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Title: Chapter 1 Assessment Prehistory 1800s


1
Chapter 1 AssessmentPrehistory 1800s
  • Jeff Weiler
  • Period 2
  • 11/00/05

2
How To Use This Guide
(Almost anything that has to do with any of the
sections or any arrow will help you navigate this
guide.)
Section One
  • Table of Contents
  • Life in America
  • The Changing Environment
  • The Olmec
  • The Maya
  • The Toltec and the Aztec
  • The Southwest
  • The East and Southeast

3
Table of Contents
4
Section One
  • Table of Contents
  • Life in America
  • The Changing Environment
  • The Olmec
  • The Maya
  • The Toltec and the Aztec
  • The Southwest
  • The East and Southeast

5
The First Americans
  • Scientists believe that long after human
    populations were established in Europe, Africa,
    and Asia, the American continents were void of
    human life. From the arctic to the southernmost
    tip of South America no human had ever left their
    footprints in the soil or heard their voice echo
    through the woods. The first Americans are known
    as Paleo-Indians, they most likely followed the
    herds of animals that they depended on for food
    across Beringia to their new homeland. The
    Paleo-Indians knew skills that they carried on
    with them to their new home, some of these skills
    included fire making, and the ability to find
    food and shelter. The Paleo-Indians were hunter
    gatherers who hunted whatever game their
    primitive stone-tipped weapons could kill. These
    animals included mammoths, caribou, bison, and
    other mammals. They used the animals for food and
    clothing. In the spring and summer they gathered
    berries, roots and any other edible plants they
    could find. The Paleo-Indians were nomads,
    wandering around in search of food.

6
Life in A New Land
  • Archaeologists agree that the first people to
    visit the vast American wilderness were from
    Asia. Although the date is not clear, they
    estimate these humans came between 38,000 and
    10,000 B.C. It is believed that during this
    period glaciers covered northern Asia, North
    America, and Europe. These glaciers were so large
    and contained so much water that the sea level
    dropped by several hundred feet. This drop in sea
    level exposed a wide land bridge between Siberia
    and what is now Alaska. This land bridge allowed
    the Paleo-Indians to cross into what is now North
    America.

7
The Changing Environment
Between 10,000 and 5,000 B.C. the climate of the
Americas grew warmer and drier. This change in
weather greatly transformed the landscape. The
land was left looking close to how the European
explorers would find it. Scientists believe that
during this change in climate Paleo-Indians
started moving south. Over length of a thousand
years they established varied cultures in regions
all through the Americans. Unfortunately none of
the Native American peoples of that era kept
written records, because of this, a lot of their
history is lost. Through modern science and the
profession of archeology we can still learn about
the early Native Americans. The archaeologists
study the ruins and artifacts of ancient races to
create a rough understanding of how they lived.
Other scientists study the myths and legends of
the Native Americans that have been passed down
by previous generations. By piecing these myths
together scientists can establish an
understanding of how certain events happened.

8
The Agricultural Revolution
  • One of the biggest changes the Paleo-Indians
    made was the shift from hunting and gathering to
    the raising and farming of plants. This shift is
    called the Agricultural Revolution. The reason
    for this change is because all of the big animals
    the Paleo-Indians relied on for food died out
    first in Africa, Asia, and Europe then finally in
    the Americas. By 5000 B.C. communities in Mexico
    were growing maize, and people in the Andes were
    growing potatoes by 2000 B.C. By 1500 B.C.
    farming was running well in much of the Andes,
    Central America, and Mexico. People living in
    what is now the southwestern United States began
    farming around 3500 B.C. It is believed that
    these desert cultures acquired their farming
    techniques from their southern neighbors. The
    transition to farming crops increased food
    supplies and made them more reliable. This
    allowed the populations to increase, small
    villages to form around farmers, and provided a
    new reason to invent machines such as animal
    pulled plows. These inventions increased
    productivity and allowed populations to grow and
    cities to emerge in southwestern Asia around 3500
    B.C. This urban revolution spread through other
    parts of Asia, northern Africa, and the Americas.
    As these cities grew a more detailed division of
    labor and Men and women specialized in certain
    jobs including farming, cooking, becoming
    merchants, raising children and being government
    officials.

9
Native American Cultures
  • Around 1400 A.D. more than 650 distinct cultures
    were living in the Americas. An area called
    Mesoamerica of Middle America was home to some of
    the earliest large civilizations. This region now
    known as southern Mexico and northern Central
    America boasted a population of 25 million at its
    height.

