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Scientific Writing, HRP 214

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Title: Scientific Writing, HRP 214


1
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Bob and I were very fond of the piece.
  • B. Bob and me were very fond of the piece.

2
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Bob and I were very fond of the piece.
  • B. Bob and me were very fond of the piece.

3
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. That man and I were talking.
  • B. That man and me were talking.

4
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. That man and I were talking.
  • B. That man and me were talking.

5
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Their data was intriguing.
  • B. Their data were intriguing.

6
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Their data was intriguing.
  • B. Their data were intriguing.

7
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. She told Bob and me that the end was near.
  • B. She told Bob and I that the end was near.

8
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. She told Bob and me that the end was near.
  • B. She told Bob and I that the end was near.

9
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. I hope that she and I will reconcile.
  • B. I hope that she and me will reconcile.

10
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. I hope that she and I will reconcile.
  • B. I hope that she and me will reconcile.

11
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Between you and I, we should have it done in
    no time.
  • B. Between you and me, we should have it done in
    no time.

12
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Between you and I, we should have it done in
    no time.
  • B. Between you and me, we should have it done in
    no time.

13
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. He looks like Bill Clinton.
  • B. He looks as Bill Clinton.

14
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. He looks like Bill Clinton.
  • B. He looks as Bill Clinton.

15
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Her dresses werent worth very much compared
    with her shoes.
  • B. Her dresses werent worth very much compared
    to her shoes.

16
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Her dresses werent worth very much compared
    with her shoes.
  • B. Her dresses werent worth very much compared
    to her shoes.
  • mnemonic when things are inherently similar,
    they are generally grouped with each other
  • ? Your scientific studies will more commonly be
    seeking distinctions among things previously
    understood to be similar (than similarities among
    inherently different things)

17
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. To whom did you betray my secret?
  • B. To who did you betray my secret?

18
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. To whom did you betray my secret?
  • B. To who did you betray my secret?

19
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Who owns that mean dog?
  • B. Whom owns that mean dog?

20
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Who owns that mean dog?
  • B. Whom owns that mean dog?

21
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. The person about who you speak is a fool.
  • B. The person about whom you speak is a fool.

22
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. The person about who you speak is a fool.
  • B. The person about whom you speak is a fool.

23
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. People whom live in glass houses shouldnt
    throw stones.
  • B. People who live in glass houses shouldnt
    throw stones.

24
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. People whom live in glass houses shouldnt
    throw stones.
  • B. People who live in glass houses shouldnt
    throw stones.

25
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Its my head on the line.
  • B. Its my head on the line.

26
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Its my head on the line.
  • B. Its my head on the line.

27
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Its head was on the chopping block.
  • B. Its head was on the chopping block.

28
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Its head was on the chopping block.
  • B. Its head was on the chopping block.

29
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Virgil is the candidate who we hope to elect.
  • B. Virgil is the candidate whom we hope to elect.

30
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Virgil is the candidate who we hope to elect.
  • B. Virgil is the candidate whom we hope to elect.

31
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Your cigarette tastes good, like a cigarette
    should.
  • B. Your cigarette tastes good, as a cigarette
    should.

32
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Your cigarette tastes good, like a cigarette
    should.
  • B. Your cigarette tastes good, as a cigarette
    should.

33
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Over 30 disease states can result in the
    clinical characteristics of dementia.
  • B. More than 30 disease states can result in the
    clinical characteristics of dementia.

34
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Over 30 disease states can result in the
    clinical characteristics of dementia.
  • B. More than 30 disease states can result in the
    clinical characteristics of dementia.

35
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Fewer men are in the class than women.
  • B. Less men are in the class than women.

36
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Fewer men are in the class than women.
  • B. Less men are in the class than women.

37
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Fewer restrictive measures are needed.
  • B. Less restrictive measures are needed.

38
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican
    whom the San Francisco police charged with
    breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.
  • B. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican
    who the San Francisco police charged with
    breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.

39
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican
    whom the San Francisco police charged with
    breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.
  • B. Juan Zabala is a twenty-nine-year-old Mexican
    who the San Francisco police charged with
    breaking into a 1991 Honda Accord.

40
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • 1. There are a number of known causes of
    epilepsy. However, epilepsy with a definite
    antecedent neurologic insult that is presumed to
    be causal applies to only about one-third of all
    cases of epilepsy. The remaining two-thirds are
    idiopathic/cryptogenic.

