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Creativity

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Title: Creativity


1
Creativity Instructional Strategies
Differentiating for Gifted Students in the
Mixed-Ability Classroom
  • Carol Curtiss
  • 512/919-5288
  • carol.curtiss_at_esc13.txed.net
  • www.esc13.net/gt

2
Good Morning
  • Materials check
  • Schedule for the day
  • 830-330
  • 1130 Lunch

3
  • Smile and say good morning to the person to your
    left and your right.
  • Shake hands with a person next to you. That is
    your partner for pair activities during this
    session.

4
Welcome
  • Spend a minute conversing with your partner.
  • When you introduce your partner to the group,
    include a color.

5
Workshop Goals
  • Better understand the elements of creativity
  • Better understand the components of
    differentiation
  • Examine selected strategies for differentiating
    instruction for gifted students

6
Blooms Taxonomy
Learn specific facts, vocabulary, ideas, and
reiterate them
  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation

Communicate knowledge and interpret previous
learning
Use learned knowledge, rules, ideas, methods in
new situations
Take apart or break down a thing or idea into its
parts and perceive the interrelationship
Use elements or ideas in new and original
patterns and relationships
Make decisions or judgments based on chosen
criteria or standards
7
Blooms Taxonomy
  • Questioning Strategies
  • Blooms Question Handout
  • Q-Matrix
  • Cube

Why will?
Who can?
What if?
What might?
8
Label the Sides
  • Cube 1
  • Who
  • What
  • When/Where
  • Why
  • How
  • Which
  • Cube 2
  • Is/Are
  • Might
  • Did
  • Will
  • Can
  • Should/Would/Could

9
Blooms Taxonomy
  • Integrating Blooms
  • Apply to a lesson
  • Think about a lesson you teach
  • Decide what students should
  • Know
  • Understand
  • Be Able to do
  • Design an assessment
  • Create activities for each level of Blooms
    Taxonomy

10
Activity
  • Tell your partner 2 important things about
    Blooms Taxonomy.
  • Tell us 1 thing your partner said.

11
DC1
12
Identification Measures for Creativity
TTCT - (Torrance Test of Creative Thinking) SOI -
Creativity Test GATES - Creativity
Checklist Renzulli - Creativity Character
Checklist Williams How Do You Really Feel About
Yourself? Inventory
quantitative
qualitative
Adapted from J. Juntune, Texas AM University,
1998
13
Creative Thinking
Possessing outstanding imagination, thinking
ability, innovative or creative reasoning
ability, ability in problem solving, and/or high
attainment in original or creative thinking
14
Creative Thinking Characteristics
  • Independent thinker
  • Exhibits original thinking in oral written
    expression
  • Generates several solutions to a given problem
  • Possesses a sense of humor
  • Creates and invents
  • Challenged by creative tasks
  • Improvises often
  • Does not mind being different from the crowd
  • Exhibits a sense of play

15
Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Skills
  • Fluency
  • Flexibility
  • Originality
  • Elaboration
  • Risk Taking
  • Complexity
  • Curiosity
  • Imagination

Generate many ideas, related answers, or choices
Change everyday objects to generate a variety of
categories
Cognitive
Seek new ideas by suggesting unusual twists and
clever responses
Stretch by expanding, enlarging, enriching, or
embellishing
Deal with the unknown by taking chances or
experimenting
Create structure in an unstructured setting
Affective
Follow a hunch, question alternatives, ponder
outcomes, and think about options
Visualize possibilities, build images in the
mind, or reach beyond the limits
16
Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Skills
  • Activity Examples for fluency
  • Whats Hot?
  • Brainstorming
  • Turn the censor off in your brain
  • Say each idea out loud as it occurs to you
  • Hitchhike or piggyback ideas
  • Suspend all judgment
  • Encourage a free, uninterrupted flow of ideas
  • Expect to be outrageous
  • Creative Explanations activity in packet

