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Title: solid waste management


1
SOLID WASTE AND ITS MANAGEMENT
2
WASTE
  • It is defined as
  • Waste (also known as rubbish,
    trash, refuse, garbage, junk) is any unwanted or
    useless materials.
  • OR
  • Any materials unused and rejected as
    worthless or unwanted and A useless or
    profitless activity using or expending or
    consuming thoughtlessly or carelessly

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INTRODUCTION
  • Since the beginning, Human kind has been
    generating waste.
  • It could be in the form of
  • Bones
  • Other parts of animals they slaughter
  • Wood
  • With the progress of civilization the waste
    generated became of a more complex nature.

5
  • At the end of 19th century (Industrial
    revolution) there was rise in the world of
    consumers.
  • The increase in population and urbanization was
    also largely responsible for the increase in
    solid waste

6
TYPES OF WASTE
  • Solid Waste
  • Liquid Waste
  • Gaseous Wastes
  • Animal by-products
  • Biodegradable waste
  • Biomedical waste
  • Bulky waste
  • Business waste

7
  • Chemical waste
  • Clinical waste
  • Coffee wastewater
  • Commercial waste
  • Construction and demolition waste (CD waste)
  • Controlled waste
  • Consumable waste
  • Composite

8
SOLID WASTE
  • It is defined as
  • Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging
    from municipal garbage to industrial wastes that
    contain complex and sometimes hazardous
    substances

9
  • Solid wastes also include
  • Sewage sludge
  • Agricultural refuse
  • Demolition wastes
  • Mining residues

10
TYPES OF SOLID WASTE
  • Broadly there are 3 types of waste which are as
    follows
  • Household waste is generally classified as
    Municipal waste
  • Industrial waste as Hazardous waste
  • Biomedical waste or Hospital waste as Infectious
    waste

11
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE
  • Municipal solid waste consists of
  • Household waste
  • Construction and demolition debris
  • Sanitation residue
  • Waste from streets.

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  • With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle
    and food habits, the amount of municipal solid
    waste has been increasing rapidly and its
    composition changing.
  • The existing landfills are neither well equipped
    or well managed and are not lined properly to
    protect against contamination of soil and
    groundwater.

14
The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it takes to degenerate
Type of litter Approximate time it takes to degenerate the litter
Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit peels, leftover foodstuff, etc A week or two.
Paper 1030 days
Cotton cloth 25 months
Wood 1015 years
Woolen items 1 year
Tin, aluminum, and other metal items such as cans 100500 years
Plastic bags one million years
Glass bottles undetermined
15
HAZARDOUS WASTE
  • Industrial and hospital waste is considered
    hazardous as they may contain toxic substances.
  • Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to humans,
    animals, and plants. They are
  • Corrosive
  • Highly inflammable, or explosive
  • React when exposed to certain things e.g. gases

16
  • Household wastes that can be categorized as
    hazardous waste include
  • old batteries
  • shoe polish
  • paint tins
  • old medicines
  • medicine bottles.

17
  • Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals used in
    hospitals is considered hazardous.
  • These chemicals include formaldehyde and phenols,
    which are used as disinfectants.

18
  • In the industrial sector, the major generators of
    hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper,
    pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods
    industries.
  • Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous waste
    such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.

19
HOSPITAL WASTE
  • Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis,
    treatment, or immunization of human beings or
    animals
  • It may include wastes like
  • Sharps
  • Soiled waste
  • Disposables
  • Anatomical waste
  • Cultures
  • Discarded medicines
  • Chemical wastes

20
  • These are in the form of disposable syringes,
    swabs, bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.
  • This waste is highly infectious and can be a
    serious threat to human health if not managed in
    a scientific and discriminate manner
  • It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of
    waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would
    be infected