41
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • Possible rewrite
  • Epilepsy is caused by a known neurologic insult
    in about one-third of cases the remainder are
    idiopathic/cryptogenic.

42
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • 2. There are difficulties in applying the
    syndrome classification to population-based
    studies. First, the necessary information may
    not be available. Second, syndromes are, in
    part, classified by prognosis, and therefore not
    applicable to incidence cases. Third, a large
    proportion of population-based cases may not fit.
    A system incorporating the syndrome
    classification as reasonably as possible into
    population-based studies is needed.

43
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • Possible rewrite
  • 2. The current syndrome classification system is
    inadequate in several respects the necessary
    information is not always available syndromes
    are, in part, classified by prognosis, and
    therefore not applicable to incident cases and a
    large proportion of population-based cases dont
    fit.

44
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • 3. The two results are found to be in agreement.

45
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • Possible rewrite
  • 3. The two results agree.

46
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • 4. There is enormous variety of clinical
    presentation, as symptoms vary depending on the
    tumors location, size, and malignant versus
    benign behavior.

47
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • Possible rewrite
  • 4. Clinical presentation varies widely depending
    on a tumors location and size, and whether it is
    malignant or benign.

48
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • 5. Biostatistics can be a lot of fun because of
    the multidisciplinary team approach. In one
    project we have a nutritionist, a psychologist,
    statisticians, a computer specialist, and
    dietitians a whole range of specialties. When we
    all get together, everyone has a perspective to
    bring to the problem.

49
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • Possible rewrite
  • 5. Our enjoyable multidisciplinary approach to
    biostatistics brings together nutritionists,
    psychologists, statisticians, computer engineers,
    and dietitianseach of whom adds a different
    perspective to the problem.

50
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • 6. The high-dissonance participants were paid a
    small sum of money while being given a free
    choice of whether to participate, whereas the
    participants we randomly assigned to the
    large-incentive treatment (the low-dissonance
    condition) were not offered the opportunity to
    refuse.

51
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • Possible rewrite
  • 6. High-dissonance participants were paid a
    small sum of money and were not required to
    participate low-dissonance participants were
    paid a large sum of money and were required to
    participate.

52
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • 7. The reasons for this exception are as follows
    1) although the assessment of birth cohort data
    often shares with other descriptive approaches a
    reliance on information that is usually
    available, it requires the application of an
    analytical approach with a level of complexity
    usually not found in descriptive epidemiology
    and 2) this type of analysis is often key for the
    understanding of the observed association between
    age (often strongly associated with the
    occurrence of many diseases as well as their
    determinants) and disease in cross-sectional
    analysis."

53
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK ANSWERS
  • Possible rewrite
  • 7. Birth cohort analysis will be treated
    separately from other descriptive approaches
    because 1) analyzing birth cohort data requires
    more complex statistical methods and 2)
    confounding by birth cohort is a common problem
    in cross-sectional studies.

54
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Some Notes on Science Style
  • Following are some general guidelines on
    preferred style for manuscripts submitted to
    Science
  • Avoid jargon explain obscure terms and define
    acronyms (keep in mind that many potential
    readers of your work will not be specialists in
    your field).
  • Use active voice when suitable, particularly when
    necessary for correct syntax (e.g., "To address
    this possibility, we constructed a lZap library
    . . .," not "To address this possibility, a lZap
    library was constructed . . .").
  • Write concisely (e.g., "even though," not "in
    spite of the fact that").

55
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing
warm-up
  • Recent research suggests that these two
    disorders may not be as distinct as previously
    was thought and the degree of overlap may be
    considerable.

56
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing
warm-up
  • Possible rewrite
  • Recent research suggests that these two
    disorders may overlap considerably.

57
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing
warm-up
  • The study of Barrett et al. (1997) is considered
    to be methodologically sound. In that study,
    1,000 bacteria were transformed with the novel
    gene.

58
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Sentence-editing
warm-up
  • Possible rewrites
  • In a methodologically sound study by Barret et
    al. (1997), 1,000 bacteria were transformed with
    the novel gene. (passive voice)
  • Using sound methods, Barret et al. (1997),
    transformed 1,000 bacteria with the novel gene.
    (active voice)

59
Scientific Writing, HRP 214MORE WARM-UP
  • 1. A progressive decrease in the death rate
    occurred.
  • The death rate progressively decreased.
  • 2. These agents exert their action by inhibition
    of synthesis of cholesterol by the liver.
  • These agents inhibit cholesterol synthesis by the
    liver.

