • The IEC has parallel functions to the ISO.
  • It serves as the global parent body for
    standardization in electrical, electronic, and
    related technologies.
  • The work of standard development and conformity
    assessment is once again carried out by member
    bodies.

 
34
IEC cond
  • Again, only one member body per country, please!
  • Canadas member body to the IEC is the Standards
    Council of Canada (SCC)
  • United States member body to the IEC is the
    American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

35
So now the picture looks like this…
The parent bodies ?
Member Bodies of the ISO IEC ?
Oversee standardiza- tion and accredit
the organizatns below ?
Other countries member bodies to the ISO and IEC
Other standard developers and certification
bodies
Accredited Organizations ? Standards
developers and certification bodies
36
Now were done with Standards.
  • To learn more
  • International Organization for Standardization
    (ISO) www.iso.ch
  • International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)
    www.iec.ch
  • Standards Council of Canada (SCC) www.scc.ca
  • American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
    www.ansi.org
  • Canadian Standards Association (CSA) www.csa.ca
  • Underwriters Laboratories (UL) www.ul.com
  • Underwriters Laboratories of Canada (ULC)
    www.ulc.ca

37
…and just a couple more…
  • American Society of Agricultural Engineers
    www.asae.org
  • American Society of Civil Engineers
    www.asce.org
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers
    www.asme.org
  • American Society of Safety Engineers
    www.asse.org
  • Institute of Electrical Electronics Engineers
    www.ieee.org
  • Institute of Industrial Engineers
    www.iienet.org
  • Society of Automotive Engineers www.sae.org
  • And there are more…
  • …but well stop here.
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