21
SOURCES AND OTHER TYPES OF WASTE
Source Typical Waste Generators Types of solid wastes
1Residential Single and multifamily dwellings Food wastes Paper Cardboard Plastics Textiles Leather Yard wastes Wood Glass Metals Ashes Special wastes (e.g bulky items, consumer electronics, white goods, batteries, oil, tires), and household hazardous wastes.)
22
2 Industrial Light and heavy manufacturing, fabrication, construction sites, power and chemical plants. Housekeeping wastes Packaging Food wastes Construction and demolition materials Hazardous wastes Ashes Special wastes.
3Commercial Stores, hotels, restaurants, markets, office buildings, etc. Paper cardboard plastics wood food wastes glass metals special wastes hazardous wastes
4 Institutional Schools, hospitals, prisons, government centers. Same as commercial.
23
5Construction and demolition New construction sites, road repair, renovation sites, demolition of buildings Wood steel concrete dirt etc.
6Municipal services Street cleaning, landscaping, parks, beaches, other recreational areas, water and wastewater treatment plants. Street sweepings landscape and tree trimmings General wastes from parks Beaches Recreational areas sludge.
7Process (manufacturing etc.) Heavy and light manufacturing, refineries, chemical plants, power plants, mineral extraction and processing. Industrial process wastes Scrap materials Off-specification products.
8Agriculture Crops, orchards, vineyards, dairies, feedlots, farms. Spoiled food wastes Agricultural wastes Hazardous wastes (e.g., pesticides).
24
  CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE
  • The main sources for solid wastes are domestic,
    commercial, industrial, municipal, and
    agricultural wastes.
  • The composition of a city waste is as follows
  • Paper, wood, cardboard 53
  • Garbage 22
  • Ceramics, glass, crockery 10
  • Metals 8
  • Rubber, plastics, discarded textiles 7

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  • The increase in the quantity of solid waste is
    due to
  • Overpopulation,
  • Affluence (material comfort)
  • Technological advancement

27
EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE
  • a) Health Hazard
  • If solid wastes are not collected and allowed to
    accumulate, they may create unsanitary
    conditions.
  • This may lead to epidemic outbreaks.
  • Many diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery,
    plague, jaundice, or gastro-intestinal diseases
    may spread and cause loss of human lives.
  • In addition, improper handling of the solid
    wastes is a health hazard for the workers who
    come in direct contact with the waste

28
  • b) Environmental Impact
  • If the solid wastes are not treated properly,
    decomposition and putrefaction (decay) may take
    place.
  • The organic solid waste during decomposition may
    generate obnoxious (intolerable) odors.

29
WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • 4 Rs CONCEPT
  • Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle and Reduce) to be
    followed for waste management.

30
REFUSE
  • Instead of buying new containers from the market,
    use the ones that are in the house. Refuse to buy
    new items though you may think they are prettier
    than the ones you already have.

31
REUSE
  • Do not throw away the soft drink cans or the
    bottles cover them with homemade paper or paint
    on them and use them as pencil stands or small
    vases.

32
RECYCLE
  • Use shopping bags made of cloth or jute, which
    can be used over and over again.

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REDUCE
  • Reduce the generation of unnecessary waste, e.g.
    carry your own shopping bag when you go to the
    market and put all your purchases directly into
    it.

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CONTROL MEASURES
  • The main purpose of solid waste management is to
    minimize the adverse effects on the environment.
    The steps involved are
  • Collection of solid wastes
  • Disposal of solid wastes
  • Utilization of wastes

38
COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTES
  • Collection of waste includes gathering the waste,
    transporting it to a centralized location, and
    then moving it to the site of disposal.
  • The collected waste is then separated into
  • Hazardous
  • Non-hazardous materials.

39
DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES
  • Before the final disposal of the solid wastes, it
    is processed to recover the usable resources and
    to improve the efficiency of the solid waste
    disposal system.
  • The main processing technologies are
  • compaction
  • Incineration
  • Manual separation.

40
  • The appropriate solid waste disposal method has
    to be selected, keeping in view the following
    objectives
  • Should be economically viable
  • Should not create a health hazard
  • Should not cause adverse environmental effects
  • Should not result in unpleasant sight, odor, and
    noise

41
UTILIZATION OF WASTES
  • The solid wastes can be properly utilized to
    gather the benefits such as
  • Conservation of natural resources
  • Economic development
  • Generate many useful products
  • Employment opportunities
  • Control of air pollution

42
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
  • Waste management is the collection, transport,
    processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring
    of waste materials.
  • The term usually relates to materials produced by
    human activity, and is generally undertaken to
    reduce their effect on health, the environment or
    aesthetics.
  • Management is also carried out to recover
    resources from it. Waste management can involve
    solid, liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances

43
  • Waste management practices differ for developed
    and developing nations, for urban and rural
    areas, and for residential and industrial
    producers.
  • Management for non-hazardous waste residential
    and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is
    usually the responsibility of local government
    authorities.
  • Management for non-hazardous commercial and
    industrial waste is usually the responsibility of
    the generator.

