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HST 103 Ancient Greece

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Origins of Ancient Greece. Minoans (3000-1000 BCE) Mycenaeans ... Basis of all political life in Ancient Greece. The Development of Citizenship in the Polis ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HST 103 Ancient Greece


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HST 103Ancient Greece
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I. What is it about Greek Culture?
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ANCIENT GREECE
                                               
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                      
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ANCIENT GREECE
                                               
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                         
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FOUNDATIONS OF GREEK CIVILIZATION
  • Beginning around 2800 BCE, various Eastern
    Mediterranean islands and coastal regions develop
    traditions of civilization
  • Following Homeric Dark Age (c. 1100-750 BCE) of
    famine and war, Greek colonization of
    Mediterranean leads to development of polis
    (self-governed settlement and its surrounding
    countryside) as most important unit of Greek
    civilization
  • Polis of Athens becomes dominant after defeating
    Persia (c. 490-470 BCE)

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II. Minoan and Mycenaean Cultures
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Origins of Ancient Greece
  • Minoans (3000-1000 BCE)
  • Mycenaeans (1600-1100 BCE)
  •  
  • Greek Dark Ages (1000-750 BCE)

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III. The Dark Age (1100-800 BC) Homer Illiad
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Archaic Greece (700-500 B.C.E.)
  • Reappearance of trade and written language
    (825-800 B.C.E.)
  • Fascination with mythic heroic past
  •  
  • The Rise of the polis (plural poleis)
  •  
  •  
  • Emigration and colonization

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   A Statue of Homer                            
                                                  
                                                A
Fragment of Homer's Odyssey
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Who Was Homer?
  • We know nothing for certain about Homer
  • His work shows a knowledge of the Greek World and
    Near East
  • Later tradition has him born in Asia Minor
  • Stories circulate about him in the Greek world
    saying he was blind and told all the best
    stories.

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Homer is credited with having composed two epic
poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey
  • The Odyssey narrates the return of Odysseus to
    his home after 20 years. It is filled with
    folktales.
  • The Iliad is set over the course of several
    weeks, during the ninth year of the Trojan War.
  • Its principle theme is The Wrath of Achilles.
  • But the texts are really the culmination of a
    long tradition going back years before the 8th
    century.

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What was Homers world like?
  • Homer and oral composers like him probably sang
    their songs to the social elite at banquets and
    athletic events.
  • His audiences were probably mostly male
  • We do not know when or where poems as long as the
    Odyssey and Iliad may have been presented

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The Man Who Overcame Death
  • In particular, the themes of the traveling
    sailor and the struggle for what it means to be
    human and face death.
  • Homers story is part of a larger epic tradition,
    which incorporates elements from other cultures
    in the Near East along with uniquely Greek
    elements

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Panhellenism and athletic competitions (Olympia,
776 B.C.E.)
                                               
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
             
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IV. Importance of Greek Polis General Evolution
of Polis
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Establishment of the Polis (8th century BCE)
  • Greek City-States
  • Villages that wielded independence
  • Shared Political Power
  • Citizenship
  • Equality
  • Basis of all political life in Ancient Greece
  •  

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The Development of Citizenship in the Polis
  • The Hoplite phalanx
  • Sparta Helots, the military, dual monarchy,
    ephors, assembly
  • Tyranny of Draco (Athens, 620 B.C.E.)
  • Reforms of Solon (594 B.C.E.)
  • Tyranny of Peisistratus (Athens, 561-527 B.C.E.)
  • Reforms of Cleisthenes (508 B.C.E.)
  • The Exclusivity of citizenship  

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A Ballot to Ostracize Themistocles (471 B.C.E.)
                                               
                                                  
                                                  
                 
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Ancient Greek Warfare The Hoplite Phalanx
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A Spartan Hoplite Infantry Soldier     
                                                  
                                        
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Hoplites from Athens
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  An Athenian Hoplite Infantry Soldier
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                                         Typical
Armor Weapons of an Athenian Hoplite
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                                                At
henian Cavalry
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Greek Hoplites
                                                
                                                  
                                    
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Greek Armor
                                                
                                        
                                                  
            
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Greek Helmets
                                        
                              
                                                  
          
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The Clash of Two Greek Phalanxes
                                                
                                                  
                      
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Image from a Vase Showing the clash of Hoplites
                                                
                                                  
                                                  
                            
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 Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.E.)
                                 
