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Global History and Geography Regents 2005

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Title: Global History and Geography Regents 2005


1
Global History and Geography Regents 2005
  • Susan E. Hamilton

2
Global History Geography
  • Introduction Overview of Program
  • Test Structure
  • Study Test-taking Strategies
  • Thematic Essay Review
  • Final Tips

3
Test Structure
  • 50 multiple choice questions on ninth and tenth
    grade material
  • One thematic essay on broad topic
  • Several short answer document-based questions
  • One essay based on the documents

4
How to Study for the Regents
  • Identify your strengths and weaknesses and focus
    on your weaknesses
  • Know how you learn
  • Break up study sessions in small chunks of time
  • make yourself accountable - have someone quiz you

5
Multiple choice Questions
  • General social studies/vocabulary
  • speaker/quotation
  • maps/political cartoon/graphs/charts
  • fact/opinion
  • cause/effect
  • trend/global issues
  • outline/main ideas
  • chronological order

6
Multiple choice strategies
  • Read the question carefully. If it is unclear
    translate it (change vocabulary)
  • Use word association to make connections between
    key words and what you know
  • If possible, determine whether the question is
    asking for a positive or negative answer
  • Go with what you know
  • Use process of elimination
  • Check your answers

7
Positive Global Events/Ideas
  • Pax Romana
  • Magna Carta
  • Enlightenment
  • Renaissance
  • Scientific Revolution
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • detente
  • Glasnost

8
Negative Global Events/Ideas
  • Absolutism/ totalitarianism/ fascism
  • Armenian Massacre/Holocaust/Cambodian genocide/
    ethnic cleansing in Bosnia/ Rwandan genocide
  • Maos Great Leap Forward Cultural Revolution
  • collectivization
  • apartheid

9
Vocabulary translations
  • Westernizemodernizeindustrialize
  • independenceself-determination nationalism
    autonomy sovereignty
  • traditional before industrialization
  • mercantilismfavorable balance of trade
  • imperialism colonialism
  • imperial power mother country, colonial power
  • Marxist socialism communism/Marxism
  • bourgeoisie middle class
  • capitalism free market, supply and demand

10
Thematic Essay Strategies
  • Study key global and geography themes
  • Read the task and be sure you understand what is
    being asked.
  • Brainstorm ideas using word association. Think
    Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
  • Make a chart or graphic organizer using the
    information provided
  • Write your essay based on your chart
  • Reread your essay and add any additional relevant
    information

11
Document-based Questions
  • Always read the question before you read the
    document.
  • As you read the document, underline the answer
  • Answer ALL the document questions using
    information from the document

12
Document-based Essay Tips
  • Brainstorm using word association. It is VERY
    IMPORTANT to include information relating to the
    topic beyond the information found in the
    documents. Think Who? What? Where? When? Why?
    How?
  • Make a chart or graphic organizer using the
    information provided
  • Make sure that you use and cite the required
    number of documents. Keep in mind documents are
    meant to support your position.
  • Be sure you have included outside information(you
    may wish to underline this)

13
Geography Its Effects
  • Natural resources iron ore coal in Britain
    Industrial Revolution, diamonds in S.Africa, gold
    in Latin America
  • Rivers early civilizations emerge Nile River in
    Egypt, Fertile Crescent
  • Water sources Middle East and Russia
  • Island status
  • Japans isolation limited natural resources -
    imperialism industrialization,
  • Great Britain- strength of navy, ports, WWII

14
Geography Its Effects
  • Monsoons feast or famine of South Asia, Green
    Revolution
  • Irregular coastline Italy has many natural
    ports, inviting trade Renaissance, England
  • Land Bridge Korea serves as a cultural bridge
    between Japan and China
  • Great Eurasian Plain allowed easy invasions of
    Poland and USSR (WWII)

15
Geography Its Effects
  • Enormous size of Russia frequent invasion,
    difficult to conquer, quest for warm-water ports
  • Harsh winter Russias General Winter helped
    defeat Napoleon and Hitler
  • Smooth(regular) coastlines unnavigable rivers
    in Africa delay European imperialism
  • Location of Middle East cultural diffusion and
    conflict over Holy Land
  • Oil resources Iraq takeover of Kuwait, OPEC

16
Global Problems
  • Know location, causes, effects and possible
    solutions
  • overpopulation
  • deforestation
  • desertification
  • status of women
  • nuclear proliferation
  • pollution/global warming/depletion of resources
  • urbanization
  • famine
  • terrorism