44
METHODS OF DISPOSAL
  • Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying
    the waste, and this remains a common practice in
    most countries.
  • Landfills were often established in
  • Abandoned or unused quarries,
  • Mining voids
  • Borrow pits

45
A properly designed and well-managed landfill can
be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method
of disposing of waste materials
46
INCENERATION
  • Incineration is a disposal method in which solid
    organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as
    to convert them into residue and gaseous
    products.
  • This process reduces the volumes of solid waste
    to 20 to 30 percent of the original volume.
  • Incineration and other high temperature waste
    treatment systems are sometimes described as
    "thermal treatment".

47
RECYCLING
  • Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of
    waste materials such as empty beverage
    containers.
  • The materials from which the items are made can
    be reprocessed into new products.
  • Material for recycling may be collected
    separately from general waste using dedicated
    bins and collection vehicles, or sorted directly
    from mixed waste streams.

48
  • The most common consumer products recycled
    include
  • Aluminum such as beverage cans
  • Copper such as wire
  • Steel food and aerosol cans
  • Old steel furnishings or equipment
  • Polyethylene and PET bottles
  • Glass bottles and jars
  • Paperboard cartons
  • Newspapers, magazines and light paper
  • Corrugated fiberboard boxes.

49
SUSTANIBILTY
  • The management of waste is a key component in a
    business ability to maintaining ISO 14001
    official approval.
  • Companies are encouraged to improve their
    environmental efficiencies each year.
  • One way to do this is by improving a companys
    waste management with a new recycling service.
    (such as recycling glass, food waste, paper and
    cardboard, plastic bottles etc.)

50
BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING
  • Waste materials that are organic in nature, such
    as
  • plant material
  • food scraps
  • paper products
  • Can be recycled using biological composting and
    digestion processes to decompose the organic
    matter

51
  • The resulting organic material is then recycled
    as mulch or compost for agricultural or
    landscaping purposes.
  • In addition, waste gas from the process (such as
    methane) can be captured and used for generating
    electricity and heat (CHP/cogeneration)
    maximizing efficiencies

52
ENERGY RECOVERY
  • The energy content of waste products can be
    harnessed directly by using them as a
  • Direct combustion fuel
  • Indirectly by processing them into another
  • Type of fuel
  • There are 2 types of Thermal Treatment
  • Pyrolysis
  • Gasification

53
AVOIDANCE AND REDUCTION METHOD
  • An important method of waste management is the
    prevention of waste material being created, also
    known as waste reduction.
  • Methods of avoidance includes
  • Reuse of second-hand products
  • Repairing broken items instead of buying new

54
  • Designing products to be refillable or reusable
    (such as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags)
  • Encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable
    products (such as disposable cutlery)
  • Removing any food/liquid remains from cans
  • Packaging
  • Designing products that use less material to
    achieve the same purpose (for example, light
    weighting of beverage cans).

55
WASTE HANDLING AND TRANSPORT
  • Waste collection methods vary widely among
    different countries and regions.
  • Domestic waste collection services are often
    provided by local government authorities, or by
    private companies in the industry.

56
TECHNOLOGIES
  • The waste management industry has been slow to
    adopt new technologies such as
  • RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags,
  • GPS
  • Integrated software packages

57
WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT
  • There are a number of concepts about waste
    management which vary in their usage between
    countries or regions.

58
  • Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to
    the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which
    classify waste management strategies according to
    their desirability in terms of waste minimization.

59
  • Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays
    Principle is a principle where the polluting
    party pays for the impact caused to the
    environment. With respect to waste management,
    this generally refers to the requirement for a
    waste generator to pay for appropriate disposal
    of the waste.

60
EDUCATION AND AWARENESS
  • Education and awareness in the area of waste and
    waste management is increasingly important from a
    global perspective of resource management. The
    Talloires Declaration is a declaration for
    sustainability concerned about the unprecedented
    scale and speed of environmental pollution and
    degradation, and the depletion of natural
    resources. Local, regional, and global air
    pollution accumulation and distribution of toxic
    wastes destruction and depletion of forests,
    soil, and water depletion of the ozone layer and
    emission of "green house" gases threaten the
    survival of humans and thousands of other living
    species.

61
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN
  • Solid waste collection by government owned and
    operated services in Pakistan's cities currently
    averages only 50 percent of waste quantities
    generated however, for cities to be relatively
    clean, at least 75 percent of these quantities
    should be collected.
  • Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has
    a proper solid waste management system right from
    collection of solid waste up to its proper
    disposal.