60
Scientific Writing, HRP 214WARM-UP
  • 3. There are many scientists who dont like to
    write.
  • Many scientists dont like to write.
  • In classic epidemiology, the case-control can
    provide efficiencies when the occurrence of
    disease in the population is relatively rare.
  • ? In classic epidemiology, the case-control study
    is efficient when the disease is relatively rare.

61
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Lecture Three, July 6, 2005
  • Punctuation, Parallelism, and the Good Sentence.

62
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • For those of you reading Sin and Syntax(from
    Salon magazine)
  • Rather than a beepOr a rude error message,These
    words File not found.
  • A crash reducesYour expensive computerTo a
    simple stone.

63
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • The code was willing,It considered your
    request,But the chips were weak.
  • Errors have occurred.We won't tell you where or
    why.Lazy programmers.

64
Scientific Writing, HRP 214and a few from Car
Talk
  • Four-wheel drive pickupI remember his last
    wordsHold my beer, watch this!
  • I'm writing Haikugoing 80 miles per hourIs that
    safe to do?
  • I have an old car.It rattles, coughs and
    sputters. I smile. No payments.

65
Scientific Writing, HRP 214and a few from Car
Talk
  • Hilltop. Lake below.My car sinks so slowly.
    Thank god it's a rental.
  • "Check engine" light on.Unscrew the dash. Stab
    with pen."Check engine" light off.
  • Just one more exitGas prices will be
    lowerCheapskate starts walking

66
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Lesson One Our friends the dash, colon,
    semicolon, and parenthesis

67
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Note A clause is a unit of grammatical
    organization next below the sentence in rank. A
    clause has a subject and a predicate.

68
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Increasing power to separate
  • Comma
  • Colon
  • Dash
  • Parentheses
  • Semicolon
  • Period

69
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Increasing formality
  • Dash
  • Parentheses
  • The Others (Comma,Colon,Semicolon,Period)

70
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Semicolon
Semicolon Indicates a pause, typically between
two main clauses, that is more pronounced than
that indicated by a comma. Example Kennedy
could be a cold and vain man, and he led a life
of privilege. But he knew something about the
world he also cared about it.
71
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Parentheses
Parenthesis (parenthetical expression) A word,
clause, or sentence inserted as an explanation or
afterthought into a passage that is grammatically
complete without it. ? If you remove the
material within the parentheses (pluralthe marks
containing the parenthetical expression), the
main point of the sentence should not change.
72
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon
  • Use a colon after an independent clause to
    introduce a list of items, an explanation, an
    amplification, or an illustrative quotation.
  • The colon has more effect than the comma, less
    power to separate than the semicolon, and more
    formality than the dash.--Strunk and White

73
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (list or
explanation)
  • The hydrogen bonds are made as follows purine
    position 1 to pyrimidine position 1 purine
    position 6 to pyrimidine position 6.
  • These pairs are adenine (purine) with thymine
    (pyrimidine), and guanine (purine) with cytosine
    (pyrimidine).
  • From A structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic
    AcidWatson and Crick 1953

74
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (list or
explanation)
  • Washington has a simple solution to most
    governments it doesnt like isolate them, slap
    sanctions on them and wait for their downfall.

75
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (list)
  • Cross-sectional studies that have measured BMD in
    formerly anorectic women or elite athletes up to
    25 years after diagnosis or cessation of
    competition have found mixed results, including
    normal BMD values for age (5,6,7), moderately
    reduced BMD (8), and unexpectedly high
    proportions of osteopenia and osteoporosis
    (9,10,11).

76
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (quote,
list)
  • The Ask not line follows right after an
    exhortation modeled on Franklin Roosevelts
    rendezvous with destiny In the long history
    of the world, only a few generations have been
    granted the role of defending freedom in its hour
    of maximum danger. I do not shrink from this
    responsibilityI welcome it. The note throughout
    is one of alarm The trumpet summons us again
    the burden of a long twilight struggle that
    uncertain balance of terror.

77
  • NOTE The rule of threes for lists and
    examples.
  • Example They dramatically reduced the number of
    series in production in 1935, fourteen series
    were circulating in 1940, nine by 1980, when
    the syndicate was in its final years, only four.

