Techniques of Supervision Winthrop University - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


PPT – Techniques of Supervision Winthrop University PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 2dad2-NzNhO


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation

Techniques of Supervision Winthrop University


Cindy Johnson-Taylor Ph.D. Techniques of Supervision. 2. EDLD 602. Techniques of Supervision ... Commissioned a literature review Leading School Improvement: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:2231
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 112
Provided by: sondra2
Learn more at:


Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Techniques of Supervision Winthrop University

Techniques of Supervision Winthrop University
  • Introduce yourself to the person beside you and
    tell him/her why you are here.

  • Review of Syllabus
  • Restrooms
  • Breaks
  • Food
  • Punctuality
  • Ground Rules

SOLO Rubric
  • Extended Abstract
  • Relational
  • Multistructural
  • Unistructural
  • Prestructural

SOLO Rubric
  • Extended Abstract
  • Relational
  • Multistructural
  • Unistructural
  • Prestructural
  • Only Relational and Extended Abstract
  • are acceptable for graduate students.

Graduate Conceptual Framework
  • Leadership
  • Scholarship
  • Service

Changing Schools Through Changing Leadership
  • What Successful School Leaders need to know and
    be able to do
  • Research from SREB
  • Commissioned a literature review Leading School
    Improvement What the Research Says
  • Interviewed Exemplary School Leaders
  • Convened national, state, university and school
  • Wrote Preparing a New Breed of School Principal
    Its Time For Action

Good Leadership
  • Do you feel that good leadership is an essential
    ingredient of high-performing schools and
    high-achieving students?
  • Good to Great Jim Collins
  • Good is the enemy of great and that is one of
    the key reasons few schools ever become great.

Preparing a New Breed of School Principals
13 Characteristics and Behaviors of
Wildly Successful Leaders

…process by which teachers , individually or
collectively, influence their colleagues,
principals, and other members of the school
communities to improve teaching and learning
practices with the aim of increased student
learning and achievement. York-Barr Duke, 2004
Educational change depends on what teachers do
and think. Its as simple and as complex as
that. Michael Fullan
  • Focus on Teaching Learning
  • __________________________________________________
  • Improve teacher quality
  • Advocate for students
  • Sustain focus on student learning

  • Promote Collaboration
  • __________________________________________________
  • Distribute leadership among many rather than a
  • Diverse leadership styles
  • Reduce power struggles

  • Organizational Support
  • __________________________________________________
  • Better use of limited resources
  • Retain talented teachers

Principals must disavow themselves of the notion
that they must be leader for each person in the
school. Instead they entrust and enable all
staff to grow meaningful relationships with one
another. Gordy Donaldson, 2000
Leadership is about relationships.
  • This is a community meeting held at 7PM in a
    school cafeteria.
  • The community is in an uproar your high school
    just received the NCLB Report Card and it isnt

  • Present are
  • Principal
  • Assistant principal
  • District office curriculum specialist
  • District office testing specialist
  • Teachers
  • Parents
  • Students from student council
  • President, local Chamber of Commerce

If Only. . .
  • Student achievement and learning at our school
    would increase if only. . .

High-Expectation Classrooms
  • More time spent on learning
  • Clear goals and performance criteria
  • Belief that all students can do the work
  • Require students to think and reflect, analyze,
    synthesize and evaluate
  • Use a variety of methods and materials
  • Communicate a joy for learning
  • Time provided for cooperative work and trying out
    various learning strategies
  • A sense of teamwork exists
  • Learning is connected to childrens lives

Low-Expectation Classrooms
  • More time on discipline, classroom management
  • Movement is from chapter to chapter goals
    arent present or are not tied to standards
  • Emphasis on working quietly, following
    directions, and using teacher-shown strategies
  • Fewer opportunities for students to try different
    learning strategies
  • Students asked to recall facts, follow simple
    procedures, answer true/false or matching items
  • Low-level tasks are common true/false, etc.
  • Lack of enthusiasm and optimism
  • Harder-to-engage students are ignored
  • Focus on isolated skills

What We Know About Classroom Practice
  • Information gathered from teachers and students
    surveyed in hundreds of schools throughout the
    SREB region found that their students, when
    compared with the rest of the nation
  • Were assigned less group or partner work in math
  • Were assigned fewer projects in math
  • Wrote less about how to solve problems in math

More about Classroom Practice
  • Believed math is mostly about memorizing facts
  • Designed and carried out fewer scientific
  • Gave fewer oral reports in science
  • Had fewer discussions about material they had
  • In short, students were given fewer
    opportunities to deepen their understanding
    through application.