62
URBANIZATION PATTERN
  • According to the 1981 census, of the 5.92 million
    persons who had migrated within the country,
    87.6 moved from rural to urban areas, while only
    12.4 moved in the opposite direction. Over 50
    of them permanently settled in cities.
  • During the last several decades, migration has
    occurred from rural to urban areas. The chief
    factors responsible for this migration are
  • Slow progress in the agriculture sector,
  • Low crop yields,

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  • Lack of alternate employment opportunities
  • Environmental degradation due to water
    logging/salinity, deforestation and
    desertification
  • According to a study, the selected cities are
    growing at a growth rate from 3.67 to 7.42
    which is much higher than the overall growth rate
    of Pakistan, i.e. 2.8. Major cities in Pakistan
    are estimated to double their population in next
    ten years. These cities are generating high
    amounts of solid waste which is increasing
    annually with the respective population growth.

64
GROWTH IN SOLID WASTE GENERATION
  • Presently it is estimated that, 54,888 tons
    per day of solid waste is generated in Pakistan.
    The Ministry of Environment undertook a study
    during 1996 on "Data Collection for Preparation
    of National Study on Privatization of Solid Waste
    Management in Eight Selected Cities of Pakistan".
    The study revealed that the rate of waste
    generation on average from all type of municipal
    controlled areas varies from 0.283 kg/capita/day
    to 0.613 kg/capita/day or from 1.896 kg/house/day
    to 4.29 kg/house/day in all the selected cities.

65
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SCENARIO - STRATEGIC
CHALLENGES
  • Solid waste in Pakistan is generally composed
    of
  • Plastic and rubber
  • Metal
  • Paper and cardboard
  • Textile waste
  • Glass
  • Food waste
  • Animal waste
  • Leaves

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  • Grass
  • Straws and fodder
  • Bones
  • Wood
  • Stones and fines to various extents.

67
INSTITUTIONAL, LEGAL AND MANAGEMENT ASPECTS
  • Under the recently devolved local government
    system, the Town/ Tehsil Municipal Administration
    (TMAs) are responsible for the solid waste
    collection, transportation and disposal. However,
    TMAs are unable to cope with continuously
    increasing volumes of municipal waste due to
    inadequate funds, lack of rules, regulations and
    standards, lack of knowhow on the subject, lack
    of expertise and lack of collection vehicles and
    equipment

68
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT POLICY
  • The Government of Pakistan enacted the Pakistan
    Environmental Protection Act (PEPA) in 1997 which
    is the most recent and updated legislation on
    environment.
  • It provides a framework for establishing federal
    and provincial Environmental Protection Agencies
    (EPAs).
  • Presently the legal rules and regulations dealing
    with solid waste management in Pakistan are as
    follows

69
Current
  • 1 Section 11 of the Pakistan Environmental
    Protection Act prohibits discharge of waste in an
    amount or concentration that violates the
    National Environmental Quality Standards.
  • 2 Draft Hazardous Substances Rules of 1999.
  • 3 Islamabad Capital Territory Bye Laws, 1968 by
    Capital Development Authority Islamabad
  • 4 Section 132 of the Cantonment Act 1924 deals
    with Deposits and disposal of rubbish etc
  • 5 Provisions contained in the Local Government
    Ordinance, 2001
  •  

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Required
  • The rules and guidelines that are yet to be
    introduced include
  • Basic Recycling rules
  • Waste Management rules
  • E-Waste Management rules
  • Development of Environmental Performance
    Indicators (EPI)
  • Eco-Labeling guidelines and its promotion
  • Adoption of Life Cycle Assessment Approaches
  • Guidelines for Environmentally Sound Collection
    and Disposal
  • Guidelines for model landfill sites

71
CURRENT STATUS OF SWM PRACTICES
  • Currently solid waste in Pakistan has not been
    carried out in a sufficient and proper manner in
  • Collection
  • Transportation
  • Disposal or dumping regardless of the size of the
    city.
  • These aspect may include

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  • Rate of urbanization
  • Pattern and density of urban areas
  • Physical planning and control of development
  • Physical composition of waste
  • Density of waste
  • Temperature and precipitation
  • Scavengers activity for recyclable separation
  • The capacity
  • Adequacy and limitations of respective
    municipalities to manage the solid waste.

73
  • According to the 1998 census, of the 130.579
    million persons living in Pakistan, 67 live in
    rural areas, while 33 live in urban areas.
    Furthermore, out of 33 of persons living urban
    areas, 54 of them live in ten major cities of
    Pakistan. During the last several decades,
    migration has occurred from rural to urban areas.
    The major factors responsible for this migration
    are
  • Slow progress in the agriculture sector
  • Low crop yields
  • Lack of alternate employment opportunities
  • Environmental degradation due to water
    logging/salinity
  • Deforestation and desertification.