78
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon (to amplify
or interpret)
  • Join two independent clauses with a colon if the
    second interprets or amplifies the first

Archer believes that the passengers on United
Flight 93, which crashed in Pennsylvania, did
something extraordinary they intervened.
Companies use Marsh for the same reason that
home sellers use real-estate agents the agents
knowledge and experience is supposed to help the
client get the right deal at the right price.
79
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon exercise
  • Evidence-based medicine teaches clinicians the
    practical application of clinical epidemiology,
    as needed to address specific problems of
    specific patients. It guides clinicians on how
    to find the best evidence relevant to a specific
    problem, how to assess the quality of that
    evidence, and perhaps most difficult, how to
    decide if the evidence applies to a specific
    patient.

80
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Colon join and
condense
  • Evidence-based medicine teaches clinicians the
    practical application of clinical epidemiology,
    including how to find the best evidence relevant
    to a specific problem, how to assess the quality
    of that evidence, and how to decide if the
    evidence applies to a specific patient.

81
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Colon misuse
  • EXAMPLE, what not to do!
  • Two aspects of alcohol use are related to brain
    injuries as a factor associated with risk of an
    injury such as a motor vehicle crash, and as a
    factor in TBI diagnosis, recovery, or survival
    after injury.
  • ?
  • Two aspects of alcohol use are related to brain
    injuries its association with risk of injury,
    such as motor vehicle crash, and its post-injury
    influences on TBI diagnosis, recovery, or
    survival after injury.

82
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Colon misuse
  • EXAMPLE, what not to do!
  • In one project we have a nutritionist, a
    psychologist, statisticians, a computer
    specialist, and dietitians a whole range of
    specialties.
  • ?
  • In one project we have a whole range of
    specialties a nutritionist, a psychologist,
    statisticians, a computer specialist, and
    dietitians.

83
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • Use a dash to set off an abrupt break or
    interruption and to announce a long explanation
    or summary. Helps add emphasis.
  • A dash is a mark of separation stronger than a
    comma, less formal than a colon, and more relaxed
    than parentheses.Strunk and White
  • Use a dash only when a more common mark of
    punctuation seems inadequate.Strunk and White
  • i.e. Reserve this tool for the really tough
    jobs!

84
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • The drugs did more than prevent new fat
    accumulation. They also triggered overweight
    mice to shed significant amounts of fatup to
    half their body weight. (emphasis)
  • To establish that the marrow cellsalso called
    adult stem cells or endothelial precursor
    cellscan colonize the eye, Friedlander and his
    colleagues first transplanted stem cells from an
    adult mouse into the eyes of newborn mice. (long
    summary)
  • How would the feel of these sentences change with
    parentheses or commas?

85
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • With commas instead(clunky and long)
  • The drugs did more than prevent new fat
    accumulation. They also triggered overweight
    mice to shed significant amounts of fat, up to
    half their body weight.
  • To establish that the marrow cells, also called
    adult stem cells or endothelial precursor cells,
    can colonize the eye, Friedlander and his
    colleagues first transplanted stem cells from an
    adult mouse into the eyes of newborn mice.

86
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • With parentheses instead(buries the info.)
  • The drugs did more then prevent new fat
    accumulation. They also triggered overweight
    mice to shed significant amounts of fat (up to
    half their body weight).
  • To establish that the marrow cells (also called
    adult stem cells or endothelial precursor cells)
    can colonize the eye, Friedlander and his
    colleagues first transplanted stem cells from an
    adult mouse into the eyes of newborn mice.

87
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • Researchers who study shipworms say these
    mislabeled animalstheyre clams, not wormsare
    actually a scientific treasure. (emphasis and
    added information)
  • The storewhich is windowless and has clusters
    of unsmiling security guards standing at its
    entrances, as if it were the embassy of a
    particularly beleaguered nationcaters to rich
    Brazilians, members of the ten per cent of the
    population who command nearly half the national
    income, and wear Chanel, Valentino, or Dolce
    Gabbana. (long description)

88
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • Commas instead
  • Researchers who study shipworms say these
    mislabeled animals, theyre clams, not worms, are
    actually a scientific treasure. (commas arent
    strong enough to set off a clause)
  • The store, which is windowless and has clusters
    of unsmiling security guards standing at its
    entrances, as if it were the embassy of a
    particularly beleaguered nation, caters to rich
    Brazilians, members of the ten per cent of the
    population who command nearly half the national
    income, and wear Chanel, Valentino, or Dolce
    Gabbana. (too long-winded without an abrupt
    pause)