17
Turning Points
  • Just about any revolution can be a turning point
    in a nations history
  • Others include
  • Signing of Magna Carta (1215)
  • Fall of Constantinople (1453)
  • Voyages of Columbus (1492)
  • Collapse of Soviet Union (1990)
  • End of apartheid in South Africa (1990)

18
Political Systems
  • Democracy govt by the consent of the people,
    protection of individual rights
  • Direct Athens
  • Indirect Rome
  • Parliamentary Britain India
  • Word association Pericles, John Locke,
    Enlightenment

19
Political Systems
  • Communism government control of
    economy(command), classless society
  • Russia/Soviet Union, V.I. Lenin, Stalin
    1917-1990
  • China, Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping 1949
  • Cuba, Fidel Castro1959
  • Vietnam Ho Chi Minh 1975
  • Cambodia Pol Pot
  • North Korea Kim Jong Il

20
Political Systems
  • Totalitarianism/Authoritarian (Stalin)
  • Fascist (Hitler, Mussolini)
  • Theocracy/Religious rule (Ayatollah
    KhomeiniIran, Taliban/Afghanistan)
  • Oppressive dictator (Saddam Hussein)
  • Autocratic (Czars of Russia)
  • Absolute rule/divine right (King Louis XIV and
    Louis XVI)
  • Feudalism local control/strict social system/lord

21
Religion Philosophies
  • Hinduism
  • India
  • Sacred text Vedas Upanishads
  • Basic beliefs several gods, caste system,
    reincarnation, karma, dharma, sacred cow
  • Impact caste system remains strong in rural
    areas but is weakening in cities, many Hindus are
    vegetarians (Sepoy Mutiny)

22
Religion Philosophies
  • Buddhism
  • Southeast Asia
  • Basic beliefs reincarnation, nirvana, Four Nobel
    Truths
  • life is full of suffering
  • suffering is caused by a desire for things
  • suffering can be eliminated by eliminating desire
  • following the Eightfold Path will help overcome
    desire (right thinking and action)

23
Religion Philosophies
  • Judaism
  • Israel, created in 1948
  • Holy Book Torah
  • Three beliefs monotheistic, God gave Hebrews the
    land of Canaan (Israel), 10 Commandments
  • Spread throughout world as a result of Diaspora
  • Impact Zionism (Jewish nationalism), conflict in
    the Middle East

24
Religion Philosophies
  • Christianity
  • Western Europe, Latin America (Catholic)
  • Holy Book Bible
  • Three beliefs monotheistic, Jesus Christ as
    savior, 10 Commandments
  • Spread through Age of Imperialism (White Mans
    Burden)
  • Impact Crusades, dominant institution during the
    Middle Ages, Protestant Reformation (Martin
    Luther)

25
Religion Philosophies
  • Islam
  • Middle East (except Israel), Indonesia
  • Holy Book Quran (Koran)
  • Three beliefs monotheistic, Five Pillars (faith,
    prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage to Mecca),
    Sharia (Islamic laws)
  • Spread through trade and conquest
  • Impact Islamic fundementalism in Iran (1979)

26
Religion Philosophies
  • Confucianism
  • China
  • Basic beliefs Five Basic Human Relationships,
    education should be the road to advancement,
    filial piety (respect for family)
  • Impact provides social order and encourages
    education

27
Revolutions
  • Neolithic RevolutionFROM nomadic tribes TO
    domestication of animals and farming giving rise
    to early civilizations
  • Commercial RevolutionFROM limited trade based on
    barter TO urban centers and new middle class
    leading to changes in business practices(mercantil
    ism capitalism)
  • Scientific Revolution FROM medieval thinking TO
    use of observation and reason

28
Revolutions
  • Glorious Revolution FROM absolutist policies of
    James II TO William and Mary signing of Bill of
    Rights limiting power of the monarchy in Great
    Britain
  • French Revolution FROM absolute monarchy of
    Louis XVI TO democratic ideals of Enlightenment
  • Industrial Revolution FROM cottage industry
    (goods made at home by hand) TO factory system,
    women working, higher standard of living, reform
    movement