How We Can Improve
  • What Kentucky teachers and school leaders said
    made them able to show consistent improvement in
    student achievement over six years
  • 87 Curriculum more aligned with
  • 70 Strong school leadership
  • 70 Faculty working together
  • 50 Better instruction
  • 43 Better diagnosis of student needs
  • 38 Better professional development

If Only. . .
  • Student achievement and learning at our school
    would increase if only we would. . .

Welcome Back
  • What are we doing for dinner tonight?
  • Review of Course Orientation Questions?
  • Conclude If Only activity
  • Where are we going?

Oliva, Chapter 1 Historical Approaches
  • Chart, Page 5
  • Inspection to present
  • Main idea The role of the supervisor in public
    schools has expanded

Oliva, Chapter 1 Supervision Defined
  • Supervisors must leave their offices for the
    purpose of helping others do their job better
  • Supervideo to oversee Latin
  • Not evaluation !!!
  • Definitions from text
  • What is your definition?

Oliva, Chapter 1 Complications to Supervision
  • Concepts of Supervision
  • Effective Teaching
  • Mandates from the State Level
  • Tensions between Teachers and Supervisors
  • Others from your experience?

Oliva, Chapter 1
Who Are The Supervisors
Oliva, Chapter 1 More on Supervision
  • William Burton, 1922, page 19
  • Harris, 1972, page 20
  • Snyder, 1997, page 20
  • Domains of Supervision
  • Roles of Supervision
  • Personal Traits
  • Knowledge and Skills
  • Describe the current state of instructional
    supervision in your school

Supervision Quotes
  • Unfortunately, principals are often as
    beleaguered and time-pressed as their central
    office colleagues and while it is increasingly
    fashionable to talk about the instructional
    leadership role of the principal, often that
    person is hard-pressed to do the job of
    supervision well.

Supervision Quotes
  • We have learned to challenge gifted students to
    encourage continuing growth, but often our gifted
    teachers are left to provide their own
    stimulation or to become bored and atrophied.
  • The instructional supervisor, contrasted with
    the administrative supervisor, cannot and should
    not thrust himself or herself on the teacher.

Supervision Quotes
  • If a school system is not able to cater to the
    supervisory needs of all teachers, it must do
    what school systems have always done set
    priorities and/or put our fires. Those that are
    most in need must be assured of help if for no
    other reason than the well-being of their
    students. A better solution would be sufficient
    funding for our schools so that adequate
    supervision can be made available to all who need
    and want it,

Force Field Analysis

Force Field Analysis
  • Being part of a team ?
  • Time, time, time! ?
  • Experiential prof. dev. ?
  • Regular team discussions ?
  • Permission to take risks ?
  • Collaboration ?
  • Shared leadership ?
  • Focus and vision ?
  • Effort encouraged ?
  • Mentors ?
  • Ownership ?
  • Incentives and recognition ?
  • Clinical supervision ?
  • Peer coaching ?
  • Critical friends groups ?
  • ? Contradictory demands
  • ? Pressure from testing
  • ? Isolation
  • ? Feeling forced
  • ? Defensiveness
  • ? Initial excitement then let-down
  • ? Past flavors of the month
  • ? Micro-management
  • ? Mixed messages
  • ? Not enough time
  • ? Fear
  • ? Lack of resources

Interview Assignment
Issues in Supervision
  • You each will be assigned one issue to read
    carefully about.
  • Be prepared to give the class 3 important notes
    on your issue you can do this orally, or on a
    overhead or on the board
  • Be prepared to share those notes/key points in
    class in 20 minutes.
  • Decide who you are going to interview for the
    first assignment and schedule an interview date.
  • Tell me who you are going to interview and why by
    sending me an email next week.

Essential Question 1
  • What is the relationship among curriculum,
    assessment and instruction?

How will we know they know it?
What do we want students to know and be able to
Student achievement can best be addressed here.
How will we get there?
Essential Question 2
  • What is the role of the school leader in
    improving student achievement through exemplary
    practices in assessment and instruction?

Helping Teachers Plan for Instruction
  • Resistance to Planning
  • 6 Point Program
  • What are some models of instruction you are
    familiar with?
  • 3 characteristics of instructional objectives

Helping Teachers Plan for Instruction
  • The supervisor should encourage teachers to write
    objectives in all 3 domains.
  • Cognitive, Psychomotor and Affective
  • Bloom Cognitive Most Focus
  • Krathwohl Affective Least Focus
  • Simpson Psychomotor

  • Work with your partner or group to identify the
    domain and then the category within the domain.