89
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • Researchers who study shipworms say these
    mislabeled animals (theyre clams, not worms) are
    actually a scientific treasure. (buries the
    information)
  • The store (which is windowless and has clusters
    of unsmiling security guards standing at its
    entrances, as if it were the embassy of a
    particularly beleaguered nation) caters to rich
    Brazilians, members of the ten per cent of the
    population who command nearly half the national
    income, and wear Chanel, Valentino, or Dolce
    Gabbana. (takes away from the description)

90
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • Baseball is the only game thats played every
    day, which is why its season often seems endless,
    right up to the inning and the outthe little
    toss over to first basewhen, wow, it ends.
  • Comma instead
  • Baseball is the only game thats played every
    day, which is why its season often seems endless,
    right up to the inning and the out, the little
    toss over to first base, when, wow, it ends. (no
    emphasis on the image)
  • Parentheses instead
  • Baseball is the only game thats played every
    day, which is why its season often seems endless,
    right up to the inning and the out (the little
    toss over to first base) when, wow, it ends.
    (makes it seem unimportant)

91
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • While all these steps are small and easily
    reversibleLibya is still ruled by a wacky
    megalomaniacthere is some real movement here.
  • Comma instead
  • While all these steps are small and easily
    reversible, Libya is still ruled by a wacky
    megalomaniac, there is some real movement here.
    (run-on sentence)
  • Parentheses instead
  • While all these steps are small and easily
    reversible
  • (Libya is still ruled by a wacky megalomaniac)
    there is some real movement here. (buries the
    best part of the sentence!)

92
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash exercise
  • Finally, the lessons of clinical epidemiology are
    not meant to be limited to academic
    physician-epidemiologists, who sometimes have
    more interest in analyzing data than caring for
    patients. Clinical epidemiology holds the
    promise of providing clinicians with the tools
    necessary to improve the outcomes of their
    patients.

93
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash
  • Finally, the lessons of clinical epidemiology are
    not meant to be limited to academic
    physician-epidemiologists, who sometimes have
    more interest in analyzing data than caring for
    patients. Clinical epidemiology holds the
    promise of providing clinicians with the tools
    necessary to improve the outcomes of their
    patients.

94
Scientific Writing, HRP 214The Dash join and
condense
  • Finally, clinical epidemiology is not limited to
    academic physician-epidemiologistswho are
    sometimes more interested in analyzing data than
    caring for patients-but provides clinicians with
    the tools to improve their patients outcomes.

95
Scientific Writing, HRP 214 The Dash some
technical details
  • HYPHEN (1 unit) to connect compound words or
    non-range numbers to break word that will
    continue on next line
  • ? little-known fact, en-dash, 723-8222
  • EN-DASH (2 units) to indicate range (numbers,
    dates, time) or collaboration
  • ? pages 1 9 , open 9 am 5 pm, MorrisHayes
    lab, SinoSoviet pact
  • ? not a compound name of an individual, as in
    Catherine Zeta-Jones
  • EM-DASH (3 units) to represent a sudden break in
    thought that causes an abrupt change in sentence
    structure
  • ? The m-dash is longerthe length of the letter
    m.

96
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Lesson 2 Use Parallel Construction

97
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Unparallel
  • Locusts denuded fields in Utah, rural Iowa was
    washed away by torrents, and in Arizona the
    cotton was shriveled by the placing heat.
  • Vs.
  • Parallel
  • Locusts denuded fields in Utah, torrents washed
    away rural Iowa, and blazing heat shriveled
    Arizonas cotton.

98
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Make a choice and abide by it!

99
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Pairs of ideastwo ideas joined by and, or,
    or butshould be written in parallel form.
  • Cardiac input decreased by 40 but
  • blood pressure decreased by only 10.
  • SVX but SVX

100
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Pairs of ideastwo ideas joined by and or or
    butshould be written in parallel form.
  • We hoped to increase the response and
  • to improve survival.
  • Infinitive phrase and infinitive phrase.

101
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Lists of ideas (and number lists of ideas) should
    be written in parallel form.

102
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Parallelism
  • Not Parallel
  • If you want to be a good doctor, you must study
    hard, critically think about the medical
    literature, and you should be a good listener.
  • Parallel
  • If you want to be a good doctor you must study
    hard, listen well, and think critically about the
    medical literature. (imperative, imperative,
    imperative)
  • Parallel
  • If you want to be a good doctor, you must be a
    good student, a good listener, and a critical
    thinker about the medical literature. (noun,
    noun, noun)

103
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Parallelism
  • Not Parallel
  • This research follows four distinct phases (1)
    establishing measurement instruments (2) pattern
    measurement (3) developing interventions and (4)
    the dissemination of successful interventions to
    other settings and institutions.
  • Parallel
  • This research follows four distinct phases (1)
    establishing measurement instruments (2)
    measuring patterns (3) developing interventions
    and (4) disseminating successful interventions to
    other settings and institutions.