29
Revolutions
  • Russian Revolution FROM Czarist autocratic rule
    of Nicholas II TO communist rule under Lenin
  • Chinese RevolutionFROM warlord control and civil
    war with Nationalists TO communist rule under Mao
    Zedong (supported by peasants)
  • Iranian RevolutionFROM western rule of Shah Reza
    Pahlevi TO Islamic Fundementalist rule of
    Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Green Revolution FROM limited crop yield TO
    double crop yield in South/Southeast Asia

30
Chronological Events
  • EUROPE Ancient Greece Roman Empire Roman
    Empire fall splits east Byzantine Empire
    (thrives from trade) and west Dark
    Ages/feudalism Crusades rise of trade
    Renaissance/Reformation Age of Exploration
    Commercial Revolution Absolute kings
    Enlightenment French Revolution Industrial
    Revolution Age of Imperialism WWI WWII
    independence movements in colonies Cold War
    fall of USSR EU

31
More chronological events
  • AfricaEarly kingdoms (Ghana, Mali Songhai)
    Transatlantic Slave Trade scramble for Africa
    by European nations demands for independence
    after WWII (Nkrumah Kenyatta) tribalism
    lingers trend toward democratic nations
  • India Mughal Empire (Akbar) British rule
    Gandhis independence movement partitioning
    (India Pakistan) lingering tensions

32
More chronological events
  • Japan Chinese influence feudal period
    (Tokugawa Shogunate) Mathew Perry visits
    Meiji Restoration(westernization) imperialism
    (raw materials) WWII democratic economic
    superpower
  • China Early dynasties Opium War Spheres of
    Influence Boxer Rebellion Civil War
    Communist Revolution (1949 - Mao) Great Leap
    Forward/ Cultural Revolution Dengs economic
    reforms (1980s) calls for democratic reforms
    Tiananmen Square massacre

33
More chronological events
  • Russia harsh autocratic rule under czars 1917
    Bolshevik Revolution (Lenin) Stalins
    totalitarian rule WWII Cold War Gorbachevs
    Glasnost Perestroika Collapse of Soviet
    Union democracy free market
  • Latin America Spanish conquest harsh rule
    (encomienda system) Slave trade nationalist
    movements military dictatorships democratic
    trend

34
More chronological events
  • Middle East River Valley Civilizations
    Byzantine Empire Golden Rule of Islamic Rule
    Crusades
  • Rise Fall of Ottoman Empire
  • Turkey modernizes (Ataturk)
  • Arab-Israeli conflict (Zionism Holocaust
    wars PLO Camp David Accords Intifada
    conflict continues
  • Shah overthrown Iranian Revolution (1979)
    Islamic fundementalist state war with
    Iraq/conflict with US
  • Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait Gulf War
  • Taliban in Afghanistan overthrown by US

35
Key People
  • Nationalists
  • Communists
  • Women
  • Supporters of Westernization
  • Religious leaders
  • Ruthless Leaders
  • Enlightened thinkers
  • others

36
Nationalists
  • Simon Bolivar, Toussaint LOverture Latin
    America Jose de San Martin
  • Italy Cavour, Mazzini, Garabaldi
  • India Mohandas Gandhi
  • Africa Kenyatta(Kenya), Nkruma(Ghana)
  • China Sun Yat-sen, Chiang Kai-shek
  • Middle East Arafat (Palestine), Ben-Gurion
    (Israel - Zionist)

37
Communists
  • Karl Marx (Marxist/ Marxist Socialism/ communism)
  • V.I. Lenin (Russia/U.S.S.R.)
  • Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)
  • Fidel Castro (Cuba)
  • Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping (China)
  • Ho Chi Mihn (Vietnam)
  • Kim Jong Ill (North Korea)

38
Women
  • World Leaders Indira Gandhi (India), Benazar
    Bhutto (Pakistan), Golda Meir (Israel), Margaret
    Thatcher (Great Britain)
  • Humanitarian Concerns Mother Tereasa (India),
    Aung Su (Myanmar), Rigoberta Menchu (Guatamala)
  • Enlightened thinker Mary Wollstonecraft

39
Supporters of Westernization
  • Russia Catherine the Great, Peter the Great
  • Iran Shah Rezi Pahlevi
  • Turkey Kemel Aturk
  • Japan Emperor Meiji

40
Religious leaders
  • Martin Luther
  • Goal to reform Roman Catholic Church
  • Action posted 95 Thesis, believed in faith alone
    for salvation
  • Reformation shattered religious unity in Europe