Carousel Chapter 4
  • Should Cooperative Learning Replace
    Individualized Learning? Why/Why Not?
  • Should teachers be more concerned about
    content/skills or self-esteem of students? Why?
  • Should all students be expected to master all
    basic knowledge and skills? Why?
  • What is the place of direct teaching?
  • What knowledge and skills are needed for teachers
    to make effective presentations

School Time
  • Hrs/day
  • 0.5-1.5
  • 1.5-3.5
  • 2.0-4.0
  • 4.75
  • 5.4-6.0
  • 6.0

Academic Learning Time
Engaged Time
Instruction Time
Allocated Time
Attendance Time
Total Available Time
Good Morning Miss Toliver
  • As you are watching the video tape, please make a
    list of things the teacher is doing well to
    manage the classroom and increase instructional
    time and things she is not doing well or could
    improve upon.

Maximizing Instructional Time
  • You are a resource for maximizing instructional
  • What are some things teachers can do to make the
    most of the time? What strategies did Miss
    Toliver use to maximize instructional time?

Classroom Management Research
  • Jacob Kounin Ripple Effect 1970. He found
    that teacher intervention has almost no impact on
    student behavior after the misbehavior has
    occurred. The most effective action is to prevent
    problems from happening at all.
  • Evertson Study 5000 hours observing 400
    teachers found that teachers whose students
    consistently gained in achievement had organized
    classrooms that ran smoothly, with a minimum of

Evertsons Characteristics
  • Effective classroom managers
  • Planned rules and procedures carefully.
  • Systematically taught these to students.
  • Monitored student work and behavior closely.
  • Organized instruction to maximize student task
    engagement and success.
  • Communicated expectations clearly.

Implications of Findings
  • Teachers should plan in the summer for how they
    will organize space, materials, students,
    assignments, etc. to facilitate on-task time.
  • Teachers should spend time at the beginning of
    the year teaching students rules and procedures
    not just a quick go over it.
  • The system should be maintained throughout the
    school year so students know what to expect and
    what is expected from them.

Six Areas
  • Classroom Arrangement
  • Rules and Procedures
  • Student Accountability
  • Maintaining Good Behavior
  • Organizing Academic Activities
  • Student Engagement

Keys in Arranging
  • Visibility
  • Accessibility
  • Distractibility

Rules and Procedures
  • Are always applicable and govern relationships
    with others, time, space, and materials
  • Understandable, manageable, few in number, stated
    behaviorally, stated positively when possible
  • Situation-specific ways to get things done
  • Ways to participate in activities, beginning
    end of class routines, housekeeping, paperwork
  • Require teaching and practice

  • Set the Stage
  • Make assignments accessible
  • Clarify what to do and how to do it
  • All students know when, where, and how to submit
  • Maintain
  • Be consistent
  • Use fair grading system
  • Timely feedback
  • Students can track own progress

Differentiated Instruction Is. . .
  • Proactive
  • More qualitative than quantitative
  • Rooted in assessment
  • Multiple approaches to content, process, and
  • Student-centered
  • Blend of groupings
  • Organic
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

Flow of Instruction
Figure 1.1 Differentiation of Instruction A
teacher's response to learners needs, guided by
general principles of differentiation, such
as Respectful tasks
Flexible grouping Ongoing

adjustment Teachers can differentiate
According to students
Learning Profile
Through a range of instructional and management
strategies such as
Tiered lessons Tiered centers Tiered products
Learning contracts Small-group instruction
Group investigation orbitals Independent study
4MAT Varied questioning strategies Interest
centers Interest groups Varied homework
Compacting Varied journal prompts Complex
Multiple intelligences Jigsaw puzzles Taped
material Anchor activities Varying organizers
Varied texts Varied supplementary materials
Literature circles
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

Differentiated Instruction Isnt. . .
  • Individualized instruction of the 1970s
  • Chaotic
  • Just another way to provide homogeneous groupings
  • Tailoring the same suit of clothes
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

  • In a differentiated classroom, the teacher
    proactively plans and carries out varied
    approaches to content, process, and product in
    anticipation of and response to student
    differences in readiness, interest, and learning
  • From How to Differentiate Instruction in
    Mixed-Ability Classrooms,
  • by Carol Ann Tomlinson

We Know What Works
  • Marzano 9 Strategies Based on Research
  • You are assigned a strategy to read about. You
    will have at least one partner with the same
  • Report out on 1) How research supports this
    strategy 2) General principles for using this
    strategy effectively 3) Variations on the
    strategy 4) How this information can help you as
    an instructional leader.