F
17
Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Skills
  • Activity Examples for flexibility
  • Free Associations
  • SCAMPER

F
18
Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Skills
  • Activity Examples for originality
  • Forced Association
  • Glue, umbrella, toilet, restaurant, tulip
  • Squiggle

O
19
Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Skills
  • Activity Examples for elaboration
  • Menu Item
  • Example
  • Tongue Twisting Taco
  • Tasty, Toasty, Tantalizing Taco Treat
  • Tempts, Tickles the Tongue
  • Tears the Tummy
  • Take Two Tums Tonight
  • Tall Tales (in packet)

E
20
Williams Taxonomy of Creative Thinking Skills
  • Questioning Strategies

How many ways?
What would you ask?
Suppose that ...
What else?
How else might we?
21
Activity
  • Integrating Creativity
  • Apply to a lesson
  • Think of a lesson you teach
  • Decide what students should
  • Know
  • Understand
  • Be Able to do
  • Design an assessment
  • Create activities for several areas of creativity

22
Questions about Creativity?
  • FFOE

23
Fairness and Differentiation
  • Graphing activity

The Best OK Pitiful
Organized Checkbook Directions
Desk
24
Graphing Activity
  • In your packet

The Best OK Pitiful
Organized Balanced Giving Following
Exercising Desk Checkbook Directions
Directions Regularly
25
Why Differentiate?
  • One size fits all instruction does not address
    the needs of many students.
  • Kids come in many shapes and sizes as well as
    interests, learning profiles and readiness
    levels.

26
Assumptions Beliefs about teaching and learning
  • Students differ in their learning
  • preferences and need multiple and varied
    avenues to learning.

2. All students can learn what is important
for them to know.
3. Teachers make the difference.
27
Assumptions Beliefs about teaching and learning
4. Instruction must be meaningful.
5. Curriculum, assessment and instruction
are all of a piece Align what is
Written-Taught-Tested.
6. Diversity should be valued and respected.
28
Differentiation is not
  • Individualized instruction
  • Homogenous grouping
  • Tailoring the same suit of clothes
  • More faster

29
Differentiation is
  • Proactive
  • Qualitative
  • Rooted in Assessment
  • Student Centered
  • Organic

30
(No Transcript)
31
Differentiate
  • Students differ
  • in their readiness to work with a particular idea
    or skill at a given time,
  • in pursuits or topics that interest them, and
  • in learning profiles that may be shaped by
    gender, culture, learning style, or intelligence
    preference.

32
Differentiate
  • Content
  • Process
  • Product
  • (Affect)

33
Differentiate
  • Content (Input)
  • The content should
  • Be broad in scope.
  • Be organized around a major and substantive
    issue, problem, or theme.
  • Allow for the integration of multiple
    disciplines.

34
Content (Input)
  • Pacing
  • The rate at which students advance through the
    content is modified
  • early introduction of algebra or geometry
  • student given more time to study a topic
    in-depth

35
Content (Input)
  • Enrichment or Depth
  • An elaboration on the basic concepts taught in
    the standard program
  • In U.S. history, student reads specific short
    stories to provide more information about the
    Westward Movement

36
Content (Input)
  • Sophistication or Complexity
  • Allowing students to see the larger systems of
    ideas and concept related to the basic content
  • In a study of the American Revolution, the
    student relates that war to the nature of
    revolutions and movements

37
Content (Input)
  • Novelty
  • Introducing completely different material that
    would not be provided to the average student
  • The student takes part in a mini-course in
    archaeology

38
Activity
  • Round Robin Brainstorming
  • With your partner, take turns naming things you
    know about differentiating using content.
  • In 1 minute, how many can you name?