104
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Lesson 3 The case of the buried predicate
  • One study of 930 adults with multiple sclerosis
    (MS) receiving care in one of two managed care
    settings or in a fee-for-service setting found
    that only two-thirds of those needing to contact
    a neurologist for an MS-related problem in the
    prior 6 months had done so (Vickrey et al 1999).

105
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • The case of the buried predicate
  • One study found that, of 930 adults with
    multiple sclerosis (MS) who were receiving care
    in one of two managed care settings or in a
    fee-for-service setting, only two-thirds of those
    needing to contact a neurologist for an
    MS-related problem in the prior six months had
    done so (Vickrey et al 1999).

106
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • In-Class Writing Exercise
  • In pairs (try to pick someone in the class that
    you dont know well), interview each other to
    find out
  • What brought you to Stanfordspiritually,
    literally, or otherwise?
  • Then take 10 minutes to write up a 1-2 paragraph
    mini profile (SHORT, PUNCHY, CLEVER, HUMOROUS) of
    the other person. Use at least one dash or colon
    and at least one sentence with parallel
    construction.

107
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • And finally
  • This weeks top 5 countdown

108
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • 1. Farther v. further
  • Farther is used for distance. (think far)
  • Further is used for time or quantity. (think
    future)
  • I can throw a ball farther than you.
  • I am pursuing that research further.

109
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • Other similar words
  • FORWARD v. FORWARDS v. FOREWORD
  • TOWARD v. TOWARDS
  • ? Some sources prefer adverbs forward and toward
    to forwards and towards (a bit more formal
    without the s s more common in UK) foreword
    preface to a book

110
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • 2. Die of v. die from
  • People and animals die of, not from, specific
    diseases.
  • She died of a heart attack.

111
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • 3. compliment v. complement
  • Compliment is to praise or to present with a
    token of esteem.
  • Complement is to mutually complete each other.
  • She complimented his haircut.
  • That dress complements your eyes.
  • In complement, think of complete-ment
  • proteins completing antibodies (complement
    cascade), angles combining to reach 90 degrees,
    or musical intervals completing an octave

112

113
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • A comic interlude, for illustration
  • A man walks into a bar and sits down. He orders
    a beer and begins to drink it, when he hears a
    mysterious voice You're looking very handsome
    this evening. The man looks around, but theres
    no one else nearby. That suit is quite
    magnificent," continues the voice. And what a
    delightful tie!  
  • The man calls the bartender over and confides,
    somewhat sheepishly, I keep hearing voices but I
    don't seem to be able to work out where they're
    coming from!
  • The bartender replies, "It's the nuts, sir.
    They're complimentary."

114
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • 4. Comprise v. compose
  • Comprise means to contain. Comprise implies a
    complete listing, whereas include may signal an
    incomplete listing.
  • Compose means to make up.
  • The parts compose (make up) the whole the whole
    comprises (contains) the parts.
  • The USA comprises 50 states. (the whole contains
    the parts)
  • Fifty states compose the USA. (the parts make
    up the whole)
  • The USA is composed of 50 states. (the whole is
    made up of the parts)
  • Fifty states are comprised in the USA. (the parts
    are contained in the whole)

115
Scientific Writing, HRP 214
  • 5. locate v. localize
  • Locate is to determine the position of something
    to find its location.
  • Localize is to confine or fix in a particular
    area or part.
  • The police located the suspect at the edge of
    town.
  • Iodine tends to localize in the thyroid.

116
Scientific Writing, HRP 214HOMEWORK
  • Read Chapters 11-12 in Sin and Syntax.
  • Chapter 5-6 of SS Writing (pp. 99-118)
  • Paragraph re-writing exercise
  • 3-4 unit students
  • Begin preliminary work on your chosen
    manuscript, paper, thesis, or grant proposal in
    preparation for the 2nd half of the course.

117
Scientific Writing, HRP 214Preview to next time
  • For next time
  • We continue our systematic review of the basics
    of writing.
  • Words? sentences? paragraphs
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