  • Marzano Presentations
  • You have 40 minutes to prepare for your
    presentation to the class.
  • Please give us a visual or an activity to help us
    remember the strategy
  • Presentations can last up to 15 minutes each, but
    no longer.

Instruction that is proven to increase student
achievement has the following qualities
  • Aligned with standards
  • Active student participation
  • Emphasis on higher-order thinking skills and
    rich, complex ideas
  • Reading and writing in all subjects
  • Complex problem-solving
  • Uses formative assessment to inform teaching
    decisions and provide student feedback

Welcome Back
  • Test 1
  • Food!
  • Supervision Interviews Debrief process
  • Lets start thinking about assessment

Understanding By Design
  • The critical point is that we start with
    outcomes, as defined by curriculum standards, and
    only then are we ready to specify which
    instruction is appropriate.
  • This is the basic principle of Understanding By

Assessment-True or False?
  • Curriculum standards are not generally in our
    control, but we can choose how much time we spend
    on each, and which teaching strategies we will
  • We should focus on assessments that are used not
    just at the end of the unit to assign a grade,
    but throughout instruction to chart student
    progress and tailor instruction as needed.
  • Assessments are often performance based so that
    we get very rich information from which to base
    our decisions.

  • Once we have defined the desired performance
    (standards), we build instruction so that
    students can succeed at these assessments.
  • We know that our assessments and instruction are
    tied to the standards and that we are assessing
    learning outlined in the curriculum.
  • This is typical practice in schools across the

Meet Miss Bonkers!
  • Purposes
  • To explore the purpose of assessing students
  • To consider the effectiveness of teaching to the
  • To rediscover good teaching practices

Discussion Questions
  • What teaching strategies were they using in the
    Diffendoofer School?
  • What makes Miss Bonkers teaching so effective?
  • What is good teaching?
  • What does teaching to the test mean?

HOTS for Miss Bonkers
  • Miss Bonkers rose. Dont fret! she said.
  • Youve learned the things you need
  • To pass that test and many more--
  • Im certain youll succeed.
  • Weve taught you that the earth is round,
  • That red and white make pink,
  • And something else that matters more--
  • Weve taught you how to think.

Dr. Seuss, Hooray for Diffendoofer Day!
Whats the Point?
  • Should we teach to the test?
  • Should we teach only to the test?

If state or local curricula overlap with
objectives of a standardized test, then teaching
to the test is inevitable and desired. F.W.
English, 1992
We need a rich, rigorous, and relevant curriculum
that teaches how to think.
  • We are charged with teaching the standards
    therefore, we teach to a standards-based
    (criterion-referenced) test.
  • The strategies we use are up to us.
  • There is danger in only teaching to the test.
  • If we use good teaching strategies, test scores
    will come naturally.
  • Its not just about the grade its about

Understanding By Design
  • Advocates identifying assessments and then basing
    the instruction on the assessment (teaching to
    the test).
  • Concept of Enduring Understandings Assessments
    must be rich in these.
  • Formative Evaluations
  • Thoughtful alignment among standards, assessments
    and strategies.

Essential Questions
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

Insights from Kohn
  • Main reason we should grade to provide useful
    feedback to students.
  • Letter grades alone do not provide useful
  • Most focused on I or II. Should be on III (or II
    if not just for grade).
  • Should focus our grading/feedback on answering
    question, What information can I provide to help
    the student learn and move closer to proficiency?

Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

Multiple Purposes
  • What are the purposes for assessment?
  • How are they used?
  • Who uses them?
  • What can they do?