10
The Olmec
  • The Olmec was the first great Mesoamerican
    culture. The Olmec lived on the coast along the
    Gulf of Mexico. The Olmec is called the mother
    culture of Mesoamerica by historians because the
    culture had a strong influence on later
    societies. The Olmec culture develop somewhere
    between 1200 and 400 B.C. San Lorenzo, one of the
    first Olmec settlements could have emerged as
    early as 1200 B.C. Archaeologists studying San
    Lorenzo have discovered many small clusters of
    earthen mounds, pyramids, and a rectangular court
    yard believed to be the earliest ball court in
    Mesoamerica. This game was played by bouncing a
    rubber ball off their legs hips and elbows in
    attempt to put the ball into one of two stones
    with a hole in it just wide enough to fit the
    ball through, and win the game. The Olmec also
    placed huge carved stones that look like heads,
    these carved heads are believed to be sculptures
    of their rulers. The Olmec also developed the
    beginning of a calendar and a method of writing.

11
The Maya
  • The Maya inherited much from the Olmec culture
    and created a reputation about 300 A.D. Their
    civilization thrived for more than 500 years, in
    what is now southern Mexico and Guatemala. The
    Maya adjusted the Olmec calendar, creating a more
    accurate system than the calendar being used at
    that same time in Europe. Mayan mathematicians
    created a number system that included zero before
    Europeans adapted to the concept from the Arabs.
    Maya scholars also developed an intricate system
    of writing with glyphs, this was the only
    complete system of writing in early America. This
    system of writing allowed the Maya to communicate
    nonverbally. By studying the glyphs we have
    learned how three settlements emerged (Tikal in
    present day Guatemala, Palenque in what is now
    Mexico, and Copán in present day Honduras)
    emerged as the major cities in the Maya Empire.
    Most of the Maya population lived in cities. Many
    farmed and some traded with other cultures. The
    Maya civilization began to decline around A.D.
    900. Archaeologists are unsure why this decline
    occurred.

12
The Toltec and the Aztec
  • Before the Maya started to decline, invading
    groups from the north descended upon a region in
    central Mexico. The Toltec came to dominate the
    area some time around A.D. 900. The Toltec built
    a great city-state called Tula. The toltec empire
    became the center of a great trading network.
    Costa Rican pottery has been found at Toltec
    sites. During the 1100s, the Toltec society was
    weakened by internal conflicts. The empire fell
    to a new wave of invaders from the north. The
    conquerors of the Toltec fought among themselves
    until one group emerged victorious. This group,
    the Aztec, or Mexica, as they called themselves
    were a fierce society of warriors but they
    established their capital, Tenochtitlán (the site
    of present day Mexico City) on an island in Lake
    Texcoco, and adapted the ways of the Toltec.
    Eventually Tenochtitlán became an impressive city
    with hundreds of buildings, as many as 300,000
    residents, and an elaborate system of canals.
    After 200 years, the Aztec had created an empire
    of 5 million people. A class system developed
    separating the rich from the poor. Men and women
    from the noble class (highest class) served as
    priests and governmental officials, while
    ordinary citizens worked as laborers on farms,
    servants, and slaves. War was viewed as a sacred
    duty, they believed that the sun god,
    Huitzilopochtli had to battle the forces of
    darkness each night in order to arise again and
    begin a new day. The Aztec believed that human
    sacrifices gave Huitzilopochtli the strength to
    fight the darkness and rise again the next day.
    Thousands of war prisoners were sacrificed to
    satisfy their god.

13
Early Cultures of North America
  • The farming methods, pottery styles, and social
    practices of Mesoamerican civilizations reached
    far into North America. The cultures from
    Mesoamerica and what is now southwestern United
    States are very similar. However the north
    American population was to small and scattered
    to adapt to the traditions of the large
    Mesoamerican cultures so regional cultures were
    developed.

14
The Southwest
  • The Anasazi and other groups settled in the
    barren hills and deserts of the Southwest.
    Between A.D. 700 and 1300 the Anasazi built rock
    and adobe dwellings with multiple stories. These
    buildings were created in the hollows of cliffs
    right up against the back of the hollow. This is
    why these dwellings are referred to as cliff
    dwellings". Some cliff dwellings contained as
    many as 800 rooms. Anasazi families built their
    rooms around plazas. There was a kiva for each
    extended family where they could for ceremonial
    reasons. Although they are unsure, archaeologists
    believe that some event happened forcing them to
    abandon their communities around 1300, by the
    mid1400s their culture had been demolished. The
    most accepted reason for their downfall is a
    severe drought. It is also believed that the
    Anasazi were ancestors of the Pueblo Indians, who
    were encountered by Spanish explorers in the
    1500s.