41
Religious leaders
  • Ayatollah Khomeini
  • Goal remove Shah Reza Pahlavi and western
    influence and replace it with an Islamic
    Fundementalist state
  • Impact Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979.
    Government required strict adherence to Islamic
    law and enacted anti-western policies, held
    American hostages for over one year, women lost
    rights

42
Ruthless Leaders
  • Adolf Hitler (Germany)
  • Pol Pot (Cambodia)
  • Slobadon Milosevic (Serbia)
  • Mao Zedong (China)
  • Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union)

43
Enlightened Thinkers
  • John Locke
  • Rousseau
  • Voltaire
  • Mary Wollstonecraft
  • Montesquieu

44
Other Key People
  • Adam Smith wrote The Wealth of Nations
    advocating laissez-faire capitalism (govt leaves
    businesses alone)
  • Machiavelli wrote The Prince, a handbook for
    rulers, the ends justify the means it is
    better to be feared than loved
  • Nelson Mandela first black South African
    president, fought against apartheid

45
Economic Systems
  • Traditional based on barter (trade)
  • Manorialismfeudal manors (self-sufficient)
  • Mercantilism export more than import, led to
    imperialism
  • Free market/ Laissez-faire capitalism based on
    profit, private ownership, little govt
    interference
  • Command/ communism/ Marxist socialism govt
    makes all economic decisions, no private ownership

46
Human Rights Violations
  • Denial of basic political, economic and social
    rights to which all humans are entitiled
  • Jews in Middle Ages/pogroms in Russia/Holocaust
  • Apartheid blacks in South Africa
  • Untouchables in India
  • Students in China (Cultural Rev./Tiananmen
    Square)
  • Dissidents under Stalin other communist leaders
  • Urban population in Cambodia (Khmer Rouge)
  • Tutsies in Rwanda
  • Muslims in Bosnia
  • Women under Taliban rule

47
Early Civilization Contributions
  • Mesopotamia legal system, wheel, irrigation,
    cuniform (Sumerian writing)
  • Egypt hieroglyphics, medicine, architecture
  • Phoenicians alphabet
  • Chinasilk-making, gunpowder
  • Hebrewsmonotheism, Ten Commandments
  • Muslimsalgebra, astronomy, medicine
  • Gupta zero, decimal, Arabic numerals
  • Rome law, aqueducts, architecture
  • Mauryan spread of Buddhism, organized government

48
Organizations Groups
  • European Union (EU) a growing group made up of
    European nations. Its goal is to expand free
    trade (no tariffs). Use euro.
  • Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)Its goal
    is to create an independent state in Palestine
    (conflict with Israel)
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
    (OPEC) Its goal is to control the oil industry by
    setting production levels prices.
  • United Nations (UN) Its goals are to promote
    global peace and encourage economic and social
    well-being.

49
More organizations
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization(NATO) a
    growing military alliance between democratic
    nations (former communist nations)
  • Warsaw Pact a counter military alliance made up
    of the Soviet Union and its satellite nations
    (Cold War)
  • North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) its
    goal is to promote free trade between US, Canada
    and Mexico (pros and cons)

50
Nationalism
  • Devotion to ones nations independence
  • Groups seeking independence
  • Chechyns in Russia
  • Tibetans in China
  • Kurds in Iraq
  • Albanians in Kosovo
  • Palestinians in Palestine

51
Imperialism
  • Taking over a territory for raw materials,
    markets, power and prestige
  • NEGATIVE treated natives as inferior, exploited
    natural resources, forced labor
  • POSITIVE brought technology, medicine and
    infrastructure
  • AFRICA Berlin Conference, Scramble for Africa,
    MauMau Uprising, lingering conflict
  • CHINA Opium War, spheres of influence, Boxer
    Rebellion
  • INDIA British East India CO., Sepoys, Gandhi

52
Cold War Events
  • War of tensions between United States and Soviet
    Union (1945-1990), fear of spreading communism
  • Containment/ Marshall Plan
  • Berlin Blockade
  • NATO Warsaw Pact collective security
  • Berlin Wall
  • Bay of Pigs Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Korean War and Vietnam War

53
Final Words
  • Know you can do this.
  • Prepare using effective studying strategies
  • Eat before the exam
  • Bring pens with you to the exam
  • Relax and do the best you can
  • Look at the essays first and brainstorm
  • Best of luck on the Regents!
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