How Are They Used?
  • Progress of groups of students
  • Effectiveness of instruction
  • Quality of school processes
  • Developmental level of individuals
  • Diagnostic, formative, summative
  • Instructional strategies
  • Pace
  • Remediation/ enrichment
  • Differentiated instruction
  • Staff development
  • Standardization of practice across teachers
  • Next lesson
  • Next grade
  • Standardized testing
  • Lifelong learning

Who Uses Them?
Adapted from SERVE/Bay District Schools,
Examining Grading and Reporting, 2000
What Can They Do?
  • Identify starting or restarting points for
  • Formal or informal
  • Monitor student learning toward standards
  • Provide students with specific feedback
  • Evaluate achievement of standards
  • High stakes

Pretests Skills inventories
Research proposal Journal Literature
circles Independent reading conferences
Final exam Assessment portfolio Standardized CRT
More on Assessment
  • Jigsaw Activity with Black and Wiliam article and
    Stiggins article

Formative Assessment Research Findings (Black
  • Strengthening formative assessments produces
    significant learning gains. This was true in
    studies of ages 5-21 and in multiple countries.
  • Formative yields especially good results with low
  • Although formative has a much greater impact on
    learning than summative, almost all our political
    and financial capital goes to summative.

Formative Assessment Research Findings (Black
William), cont.
  • Feedback on tests, seatwork, and homework should
    give each pupil guidance on how to improve, and
    each pupil must be given help and an opportunity
    to work on the improvement
  • Self-assessment is an essential
    componentstudents must be trained so they
    understand the main purposes of they are learning
    and thereby grasp what they need to do to achieve
  • Using formative assessment is hard to learn
    teachers need training and support to learn

Formative Assessment Research Findings, cont.
  • Look for teachers who
  • Set and communicate achievement targets in
  • Transform targets into appropriate assessment
  • Use frequent, descriptive value-neutral
    feedback to build confidence
  • Adjust instruction based on results
  • Promote regular student self-assessment
  • Actively involve students in communi-cating
    status with teachers and parents

Main Purpose
  • What is the main purpose that should drive
    classroom assessment?

To improve learning for all students
Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

Assessment Methods
Selected Response Items
Constructed Responses
  • Multiple Choice
  • True-False
  • Matching
  • Fill in the Blank
  • Short answer
  • Diagram
  • Web
  • Concept Map
  • Flowchart
  • Graph
  • Table
  • Matrix
  • Illustra- tion
  • Essay
  • Research paper
  • Journal
  • Report
  • Story/play
  • Poem
  • Portfolio
  • Art exhibit
  • Project
  • Model
  • Videotape
  • Spread-sheet
  • Oral pre-sentation
  • Dance/ movement
  • Demon-stration
  • Athletic contest
  • Dramatic reading
  • Enactment
  • Debate
  • Recital

Essential Questions 3-7
  • Why do we grade student work?
  • What are different purposes for assessment?
  • Which assessment methods are most effective for
    various standards?
  • What are best practices in assessment?
  • What evidence do we need to evaluate classroom
    assessment practices?

How Much Evidence is Enough?
Observation of Process
Triangulation Look for Trends Look for
Patterns Look for Redundancy
Talk Dialogue
Collection of Products
Based on Anne Daviss work
Essential Question 2
  • What is the role of the school leader in
    improving student achievement through exemplary
    practices in assessment and instruction?

32 Word Summaries
  • The role of an effective school leader that
    supports exemplary practices in assessment and
    instruction includes
  • -hiring quality staff/retention
  • -providing growth opportunities
  • -providing resources
  • -frequent feedback/formative assessment
  • -removing instructional barriers.

32 Word Summaries
  • The role of the school leader is to provide an
    atmosphere where best practice in assessment and
    instruction is nurtured through coaching,
    planning, and reflection for the professional
    development of all teachers.
  • Recipe

16 Word Summaries
  • An effective school leader provides service,
    help, mentoring, encouragement and continuous
    learning to improve student achievement.
  • Effective school leaders continuously support
    staff by providing growth opportunities,
    resources, constructive assessment and minimize
    instructional barriers.
  • The role of the school leader is to provide an
    atmosphere where best practice is nurtured.

Some Supervision Strategies
  • Data Analysis
  • Curriculum Prioritization
  • Cognitive Coaching
  • Critical Friends Group/Tuning Protocol
  • Standards in Practice (SIP) Process
  • Action Research Groups
  • Vertical Team Articulation
  • 30-minute Meeting
  • Japanese Lesson Study
  • Guided Reflection Protocol
  • 3 minute classroom walk through
  • Clinical Supervision Model

Clinical Supervision
  • Supervision vs. evaluation
  • Sometimes the same not ideal, but reality
  • One on one/ face to face
  • Definitions and quotes from various texts

Nine characteristics
  • Technology for improving instruction
  • Deliberate intervention
  • Goal-oriented
  • Assumes a working relationship
  • Requires mutual trust and respect
  • Systematic
  • Bridges gap between real and ideal
  • Supervisor knows a lot about instruction and
    human interaction
  • Requires training and practice

At the Heart of It
  • What do we do with the observation data?