15
The East and Southeast
  • The Adena and Hopewell cultures of the Eastern
    Woodlands combined farming with hunting and
    gathering to be able to provide large populations
    with food. These cultures are often referred to
    as the Mound Builders ruled the eastern region
    for approximately 1,700. Both cultures created
    distinct earthworks that served as elaborate
    burial mounds. The Adena originated in the Ohio
    River valley around 1000 B.C. and eventually
    extended their rule from present-day New York to
    Kentucky, however the Adena were pushed out of
    the region by the Hopewell about 300 B.C.
    Hopewell extended their cultural influence into
    present-day Louisiana, New York, and Wisconsin.
    A more advanced Mississippian culture of the
    Southeast later replaced the Hopewell culture,
    which fell around A.D. 400. The Mississippian
    culture grew and occupied the Southeast and
    Midwest, this growth started around A.D. 700 in
    the lower Mississippi River valley. Massive
    Temple mounds resembling Mesoamerican pyramids
    dominated their villages. The largest
    Mississippian settlement was found at Cahokia,
    near present-day St. Louis. This settlement
    extended six miles and contained 85 burial and
    temple mounds. At its peak, Cahokia may have had
    a population of approximately 40,000. The chiefs
    of Cahokia controlled a network of trade routes
    stretching from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of
    Mexico and into Mesoamerica. Cahokia was
    abandoned during the 1200s because of climate
    changes or crop failures. Even though Cahokia was
    abandoned the Mississipian culture still grew
    elsewhere for several centuries.

16
Section Two
  • East African City-States
  • West African Kingdoms

17
China
  • Vast areas of ancient Asia were controlled by
    the Chinese Empire. When China began to trade
    extensively with other kingdoms the Empire had
    many technological and cultural developments to
    share. The Chinese made significant advances in
    science and technologies while under the rule of
    the Qin and Han dynasties (between 221 B.C. and
    A.D. 220). Chinese astronomers calculated the
    length of the year very accurately and observed
    sunspots. The Chinese also invented a simple yet
    highly sensitive seismograph to register
    earthquakes. Another important Chinese invention
    was paper, paper was invented in A.D. 105. The
    use of paper spread to other Asian areas and
    eventually reached Europe. The Chinese invented a
    system of printing using carved blocks of wood.
    This invention allowed them to create the worlds
    first printed book, the Diamond Sutra, in 868.
    Chinese society changed in the 1200s when Mongol
    invaders from Central Asia conquered the country.
    The Mongol Leader, Kublai Kahn, was the grandson
    of Genghis Kahn who had established a powerful
    empire. In What is now Beijing Kublai Khan set up
    his capital in 1264. Under Kublai Khans rule,
    China became the largest empire in the world. The
    empire became more open to trade with the Western
    world. After Kublai Kahn died in 1294, the
    Mongol's power declined and the Chinese
    eventually gained control. The new leaders tried
    to protect their culture by isolating it from
    anyone who lived outside of the Asian world. They
    also limited the amount of foreigners they
    allowed to inter their empire. The Chinese trade
    continued and merchants traveled to and from
    other countries following an intricate network of
    paths and carrying many goods. In 1405 the
    Chinese became more open to the world and sent
    seven sailing expeditions to explore new lands
    and trade with their people. These Expeditions
    sailed to present day Indonesia, Sri Lanka, The
    Arabian Peninsula, Vietnam, and East Africa.
    After China explored these areas the empire
    returned to relative isolation.

18
The Islamic World
  • Trade played an important part in Africas early
    history. The trade routes established between
    Asia and Africa connected the two countries.
    Asian traders exchanged goods such as cloth and
    horses for African goods including gold ivory,
    and slaves. After 900, Muslim merchants
    controlled much of this trade. The Muslims follow
    the Islam religion. Islam was founded by an Arab
    merchant named Muhammad after he experienced a
    vision in the year 610. Muhammads teachings
    emphasized devotion to one God, Allah. Muhammad
    and other Muslim leaders also commanded his
    followers to convert nonbelievers. Muslim armies
    helped spread the faith by conquering new lands,
    but many people were converted by Islamic traders
    who carried the Quran (the holy book of
    Muhammads teachings) and constantly preached
    their religious beliefs wherever they went. Vast
    areas of Asia, Africa, and Europe had become part
    of the Muslim Empire by the year 750. The Islamic
    world also had a very intelligent population.
    Muslim scholars improved algebra and excelled at
    mathematics. The Muslims also refined the Arabic
    number system and the concept of zero by adopting
    knowledge from Indian mathematicians. Muslim
    geographers improved the art of cartography, or
    map making. Many of these advances were spread
    outside the Islamic world through trade.