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Battle of Platea (479 B.C.E.)
                                                
                                                  
                                    
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GREEK WARSHIPS (TRIREMES)
                                               
                                                  
               
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GREEK WARSHIPS (TRIREMES) AT WAR
                                                
                                                  
                                                  
                                               
                                                  
                                        
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The Greek Polis
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The Greek PolisThe New Politics of Ancient
Greece1000-300 B.C.E.
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Cities of the Greek Homeland
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Greek Colonization and Trade
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Athens, its Allies and Enemies, c. 430 B.C.E.
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ARCHITECTURE OF THE GREEK POLIS
                                                
                                                  
                              
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Ancient Greek Homes
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Ancient Greek Art
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THE ART AND SCULPTURE OF ANCIENT GREECE
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
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V. Sparta and Athens The Worlds of Greek Polis
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Examples of Greek Poleis
  • Sparta
  • Mixed Political Order
  • Athens
  • Dominated by Aristocratic Rule (7th century BCE)
  • Solon (c. 639-c.559 BCE) -- Reforms

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Ancient Athens
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5th CENTURY B.C.E. ATHENS
  • Athens power, stability, democratic
    institutions, and wealth enable artists and
    intellectuals to thrive
  • 3 cardinal values emerge
  • Humanism -- Is there anything more wonderful on
    earth, our marvelous planet, than the miracle of
    man? (Sophocles)
  • Naturalism The chief good is life according to
    nature. (Zeno of Citium)
  • Skepticism -- The unexamined life is not worth
    living. (Socrates)

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ANCIENT GREEK POLIS ATHENS
                                                  
                                                  
                               
                                                  
                        
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The City-State or Polis of Athens
                                                
                                  
                                                  
           
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Athens and Her Allies ca. 435 B.C.E.
                                                
                                                  
                                         
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Map of the Walled City of Athens
                                                
                                                  
              
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The City-State or Polis of Athens and its
port-town of Piraeus
                                                
                                                  
                                                  
                        
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                   Diagram of the City of Athens
within the Walls
                                                
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                   
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Map of the Center of Athens
                                                
                                                  
                                                  
                  
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Map of the Political and Religious Center of
Athens
                                                
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
                                                  
       
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Image of the City of Athens
                                                
                                                  
                                    
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The Acropolis of Athens
                                                
                                                  
                                    
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Interior of the Acropolis State of Goddess Athena
                                                
                                                  
      
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Greek Temple
                                                
                                                  
                                      
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The Theatre of Dyonisus
                                                
                                                  
                                    
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The Athenian Agora or Marketplace
                                                
                                                  
                                      
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The Athenian Ruler Solon (rule 594-559 B.C.E.)
                                                
                                                
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Athens and Democracy
  • Solon (639-c.550 BCE)
  • Lifting of Burdens
  • 4 Grades of Citizens
  • Archonship for first 2 Grades
  • Council of 400
  • Assembly of Appeals

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Athens and Democracy
  • Cleisthenes (570-c.507 BCE)
  • deme village (democracy residence)
  • 3 Tribes to 10 Tribes electing 50 reps each
  • Council of 500

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Ancient Sparta
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THE ANCIENT GREEK POLIS  SPARTA
                                               
                                                  
                                   
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The City-State or Polis of Sparta
                                                
                                                  
                                                  
      
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The City-State or Polis of Sparta
                                                
                                                  
                                        
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Spartas Oligarchy
  •                                                   
                                                      
         
  •  
  • 2 Hereditary Leaders
  •  
  • Council of Elders (28 men 60 yrs of age)
  •  
  • Five Ephors (annually elected magistrates)
  • _____________________________________
  • Assembly of Equals (free adult male citizens)
  •  
  •  

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Spartan Society
  • Militarism
  • Community before Individual
  •  
  • Slave Society (helots)
  •  
  • State

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Spartan Ideals For Men
  •  
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  • Spartan Creed
  • Warrior
  • Ares as Patron
  • Military Education Of Boys
  • Military Service Of Men
  •  

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Spartan Ideas For Women
  • Artemis as Patron Goddess
  • Female Education
  • Athleticism
  • Motherhood
  •  

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The Government of Greek City-States
  • The Polis

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Types of Government
in self-governing city-states
Aristotle, Politics
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Types of Government
Athens Law makers Solon (increase power of
poor) and Cleisthenes (30 regions
of polis for voting, ostracism for
expelling potential tyrant)
Golden Age of Pericles Considered by Greeks to
be a Democracy Popular Assembly,
Ecclesia of about 5000 votes directly on
hillside Council of 500 Board of 10 Generals
elected annually (leading General
Pericles)
Citizen women secluded in womens quarter, yet
playwrights imagine strong women
characters.
Tradesmen and tradeswomen.
Slaves
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Types of Government
Sparta Legislator Lycurgus in account of Xenophon
Considered by Greeks to be oligarchy
2 kings, council of elders, all men 7 to 50 in
military barracks
Citizen women control property and are known for
health
Helotssubjugated agricultural workers.
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