74
POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD ESTIMATES
  • The number and growth of population and
    households is the foremost factor affecting the
    solid waste and its management at various stages.
  • The selected cities are growing at a rate ranging
    between 3.67 to 7.42, which is much higher than
    the overall growth rate of Pakistan, i.e. 2.8
    (EPMC, 1996).

75
  • Major cities of them are estimated to double
    their population in next ten years.
  • The numbers of households also play an important
    role in generation and collection of the solid
    waste.
  • The average household size in the selected cities
    varies from 6.7 to 7.3 persons.

76
WASTE GENERATION AND COLLECTION ESTIMATES
  • The average rate of waste generation from all
    type of municipal controlled areas varies from
    1.896 kg/house/day to 4.29 kg/house/day in a few
    major cities.
  • It shows a trend of waste generation wherein
    increase has been recorded in accordance with
    city's population besides its social and economic
    development.

77
  • In Pakistan, solid waste is mainly collected by
    municipalities and waste collection efficiencies
    range from 0 percent in low-income rural areas to
    90 percent in high- income areas of large cities.
  • Collection rate of solid waste by respective
    municipalities ranges from 51 to 69 of the
    total waste generated within their jurisdiction.

78
PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF WASTE
  • The move from landfill-based to resource-based
    waste management systems requires a greater
    knowledge of the composition of municipal solid
    waste. Solid waste in Pakistan is generally
    composed of three categories i.e.
  • Biodegradable such as food waste, animal waste,
    leaves, grass, straws, and wood.
  • Non-biodegradable are plastic, rubber, textile
    waste, metals, fines, stones and
  • Recyclable material includes paper, card board,
    rags and bones.

79
WASTE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL
  • The waste is disposed off within or outside
    municipal limits into low lying areas like ponds
    etc, without any treatment except recyclable
    separation by scavengers. The land is also
    hired/leased on long term basis for disposal.
    Moreover, the least mitigating measures have also
    never been reported from any municipality.
    Treatment and disposal technologies such as
    sanitary land filling, composting and
    incineration are comparatively new in Pakistan

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  • Crude open dumping is the most common practice
    throughout Pakistan and dump sites are commonly
    set to fire to reduce the volume of accumulating
    waste. At present, there are no landfill
    regulations or standards that provide a basis for
    compliance and monitoring, but national
    guidelines for these standards are being prepared
    by the Consultant under National Environmental
    Action Plan Support Program (NEAP SP).

81
CONCLUSION
  • The overall conclusion of the study on present
    status of solid waste management in Pakistan as
    follows
  • 1.There is a limited focus on control mechanisms
    which is adversely effecting on safety, health
    and the environment.
  • 2.Regulations are inadequately enforced and SWM
    does not seem to be a priority.
  • 3.None of the cities has an integrated solid
    waste management system

82
  • Collection rate 5 1-69 of total waste
    generated.
  • Hospital and industrial wastes are treated as
    ordinary waste
  • A lot of potential for recycling and involvement
    of private sector which is overlooked
  • No disposal facilities

83
  • Open burning of waste or open disposal is most
    common practice.
  • No weighing facilities are installed at any
    disposal sites
  • Open burning of non-degradable components like
    plastic bags are adding to air pollution
  • Much of the uncollected waste poses serious
    health hazards

84
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • Following recommendations are proposed for
    sustainable SWM
  • 1.The involvement of people and private sector
    through NGOs could improve the efficiency of SWM.
  • 2.Public awareness should be created especially
    at primary school.
  • 3.Littering of SW should be prohibited in cities,
    towns and urban areas.
  • 4.Moreover, house-to-house collection of SW
    should be organized

85
  • The collection bins must have a large enough
    capacity to accommodate 20 more than the
    expected waste generation in the area.
  • Municipal authorities should maintain the storage
    facilities to avoid unhygienic and unsanitary
    conditions.
  • Proper segregation would lead to better options
    and opportunities for scientific disposal of
    waste.

86
  • An open dump or an uncontrolled waste disposal
    area should be rehabilitated. It is advisable to
    move from open dumping to sanitary land filling
    in a phased manner.
  • Land filling should be restricted to
    non-biodegradable, inert waste and other waste
    that are not suitable either for recycling or for
    biological processing

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