19
The African Trading Kingdoms
  • Muslim merchants relied on an intricate network
    of trading kingdoms in Africa to help them spread
    their faith. These kingdoms had existed on the
    continent for centuries. A pattern of trading
    methods created by Early African kingdoms was
    adapted by most later African empires.

20
East African City-States
  • During the 700s many African people moved to the
    eastern coast and became involved in trade with
    Asia. Some traders shipped goods to the Arabian
    Peninsula. These shipped goods were then traded
    to Asian merchants. Many of these traders were
    Arabs who had traveled to East Africa to escape
    mayhem in their homelands. Eventually the
    combination of newcomers and locals allowed the
    development of a culture Unique to the East
    African Coast. Overtime, many East African
    trading villages grew into powerful and wealthy
    city-states. The most successful city-states were
    the northern city-states. An example of a
    northern city-state is Mogadishu. Eventually
    commercial activity moved southward.

21
West African Kingdoms
  • Ghana the earliest of the West African Trading
    kingdoms, developed from a trading post that was
    founded around A.D. 300 at the southern end of a
    caravan route from Morocco. Ghana has been
    described as the land of gold. Ghanas leader
    around 1065 (Tenkaminen) was described as the
    master of a large empire and a formidable power.
    Ghanas empire began to fall when it was overrun
    by Muslims in 1076 and was eventually conquered
    by its neighbors, the Malinke people, who
    established a new kingdom called Mali. The best
    known leader of Mali was Mansa Musa, who ruled
    from 1307 to sometime around 1332. As a devoted
    Muslim, he undertook a hajj, or a pilgrimage, to
    the Islamic holy city of Mecca in 1324. Mansa
    Musa saw this journey as an opportunity to inform
    other regions of Malis tremendous wealth. After
    Mansa Musa died in the 1330s, Mali slowly lost
    its position of power. A chain of leaders from
    various West African kingdoms controlled the
    major north-south trade routes. In the mid-1300s
    the relatively defenseless and weak state of
    Songhay which was once under Malis rule won its
    independence and eventually became the dominate
    power in West Africa. Songhay thrived as a center
    of Islamic learning. One of its cities Timbuktu
    was home to three universities and 180 Islamic
    schools.

22
Europe During the Rise of Nation-States
  • The European's involvement in trade over the
    centuries had varied levels of activity. European
    trade with Africa and Asia during the era of
    large trading kingdoms was limited, but the
    Europeans had been involved in trade centuries as
    part of the Roman Empire. In 509 B.C. the
    city-state of Rome established a republic. By 27
    B.C. the Roman Republic had grown into an empire.
    This empire went on to rule most of Europe and
    some of what is now the Islamic world. Science
    and Art were two strong points of the Roman
    Empire. Because of this, the Romans invented many
    inventions and created many ideas that are useful
    in our everyday lives such as the basis for
    plumbing systems, modern buildings and highways.
    Unfortunately, the Empire grew too large to
    contain under one government, was attacked by
    tribes migrating from northern Europe and
    eventually fell in the late A.D. 400s. By A.D.
    500 the western part of the Roman Empire was
    reduced to ruins. From the ruined empire many
    small warring kingdoms rose, this marked the
    beginning of Europes Middle Ages which lasted
    from approximately A.D. 5001500. One of the most
    feared of the tribes that migrated from Europe
    were the Vikings of northern Europe. The Vikings
    were a group of highly skilled Scandinavian
    seafarers who sailed thousands of miles to raid,
    trade with, and inhabit new territory. They began
    to move into Ireland and England around 800. By
    the early 900s many Vikings had settled into
    northern France and others had sailed west to
    Iceland and Greenland. Around the year 1000,
    Viking leader Leif Eriksson established a
    settlement in North America. This is believed to
    be the first European settlement in North
    America. This settlement was called Vinland where
    he and his followers encountered many Native
    Americans. However the settlement did not last.
    Because of Europes isolation, few non-Vikings
    even knew that this event had taken place.