39
Differentiate
  • Process (How)
  • How the Input comes in
  • How the Input is learned
  • How the Input is used

40
Process (How)
  • Skills related to the subject or course of study
    that includes but is not limited to basic skills,
    creative and critical thinking skills, research
    skills and affective skills

41
Carol Ann Tomlinsons Equalizer
  • Foundational Transformational
  • Concrete Abstract
  • Simple Complex
  • Single Facet Multiple Facets
  • Small Leap Great Leap
  • More Structured More Open
  • Less Independence Greater Independence
  • Slow - Quick

42
Differentiate
  • Products (What is produced)
  • Products should be included as a means by which
    students communicate the reconceptualization of
    existing information and/or generation of new
    information.

California Association for the Gifted. Improving
Differentiated Curricula for the Gifted/Talented
A Reference and Workbook for Educators and
Parents, 1981
43
Product
  • Synthesis and application of the knowledge,
    concepts, and skills to communicate what is
    learned

44
Product Differentiation
  • Many times, the demonstration of what has been
    learned is assessed through paper and pencil
    tests. Designing and developing products goes
    way beyond this method and combines much more,
    such as advanced content, process skills, and
    organizational aspects. One or all areas of
    content can be combined into product development
    language arts, social studies, mathematics, arts,
    technology, and others.

The Ultimate Guide for Student Product
Development Evaluation
45
State Goal for Gifted Services
  • Students who participate in services designed
    for gifted students will demonstrate skills in
    self-directed learning, thinking, research, and
    communication as evidenced by the development of
    innovative products and creativity and are
    advanced in relation to students of similar age,
    experience, or environment. High school graduates
    who have participated in services for gifted
    students will have produced products and
    performances of professional quality as part of
    their program services.

46
Consider
  • How do practitioners organize their knowledge and
    skill in this field?
  • How does a practitioner sense whether approaches
    and methods are effective in a given instance?
  • According to what standards does the field
    measure success?

What questions would you add?
Questions adapted from The Parallel Curriculum
47
Activity
  • Describe a product that would be advanced
    compared to others for your class/content.
  • Describe the expectations of the student in
    creating this product.
  • What components would be included?
  • How would the students present their product?
  • What makes this product advanced for a G/T
    learner?

48
Affect
  • Risk Taking
  • Complexity
  • Curiosity
  • Imagination

49
Consider
  • What are the need of the students?
  • What is the teacher doing in the classroom?
  • What are the students doing?
  • With whom are the students interacting?
  • What kind of atmosphere is created?
  • How is the class differentiated?

50
Questions about Differentiating?
  • Content, Process, Product
  • According to Readiness, Interest, Learning Style

51
Activity
  • Fairness and Differentiation
  • Describe fair.
  • How might you discuss fairness and
    differentiation in your classroom?
  • Create a chart that would assess information you
    need in a meaningful way for your students.

52
Strategies
53
Activity
  • Differentiating in Your Classroom
  • The Forest and the Trees
  • Sometimes the use of new vocabulary can throw
    you off think of activities or lessons you are
    already doing in the classroom that implement at
    least one of the ideas discussed so far.
  • Share your ideas

54
Strategies for Differentiating
  • Interest and Readiness
  • Choices of Books
  • Homework Options
  • Student/Teacher Goal Setting
  • Varied Computer Programs
  • Independent Study
  • Learning Contracts
  • Mentors
  • Interest Groups

55
Strategies for Differentiating
  • Creativity
  • Brainstorming
  • Open-ended assignments
  • Divergent questioning
  • Creative Problem Solving
  • Simulations
  • Contracts
  • Differentiated products
  • Problem-Based Learning
  • WebQuests

56
Strategies for Differentiating
  • General Intellectual/Specific Academic
  • Compacting
  • Acceleration
  • Depth Complexity
  • Independent Research
  • Contracts
  • Higher Level Thinking
  • Differentiated Products
  • Tiered Assignments
  • Cubing
  • Mentors
  • Advanced Resources

57
Curriculum Compacting
  • 1. define the goals and outcomes of a
    particular unit or segment of instruction
  • 2. determine and document which students have
    already mastered most or all of a specified set
    of learning outcomes, and
  • 3. provide replacement strategies for material
    already mastered through the use of instructional
    options that enable a more challenging and
    productive use of the student's time.

