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Title: Climate Change Mitigation- Saadullah Ayaz


1
Climate Change Mitigation Saadullah
AyazClimate Change Coordinator, IUCN- Pakistan
2
MITIGATION
Definition Mitigation of climate change refers
to the actions taken by individuals or
corporations to reduce the greenhouse gas
emissions in order to minimize their effects on
global climate change. This usually works in
conjunction with national and international
policies that minimize greenhouse gas production
and release into the atmosphere. Instead of
trying to adapt to global warming, mitigation of
global warming refers more to the prevention and
control of the products and actions that cause
climate change.
3
MITIGATION OPTIONS
  • 1. Energy Efficiency and Management
  • - urban planning and building design
  • - changing attitudes and choices
  • - transportation
  • - technological measures
  • - fuel switching
  • 2. Alternate energy sources
  • - solar, hydel, wind and alternate options like
    biofuels etc.
  • 3. Reforestation and avoided defoforestation
  • 4. Geoengineersing
  • - carbon capture and storage
  • - solar radiation management (global dimming)
  • - ocean storage (use of iron)

4
ECONOMICS CLIMATE CHANGESterns Review. Sir
Nicholas Stern- 2006
  • proposes stabilising the concentration of
    greenhouse-gas emissions in the atmosphere at a
    maximum of 550ppm CO2e by 2050. The Review
    estimates that this would mean cutting total
    greenhouse-gas emissions to three quarters of
    2007 levels. The cost of these cuts would be in
    the range -1.0 to 3.5 of GDP
  • The costs of stabilizing the climate are
    significant but manageable delay would be
    dangerous and much more costly
  • The cost of in- action will be more that action

5
MITIGATION MECHANISMS- THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
Adopted in Kyoto, Japan in 1997 under the United
Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change The Kyoto Protocol Aims to reduce GHG
emissions by 2012 and distinguish two types of
countries - Annex-I countries With binding
emission targets (41 industrialised
countries) - Non-Annex I countries With
voluntary participation (151 developing
countries) The Kyoto Protocol legally binds
the Annex- I countries to reduced there
greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2 (in average)
below the 1992 levels, by Year 2012
6
THE KYOTO PROTOCOL MITIGATION OPTIONS
- Source oriented measures Energy conservation
and efficiency improvement Fossils fuel
switching Renewable energy - Sink enhancement
measures Capture and disposal of CO2 (under
discussion) Enhancement of forest sinks (limited
options)
7
KYOTO PROTOCOL TARGETS
Decrease avg. emissions 2008-2012 compared to
1990 USA -7
EU -8
Japan -6 Russian Federation
0 all developed countries -5.2
8
MAJOR GREENHOUSE GASES ADDRESSED BY KYOTO
PROTOCOL
  • Name Formula GWP (CO2 eq.)
  • 1. Carbon- dioxide (CO2) 1
  • 2. Methane (CH4) 21
  • 3. Nitrous oxide (N2O) 310
  • 5. Per- fluorocarbons (PFCs) 92,00
  • 4. Hydro- fluorocarbons (HFCs)
    11,700
  • 6. Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
    23,900

9
MECHANISMS UNDER THE KYOTO PROTOCOL
The Kyoto Protocol introduces three market based
flexible mechanisms for the emissions
reduction - Joint Implementation
(JI), - Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ),
and - Clean Development Mechanism (CDM).
10
CLEAN DEVELOPMENT MECHANISM (CDM)
CDM is a market based instrument under the Kyoto
Protocol of UNFCCC Assists developing
countries in sustainable development while at the
same time contributing to the ultimate objective
of the Convention. Developed countries to
support project activities that reduce GHG
emissions in the developing countries in return
for Certified Emission Reductions (CERs)/ Carbon
Credits. The CERs generated by such project
activities can be used by developed countries as
credits to meet their emissions targets under the
Protocol.
11
CONCEPT OF CER/ CARBON CREDITS
Developing Country (host)
Sold to Developed country ()
CERs
GHG reduction
GHG Emission Projections
Baseline Scenario
CDM Project
12
AREAS ADDRESSED BY KYOTO PROTOCOL
The KPs emissions targets cover the six main
GHGs Name Formula GWP (CO2 eq.) 1.
Carbon- dioxide (CO2) 1 2.
Methane (CH4) 21 3. Nitrous
oxide (N2O) 310 5. Per-
fluorocarbons (PFCs) 92,00 4.
Hydro- fluorocarbons (HFCs)
11,700 6. Sulphur hexafluoride
(SF6) 23,900 Sinks (carbon
sequestration)
13
BENEFITS FROM CDM (CARBON FINANCE)
(An Example)
Benefits to Host country
CDM Project (e.g., alternate energy production)
Additional Energy Production
Direct Foreign Investment Revenue
Carbon Credits (Developed country Buyer)
Certified Emission Reductions
Plus other Benefits (Jobs, Clean Env. Tech.
Transfer)
14
CDM INCENTIVE FOR DEVELOPED COUNTRIES
Developed countries have been subjected to
legally binding emission targets..2008/12. Due
to un-localized nature of CO2it does not matter
for environment where reduction occurs. Costs of
abatement or reduction of emissions Developed
Countries U 50-100/ton Developing Countries
U 1-10/ton Reductions of GHG is much
cheaper in developing countries.
15
CDM INCENTIVES FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Capitalize an unvalued commodity
CER Additional financing for local Sustainable
Development priorities and as such has potential
of Catalyzing large Foreign Direct Investment
(FDI) flows Instrument for appropriate Tech.
Transfer Linkage with local environmental issues
(air pollution etc.) Financial viability
Carbon financing can increase project Internal
Rate Returns (IRRs) between 0.5 to 50 (WB)
16
TYPE OF CDM PROJECTS
Unilateral, bilateral and multilateral CDM
projects allowed in Energy
- renewable/alternate energy, - energy
efficiency/conservation and cogeneration Waste
Management - landfill gas capture
- recycling Transportation - alternative fuel
vehicles - mass transit systems, cleaner
engines, CNG Industrial processes (sugar,
cement, fertilizer, textile) Land, Land use and
Forestry (A/F) Agricultural and livestock
practices
17
CC MITIGATION IN PAKISTAN
Pakistan adopted Kyoto Protocol in 1997 acceded
to it in January 2005. Pakistan established a
Designated National Authority for CDM in
Pakistan in 2005. A Clean Development Mechanism
(CDM) Cell was established in Aug.
2005. Pakistan National Operational Strategy for
CDM has been approved in February 2006. Pakistan
granted Host Country Approval to Three (14) CDM
Projects. Expected Emission reduction 3.33
million tonnes of CO2 eqv. / yr
18
ONLINE RESOURCES
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • http//www.ipcc.ch/
  • Official CDM official Website
  • www.cdm.unfccc.int
  • CDM Pakistan official Website
  • http//cdmpakistan.gov.pk

19
  • Thank You

Saadullah Ayaz Coordinator Climate Change/ Clean
Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN
Pakistan Email saad.ayaz_at_iucn.org
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