23
Section Three
  • The Unification of Spain
  • La Católica

24
The Early Middle Ages
  • Charlemagne's nobility system played an
    important part in Europe during the Middle Ages.
    Kings relied on the nobles to protect their
    territory and to conduct the business of
    government. To combat invaders such as Vikings,
    many European rulers enlisted the aid of nobles
    under a system known as feudalism. In return for
    land and protection from invasion, the nobles
    pledged their loyalty and military assistance to
    the rulers. Feudal society operated under a
    strict class system. The highest was the noble
    class. Nobles managed estates called manors.
    Manors are large houses with fields, and a
    village. The manors were kept in working order by
    peasants known as serfs, who provided most of the
    labor required to keep the manor functioning.
    Noblemen spent their days managing their estates,
    hunting, or engaging in battle. Most noblewomen
    spent their days leading servants in many duties
    including caring for livestock, cleaning,
    weaving, spinning, cooking, and working in the
    fields. While the noblemen were away fighting,
    the women were usually left in charge of running
    the estates. Most serfs spent their days in
    physical labor. Men and women alike worked in the
    fields, and women performed household tasks as
    well. A large portion of the crops grown by the
    serfs was given to the lords. Many workers were
    required to pay fees to their nobles, such as
    taxes on marriage or inheritances. Few people in
    feudal Europe ever traveled more than 25 miles
    from their homes. Life centered around the manor
    and the Roman Catholic Church. Virtually all the
    important events in people's lives took place at
    their village church. Baptisms, weddings, and
    funerals were conducted and performed by parish
    priests along with mass and many acts of
    charity. In monasteries and convents, monks and
    nuns worshiped, studied the scriptures, and
    preserved the writings of ancient Greeks and
    Romans. A rich heritage of religious music,
    tapestries, illuminated manuscripts, and grand
    cathedrals a were left behind by the medieval
    church which promoted art and culture. Most
    important, the Roman Catholic Church, led by the
    pope, played a leading role in guiding European
    politics. It often settled disputes between
    warring Christian kingdoms. Political alliances
    and suggested various courses of action to
    political leaders were sometimes negotiated by
    church leaders. About 1100, a series of changes
    including new farm equipment such as heavy plows
    that increased the amount of land that could be
    farmed this new equipment brought about a gradual
    end to feudal society. Laborers could produce
    enough food to sustain large armies and a growing
    number of townspeople. As the military strength
    of the kingdoms grew, invaders were less likely
    to attempt to take by force what they could get
    by trade. Manors were replaced by trading towns
    and cities as the center of economic activity. As
    a result, many serfs moved from manors to towns,
    where they could either work for wages or farm
    rented plots of land surrounding the town.

25
The Crusades And Trade
  • Another reason for the shift from feudalism was
    as series of military and religious expeditions
    known as the Crusades. Between 1096 and the late
    1200s, waves of Christian crusaders fought
    Muslims for control of Palestine. This area of
    the Middle East (eastern Mediterranean) was
    sacred to Christians, Jews, and Muslims. Since
    the 600s various groups of Muslims had controlled
    the Holy Land. In 1071 the sacred city of
    Jerusalem fell to Muslims from Central Asia. This
    development made it increasingly difficult for
    Christians to visit the holy city. The First
    Crusade began in 1096 as an effort to retake
    Jerusalem. Christian invaders from Europe
    captured the city and established several
    kingdoms in the area. Muslims retook Jerusalem in
    the late 1100s, however, this resulted in
    additional Crusades. The Crusades had important
    consequences for trade. Merchants in the Italian
    city-states of Genoa, Venice, and Pisa funded the
    Crusades in return for trading privileges. Rare
    spices, fine silks, and other exotic Asian goods
    were brought back by Italian traders from the
    Muslim lands. Trade changed Europe's political
    and social order. The merchants who organized
    trading voyages began to form a new social
    classthe bourgeoisie or urban middle class. The
    bourgeoisie supported monarchs, who could provide
    better political stability and allow trade to
    grow freely. In return, the bourgeoisie demanded
    a more economic and political freedom for
    themselves and their cities. Kings and lords
    reluctantly granted self-government to towns.
    Some towns even organized meetings to help the
    monarchs decide on taxes and government policies.
    In 1215, English nobles who were angered by new
    taxes forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, a
    agreement limiting the powers of the monarchy. In
    addition to guaranteeing basic liberties for
    nobles, the charter protected their trading
    rights

26
The Renaissance
  • In addition to driving trade and political
    reform, the Crusades contributed to a creation of
    European learning and artistic creativity later
    known as the Renaissance. During the early Middle
    Ages, much of Europe had been intellectually
    isolated from the rest of the world. Crusaders
    and traders returned classical Greek and Roman
    literature and new ideas in science, technology,
    art, and philosophy to Europe. The works of
    classical and Muslim thinkers inspired European
    scholars to learn more about science. Roger
    Bacon, an English monk and scientist, thought
    about the future. The renaissance started in
    Italy during the 1300s and had soon spread to the
    rest of Europe. A major factor in this cultural
    transition was the work of a German printer,
    Johannes Gutenberg. Around 1450 he invented a
    printing press that used movable type. His
    printing press made it possible to print a large
    number of books quickly, this allowed information
    to be dispersed rapidly.