Curriculum Compacting - http//www.sp.uconn.edu/7
enrcgt/sem/semart08.html
58
Curriculum Compacting
  • Pinpointing students for pre-testing
  • Look at academic records, standardized tests,
    class performance, evaluations from former
    teachers.
  • Watch for students who complete tasks quickly and
    accurately, finish reading assignments ahead of
    their peers, seem bored or lost in daydreams, or
    bring extra reading from home.
  • Use achievement and aptitude tests and focus on
    sections where the students scores are above
    average.

Curriculum Compacting Reis, Burns, Renzulli
59
Curriculum Compacting - http//www.sp.uconn.edu/7
enrcgt/sem/semart08.html
60
Curriculum Compacting
  • Pre-Test Options
  • Mastery
  • Partial mastery
  • Study guide

61
Curriculum Compacting
  • Study Indicates
  • 95 of the teachers were able to identify high
    ability students in their classes and document
    students' strengths.
  • 80 of the teachers were able to document the
    curriculum that high ability students had yet to
    master, list appropriate instructional strategies
    for students to demonstrate mastery, and document
    an appropriate mastery standard.
  • Approximately 40-50 of traditional classroom
    material could be eliminated for targeted
    students in one or more of the following content
    areas mathematics, language arts, science, and
    social studies.
  • The most frequently compacted subject was
    mathematics, followed by language arts.
  • Science and social studies were compacted when
    students demonstrated very high ability in those
    areas.

Curriculum Compacting Study- http//www.gifted.uco
nn.edu/reiswest.html
62
Curriculum Compacting
  • Decisions regarding replacement
  • activities should be based on
  • Time
  • Space
  • Resources
  • School policy
  • Help from other faculty
  • If students understand that by demonstrating
    proficiency they will earn some time to pursue
    their own interests, they will often work to earn
    this opportunity.

Curriculum Compacting Reis, Burns, Renzulli
63
Sandra Kaplans Depth and Complexity
64
I-Search
  • Research, but with focus on the process
  • Eliminates cut-and-paste reports
  • Interview/communication skills
  • Clearly defined rubric
  • Choice

Ken Macrorie, The I-Search Paper
65
I-Search
  • Ask
  • What do I know?
  • What do I want to know?
  • Plan
  • How can I find out? What resources can I use?
  • Search
  • Produce
  • What did I learn?
  • About the search process
  • About the topic

66
DBQ
  • Focused
  • Big, open-ended question
  • Primary sources
  • Scaffolding questions
  • Vary to meet individual needs
  • Maintain high rigor
  • Graded with rubric
  • http//www.esc13.net/ships/
  • http//regentsprep.org/Regents/ushisgov/essays/ind
    ex.htm

67
Learning Contracts
  • Learning contracts support differentiation by
    organizing students responsibilities for
    replacement tasks and documenting the customized
    learning plan and process. Contracts provide
    opportunities for students to work independently
    with some freedom while maintaining the teachers
    instructional objectives.

Dr. Bertie Kingore Differentiation Simplified,
Realistic, and Effective
68
Learning Contracts
  • Contracts can be used for a variety of reasons,
    including students who are compacting out of the
    regular curriculum.
  • Communicate what is expected
  • Encourage students responsibility for learning
  • Specify positive work behaviors

Dr. Bertie Kingore Differentiation Simplified,
Realistic, and Effective
69
(No Transcript)
70
Learning Contracts
  • More information on contracts can be found in
  • Teaching Gifted Kids in the Regular Classroom by
    Susan Winebrenner
  • Differentiation Simplified, Realistic, and
    Effective by Bertie Kingore

71
Tiered Lessons/Activities
  • Addresses a particular standard, key concept, and
    generalization, but allows several pathways for
    students to arrive at an understanding of these
    components, based on the students interests,
    readiness, or learning profiles.