Pre-Observation Conference
  • Determine reason for and purpose of observation
  • Determine focus
  • Determine observation method
  • Determine length and time of observation
  • Set post-observation conference date and time

  • Global vs. specific approach you can decide
    which approach to use
  • Methods verbatim recording, note taking, use of
    instruments, charting
  • What approach will you use if the focus is
    classroom management? Higher order thinking
    skills? Global?

Post-Observation Conference
  • Hunter 6 types
  • Kyle 3 point outline
  • Directive control vs. directive information

Leadership Quote 1
  • After a decade of reform, we have finally learned
    in hindsight what should have been clear from the
    start Most schools and teachers cannot produce
    the kind of learning demanded by the new reforms
    not because they do not want to, but because
    they do not know how, and the systems in which
    they work do not support them in doing so.
  • --Linda Darling-Hammond

Leadership Quotes 2 and 3
  • The primary purpose of assessment should be to
    assist both educators and policymakers to improve
    instruction and advance student learning.
  • --National Forum on Assessment
  • What we assess signals what we value. How it is
    assessed signals how it should be taught.
  • --Jay McTighe

Research on Teacher Preparation 1996-1999
  • Performance areas where new teachers said they
    were most prepared. Ability to
  • Establish a positive classroom learning
  • Communicate high expectations to students.
  • Use different teaching strategies for different
    instructional purposes.
  • Design instruction that is developmentally
    appropriate for students taught.
  • Communicate knowledge and core concepts of
    content areas.

Research on Teacher Preparation 1996-1999
  • Performance areas where new teachers said they
    were least prepared. Ability to
  • Use a variety of assessments including
    portfolios, open-ended questions and performance
  • Address student discipline problems.
  • Design instruction for students of diverse ethnic
    and cultural backgrounds.
  • Identify professional development options and
    plan a program for professional growth.
  • Design instruction to achieve states learning
    goals and academic expectations.

Becoming a Leader
  • Schools are organizations that benefit from
    having facilitative leaders.
  • Facilitators create opportunities for others to
  • Teachers can become teacher leaders in both
    formal and informal roles.
  • Leadership capacity is expanded by empowering
    teachers to be leaders.

Leadership Quote 4
  • Testing programs should be redirected from
    over-reliance on multiple choice tests toward
    alternative forms of assessment. Carefully
    crafted assessment devices would ask students to
    supply answers, perform observable acts,
    demonstrate skills, create products, and supply
    portfolios of their work.
  • --Gatekeeper to Gateway
  • Transforming Testing in America

Leadership Quote 5
  • In their study of effective curriculum leaders,
    Aronstein and DeBenedictis determined that such
    principals used behaviors that had a school-wide
    impact rather than a narrowly focused curriculum
    emphasis. They identified five enabling
    behaviors that made a school-wide difference a)
    facilitating communication, b) creating a
    positive open climate, c) building a vision with
    the staff, d) developing staff through
    involvement, and (e) being an effective and
    positive role model.
  • --Allan A. Glatthorn,
  • The Principal as Curriculum Leader

Leadership Quote 6
  • I have noted in the last decade more principals
    are complaining that deeper student understanding
    is often sacrificed in favor of preparation for
    tests measuring factual retention. Some say it
    is a case of the tail wagging the dog. Testing
    that should be a means to improve the ability of
    the students to think and understand instead
    becomes an obstacle to this end. Yet is may not
    be easy to get teachers to give up their practice
    of teaching for the tests.
  • --Jack McCall, The Principal As Steward

Leadership Quote 7
  • We take the students who most depend on their
    teachers for subject-matter learning and assign
    them teachers with the weakest academic
    foundations. A decade ago, we might have said
    that we didnt know how much this mattered. We
    believed that what students learned was largely a
    factor of their family income or parental
    education, not of what schools did. But recent
    research has turned these assumptions upside
    down. What schools do matters enormously. And
    what matters most is good teaching.
  • --Kati Haycock, Closing the Achievement Gap

Essential Question 2
  • What is the role of the school leader in
    improving student achievement through exemplary
    practices in assessment and instruction?

For Next Class
  • Bring your clinical supervision project to turn
  • Read article on clinical supervision
  • Bring test scores from one grade level/one
    class/one subject.