Roger Bacon
27
The Rise of Nation-States
  • The other great transformation of the Middle
    Ages was the rise of nation-states. Feudal
    kingdoms, independent city-states, and
    church-controlled lands slowly gave way to
    national monarchies in a lot of western Europe.
    England, France, Portugal, and Spain were among
    the first to achieve national unity during this
    period . Most often these changes came as a
    result of warfare, but occasionally they were
    the result of marriage between royal families.
    Portugal won its independence from the kingdom of
    Castile in the 1100s and was united under King
    John I in the early 1400s. Louis XI united the
    various French provinces by the time his reign
    ended in 1483. After 30 years of bloody fighting,
    Henry VII united England in 1485.

28
The Unification of Spain
  • Four Christian kingdomsAragon, Castile,
    Navarre, and Portugalcontrolled most of the
    Iberian Peninsula. Muslims controlled the
    southernmost kingdom of Granada. The first step
    toward the unification of Spain occurred when
    Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon
    married in 1469. They did not unite their
    kingdoms until 1479. However, they did quickly
    join their forces in the Reconquista, the ongoing
    battle to recapture Spanish lands from the
    Muslims. The Reconquista ended in 1492, when
    Spain defeated the Muslims in Granada. Isabella
    and Ferdinand believed that the best way to unify
    their kingdom was to make Spain a completely
    Catholic nation. Having already expelled the
    Muslims, in March 1492 they ordered all Jews to
    convert to Catholicism or leave Spain.

Isabella of Castile
29
La Católica
  • Isabella's efforts to promote Catholicism in
    Spain earned her the title la Católica (the
    Catholic) granted by Pope Alexander VI. Being the
    daughter of John II, Isabella lived from 1451 to
    1504. While her older half-brother, King Enrique
    IV, ruled Castile, Isabella lived with her
    grandmother. From an early age Isabella developed
    strong beliefs about the purpose of the monarchy.
    In 1474, five years after marrying Ferdinand, she
    became queen of Castile following the death of
    her brother. In a speech designed to motivate her
    subjects for battle in 1475, Isabella made a
    passionate announcement.
  • "What greater honor, what greater benefit, what
    greater service to God, could there be than
    joining battle? . . . If you say to me that
    women, since they do not face such dangers, ought
    not to speak of them . . . to this I say that I
    do not know who risks more than I do, for I
    risked my King and Lord Ferdinand, whom I love
    above all else in the world."
  • Isabella, quoted in Isabel the Queen, by Peggy
    K. Liss
  • Isabella's followers considered her a powerful
    monarch. Ambassador Pedro Mártir, on his return
    from Egypt in 1502, described her as "stronger
    than a strong man, more constant than any human
    soul, a marvelous example of honesty and virtue
    Nature has made no other woman like her."
  • Isabella and Ferdinand's aggressive rule did
    much to achieve their goal of an all-Catholic
    Spain. However, their religious intolerance
    carried a price. In expelling nearly 150,000 Jews
    they expelled some of the nation's leading
    bankers, government officials, merchants, and
    scholars who were all jews.

30
Section Four
  • Trade Monopolies
  • New Technology
  • Prince Henrys School
  • African Explorations

31
Sailing In Search Of Trade
  • Wealthy Europeans wanted products from African,
    China, and Persia. Some of these items included
    gold, grain, silk, glass, and rugs. Other
    products included cinnamon, cloves, and nutmeg
    from the Spice Islands of the East Indies, and
    pepper from India to flavor and preserve their
    foods. Demand for these costly goods motivated
    Europeans to seek the most economical trade route
    possible.

32
Trade Monopolies
  • Muslim trading empires and Italian city-states
    controlled the trade from Asia and Africa. Prices
    for goods were often high because these were
    usually in high demand and were traded a number
    of times. Each time an item reached a trader they
    raised the price. Very little of the profit went
    to the Muslim traders who kept the Asian trade
    routes safe. However, much more of their profit
    was used to pay the Italian merchants from Genoa
    and Venice. They purchased the goods from Muslim
    traders in North Africa or in Black Sea ports and
    then shipped them across the Mediterranean Sea to
    be sold to European customers.
  • The newly emerging nation-states of Europe were
    annoyed with Genoa and Venice's near-monopoly of
    East-West trade and wanted a share of the profit.
    Other European merchants began looking for less
    expensive ways to get Asian goods. An all-sea
    route to the East seemed the most promising
    answer.