Critical Questions About Tiered Lessons -
http//www.bsu.edu/teachers/services/ctr/javits/In
struction/criticalquestions.htm
72
Tiered Lessons/Activities
  • Used when the teacher wants all students to focus
    on the same essential ideas and key skills.
  • The use of tiered assignments maximizes the
    likelihood that
  • each student comes away with key skills and
    understandings.
  • each student is appropriately challenged.

http//www.rockwood.k12.mo.us/curriculum/staffdev/
diff/tiered_files/frame.htm
73
Tiered Lessons/Activities
  • What can you tier?
  • Activities
  • Lessons
  • Homework
  • Learning centers

74
Tiered Lessons/Activities
  • Steps
  • Identify the grade level and subject
  • Identify the standard being targeted
  • Identify key concepts and generalizations

75
Tiered Lessons/Activities
  • 4. Be sure students have the background necessary
    to be successful
  • 5. Develop the assessment
  • 6. Create one activity that is interesting,
    requires high-level thinking and is clearly
    focused on the key concept, skill or
    generalization.

76
Tiered Lessons/Activities
  • 7. Determine what you will tier (content,
    process, product)
  • 8. Determine how you will group (readiness,
    interest, learning style)
  • 9. Determine the number of tiers necessary (based
    on the students in your classroom)

Critical Questions About Tiered Lessons -
http//www.bsu.edu/teachers/services/ctr/javits/In
struction/criticalquestions.htm
http//www.rockwood.k12.mo.us/curriculum/staffdev/
diff/tiered_files/frame.htm
77
Movie
78
Middle School Examples
79
Activity
  • Investigate a Tiered Assignment
  • Group according to level (h.s., m.s., elem.)
  • Read packet
  • Discuss what and how lessons are differentiated
  • Thoughts, Feelings, Ideas, etc.
  • Be prepared to give a brief explanation of lesson
    and summary of discussion to the whole group
  • Samples Online
  • http//ideanet.doe.state.in.us/exceptional/gt/tier
    ed_curriculum/welcome.html

80
Tiered Lessons/Activities
  • Things to consider
  • Scaffolding
  • Equally Engaging Activities
  • Flexible Grouping
  • Groups can and should change depending on the
    activity.
  • Does grouping mean that students have to sit
    together?

81
Cubing
  • Cubing has many of the same functions as tiered
    lessons for differentiation
  • Primary difference is the hands-on nature

82
Cubing
  • Each side of the cube has a prompt

Explain
Compare
Describe
The words themselves can vary for different
activities as long as every cube has the same
prompts
83
Cubing
  • Each prompt has an activity geared toward the
    students readiness, interest, or learning
    profile

Illustrate the similarities.
Compare
Create a T-chart listing the similarities.
Describe the similarities in a short paragraph.
84
Cubing
  • Things to consider (again)
  • Scaffolding
  • Equally Engaging Activities
  • Flexible Grouping
  • Groups can and should change depending on the
    activity.
  • Does grouping mean that students have to sit
    together?

85
ActivityYour Turn to Plan
  • Compacting
  • Contracts
  • Tiered Lessons
  • Cubing
  • Which is most appropriate for you?
  • Use it? Modify it Make a hybrid

86
Things to Consider
  • What do you want the student to know and be able
    to do?
  • What resources and support are available?
  • Pre-assessment?
  • (See handout)

87
Will my plan work?
  • Does the content show
  • Authentic skills
  • Increasing depth and complexity
  • That all levels of the assignment are equally
    challenging.
  • At each level are there
  • Significant opportunities for higher-level
    thinking, complex problem solving and/or
    open-ended response
  • Thinking skills that are taught in an authentic
    context

Adapted from Proposed Rubric for Self-Reflection
of Tiered Assignments    by Sally Simon -
http//170.161.50.3/Goals2000/rubric1.htm
88
Will my plan work?
  • Student products would
  • Show a synthesis of learning and express that
    learning in a complex way
  • Be based on authentic professional models
  • Be presented to an authentic, appropriate
    audience for critique
  • Pre-assessments
  • Pre-assessment matches the content and task on
    many levels of complexity