33
New Technology
  • Europeans could never have followed their
    dreams of reaching the East without new
    technological advances. Inaccurate navigational
    tools and the Catholic Church's control over
    scientific inquiry limited cartographers' ability
    to accurately chart Europe and its surrounding
    areas.
  • By the Middle Ages, most educated Europeans
    believed that God had created Earth as a sphere.
    Unfortunately the church required geographers to
    follow its biblical scholars' interpretations
    that Earth was flat. Until the 1400s, mapmakers
    were told to draw Earth as a flat disk surrounded
    by water. In addition, medieval scholars
    mistakenly believed Earth to be at the center of
    the universe, with the Moon, Sun, and heavens
    rotating around it. Most Renaissance Europeans
    overcame these false beliefs.
  • European navigators finally developed the
    skills necessary to travel the world's oceans.
    They learned from Muslims how to use astrolabes
    to calculate. Astrolabes measured the distance of
    the Sun and stars above the horizon. This device
    allowed Europeans to determine the latitudes for
    important ports and islands. They recorded the
    information in tables that could be used by other
    seafarers. By the 1200s Europeans had started to
    use a Chinese invention called a compass. The
    compass allowed them to determine their direction
    even when the stars were hidden by clouds.
  • Shipbuilding advanced as Europeans designed
    larger ships that could better withstand the
    rough Atlantic Ocean., Europeans had been using
    the lateen sail since the 800s. These sails
    created large triangles that could be trimmed or
    adjusted to utilize wind coming from any
    direction. Ships with these sails required wider
    and deeper hulls, which increased the cargo
    space. In addition, oars were replaced by rudders
    attached to the stern of the ship.
  • Portuguese shipbuilders introduced significant
    improvements during the 1400s. The improvements
    made their ships highly specialized for seafaring
    explorations. The ships, called caravels, used
    lateen sails and rudders. These ships were
    smaller, and more maneuverable, than cargo ships.

34
A Sailors Life
  • Even though there were advances in technology,
    sea travel during the late Middle Ages was still
    extremely dangerous. Many sailors never returned
    from their voyage and those that survived were in
    horrible condition. The ships became such a haven
    for rats that most ships' charters required that
    at least one cat be carried on board to control
    the rat population.
  • A sailor's diet at sea usually consisted of
    pickled beef and pork, known as salt horse. Their
    only fresh drinking water was collected in
    barrels from rainstorms. Hardtack, a saltless
    hard biscuit, was another staple in the sailors'
    diet. It typically became soggy, moldy, and
    infested with bugs on long journeys. One sailor
    said that "with the heat and dampness, our ship
    biscuit had become so wormy that . . . I saw many
    who waited for darkness to eat the porridge made
    of it, so that they might not see the maggots."
  • In exchange for their hazardous labor and
    difficult living conditions, sailors earned
    wages, clothing, and were granted occasional
    bonuses. Some sailors also belonged to Shipmen's
    Guilds to help protect them from abuse by
    ship-owners.
  • Young boys were known as gromets during their
    first year at sea, they also experienced the
    rigors of the sailor's life. Despite its
    hardships, a sailor's life offered unequaled
    opportunity for excitement and adventure. Sailors
    encountered new lands and cultures of which those
    who stayed upon land could only dream.

35
Portugal Leads the Way
  • Portugal led the way in exploration. A strong
    desire to control a piece of the East-West trade
    drove the Portuguese to seek a new all-water
    route to Asia. Portugal's location on the west
    coast of the Iberian Peninsula determined the
    route these sailors took. Because Iberia was so
    far south, the sailors traveled southward into
    the Atlantic Ocean and around Africa. The
    Portuguese government regularly encouraged and
    sponsored several overseas explorations.

36
Prince Henry's School
  • Portugals Prince Henry led the Crown's
    efforts to promote the study of geography and
    exploration. Born in 1394, he was the third son
    of King John I and Philippa of Lancaster. Prince
    Henry's strong commitment to exploration
    originated from his belief in God. He believed
    that through exploration, Christianity could
    expand its reach and triumph over Islam and that
    this would lead to the recovery of Jerusalem. He
    had a strong desire to find the wealthy African
    "gold kingdoms" he had heard described while
    fighting in Morocco. He also yearned to find an
    all-sea route to Asia.
  • Prince Henry established a center for the study
    of navigation in about 1420. The center brought
    together the country's best navigators,
    cartographers, and ship designers. The prince
    oversaw all their work. He encouraged them to
    experiment with new and different navigation
    methods, to create more accurate maps, and to
    design ships capable of withstanding the stormy
    Atlantic. Prince Henry put the results to
    practical use by sponsoring a number of
    exploratory voyages down the African coast.
    Although he never sailed on any of these voyages,
    Prince Henry's immense contribution to Portugal's
    seafaring efforts earned him the nickname the
    Navigator.

37
African Explorations
  • By the 1430s, many Portuguese adventurers had
    explored and colonized the Island groups Madeira
    and Azores. The islands became important
    resupplying ports for ships heading to
    settlements on the North African coast. The
    Azores also served as a port of refuge for
    Atlantic navigators. In the 1450s the Portuguese
    reached another island grouping, the Cape Verde
    Islands off the coast of Senegal.
  • Scientific knowledge drove the exploration of
    Africa's west coast. The exploration was viewed
    primarily as a quest for that knowledge. It
    eventually gave rise to a profitable trade system
    for the Portuguese. One of Prince Henry's
    navigators, Gil Eanes, led the first expedition,
    bravely sailing beyond Cape. Although Prince
    Henry died in 1460, the work he had begun
    continued. Many expeditions followed attempting
    to sail further south down the coast. Exploration
    increased even more in 1474, when King Alfonso V
    of Portugal allowed a trading monopoly with
    Africa to his heir. Eight years later the Crown
    built the fort of São João da Mina. This was a
    trading base for an extensive area that included
    most of West Africa. By the late 1400s, trade
    with Africa brought Portuguese monarchs more than
    1,500 pounds of gold per year, surpassing the
    value of all the rest of their income combined.

Gil Eanes
38
The African Slave Trade
  • When the Portuguese first arrived on Africa's
    Atlantic coast, trading consisted mostly of
    African spices and gold. Eventually, another
    business came to dominate their dealings with
    Africa. Slavery was not unknown to Africans, but
    its form differed from what it would become under
    European control. Traditionally, most slaves in
    West African society were either criminals or
    captives taken in war. Their rights were
    restricted, but they did have some legal
    protections. Most could marry, and their children
    did not necessarily become slaves. Moreover,
    slavery was usually temporary, and individuals
    could obtain their freedom. In time, Europeans
    took most of these rights away from slaves and
    created a system of permanent bondage from birth.
  • In the late 1400s Portugal's role in the slave
    trade was relatively small. By the end of the
    following century, the slave trade had become a
    major source of income, the trading of slaves
    replaced gold in economic value. The Portuguese
    sent many enslaved Africans to other Portuguese
    colonies. Where the slaves endured terrible
    living conditions. Eventually, the trading of
    slaves led to the African Diaspora. Millions of
    African people were forced to resettle on other
    continents. Estimates suggest that during the
    approximately 400 years that the slave trade
    existed, more than 10 million Africans were
    removed from their homeland as slaves. Countless
    more died as a result of capture or on the
    horrible voyage to the Americas.
  • The slave trade devastated the African society.
    Villages began targeting their enemies for
    capture because of the enormous profits that
    could be made. The result was an increase in
    warfare among the various West African nations.
  • With the strong emphasis placed on family ties
    in African cultures, the experience of having a
    family member or friend captured was extremely
    devastating. In 1444 Gomes Eanes de Zurara, the
    official chronicler for the Portuguese king,
    described the horrors brought about by the
    traffic in slaves
  • "Mothers would clasp their infants in their
    arms, and throw themselves on the ground to cover
    them with their bodies, disregarding any injury
    to their own persons, so that they could prevent
    their children from being separated from them."
  • Gomes Eanes de Zurara, The Chronicles of the
    Discovery and Conquest of Guinea
  • Portugal ignored the slave trade's human costs
    because of the enormous profits to be gained.

39
A Route to the Indies
  • The Europeans' quest for profits from trading
    Asian goods encouraged further searches for
    routes around Africa to Asia. During the
    mid-1480s, Portuguese sailors came upon the mouth
    of the Congo River and charted the southwest
    coast of Africa. In 1488 Bartolomeu Dias rounded
    the Cape of Good Hope, Africa's southernmost tip,
    and established a route to the Indian Ocean. Dias
    went no farther, however. Fearing the great
    expanse of unknown ocean that lay ahead of them,
    his crew panicked and forced him to turn the ship
    back.
  • In 1497, a fleet of four ships outfitted by
    Dias and commanded by Vasco da Gama set sail from
    Portugal to complete the African voyage. By early
    1498 da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope. In
    1498 he made landfall on the west coast of India,
    finally completing a sea route to the East. Over
    the next 50 years, the Portuguese established
    trading forts in West and East Africa, India, the
    Spice Islands, and southern China, thereby
    gaining control of East-West sea trade. Envious
    of Portugal's success, other powerful European
    nation-states soon began to sponsor voyages of
    their own.

Bartolomeu Dias
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