Adapted from Proposed Rubric for Self-Reflection
of Tiered Assignments    by Sally Simon -
http//170.161.50.3/Goals2000/rubric1.htm
89
Will my plan work?
  • Instruction
  • A variety of learning styles are addressed in
    instruction
  • Anchor activities are available
  • Student grouping is flexible
  • Assessment
  • Clear expectations for quality are established
    and communicated to students prior to assessment
  • Students have an opportunity to self-evaluate
    their work and get feedback from peers.

Adapted from Proposed Rubric for Self-Reflection
of Tiered Assignments    by Sally Simon -
http//170.161.50.3/Goals2000/rubric1.htm
90
Assessment
91
State Goal for Gifted Services
  • Students who participate in services designed
    for gifted students will demonstrate skills in
    self-directed learning, thinking, research, and
    communication as evidenced by the development of
    innovative products and performances that reflect
    individuality and creativity and are advanced in
    relation to students of similar age, experience,
    or environment. High school graduates who have
    participated in services for gifted students will
    have produced products and performances of
    professional quality as part of their
    program services.

92
Assessment
  • In a differentiated classroom, students often
    work at different paces and are assessed
    according to varied learning goals. Two
    important features of a differentiated classroom
    are students rights to begin where they are
    and to expect to grow as learners.
  • - Carol Ann Tomlinson
  • How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed
    Ability Classrooms

93
Assessment
  • Assessments are tasks assigned to students in
    order to determine the extent to which they have
    acquired the knowledge and/or skills embedded
    within a performance standard or content goal.


Adapted from The Parallel Curriculum pp. 48-52
Corwin Press
94
Assessment
  • A good assessment instrument can be a learning
    experience. But more to the point, it is
    extremely desirable to have assessment occur in
    the context of students working on problems,
    projects, or products that genuinely engage them,
    that hold their interest and motivate them to do
    well. Such exercises may not be as easy to
    design as the standard multiple-choice entry, but
    they are far more likely to elicit a students
    full repertoire of skills and to yield
    information that is useful for subsequent advice
    and placement.
  • -Howard Gardner
  • From Multiple Intelligences The Theory in
    Practice

95
Assessment
  • Rubrics
  • Many FREE sites are available on the Web
  • Teach-nology.com
  • School.discovery.com
  • Rubistar.com
  • 4teachers.org

96
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102
Assessment
  • Classroom Based Informal Assessment
  • Reflective Journals and Logs
  • The main thing Ill remember is
  • A new insight or discovery is
  • I really understood
  • Im really confused about
  • Something I can use beyond school is
  • Connections Im making with other things I know
    are

David Lazear Multiple Intelligence Approaches
to Assessment
103
Assessment
  • Before-and-After Scenarios
  • Analyze the impact of the unit or lesson on
    yourself using this chart
  • Now write How Im different as a result of this
    unit or lesson.

David Lazear Multiple Intelligence Approaches
to Assessment
104
Considerations for Lesson Development
  • State Goal for Gifted Services
  • Students who participate in services designed for
    gifted students will demonstrate skills in
    self-directed learning, thinking, research, and
    communication as evidenced by the development of
    innovative products and creativity and are
    advanced in relation to students of similar age,
    experience, or environment. High school graduates
    who have participated in services for gifted
    students will have produced products and
    performances of professional quality as part of
    their program services.

105
Have we met the Workshop Goals?
  • Better understanding of the elements of
    creativity
  • Better understanding of the components of
    differentiation
  • Examine selected strategies for differentiating
    instruction for gifted students

106
Contact Information
  • Susan Maxey
  • 919-5285
  • Susan.Maxey_at_esc13.txed.net
  • Carol Curtiss919-5288Carol.Curtiss_at_esc13.txed.n
    et
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