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Animal Patents

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governments and corporations are getting patents on animals? ... Q. It is unethical for governments to issue patents on animals as if they were human inventions. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Patents


1
March 2000
Animal Patents

Summary of Survey Findings
Prepared for
Prepared by
February 5-8, 2004
2
TABLE OF CONTENTS
3
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
  • A series of questions were asked on CARAVAN,
    ORCs twice-weekly national shared-cost survey.
    The purpose of the research was to gauge
    awareness of and attitudes towards animal
    patents.
  • Results are based on interviews conducted among a
    representative sample of 1,008 adults 18 years
    old and older (503 men and 505 women) living in
    private households in the continental United
    States. Interviewing was completed at ORC's
    Central Telephone Facilities during the period of
    February 5-8, 2004.
  • Completed interviews were weighted by four
    variables age, sex, geographic region, and race,
    to ensure reliable and accurate representation of
    the total adult population.
  • The margin of error at a 95 confidence level is
    plus or minus three percentage points for the
    sample of 1,008. Smaller sub-groups will have
    larger error margins.

4
SURVEY SUMMARY
  • OVERVIEW
  • While relatively few Americans are aware of some
    governments and corporations getting patents on
    animals, their views are unmistakably clear when
    asked various questions relating to this
    practice. More than two in three Americans agree
    it is unethical for corporations to make animals
    sick in the hopes of getting a patent on that
    animal, and a similar proportion agree that it is
    unethical to issue patents on animals as if they
    were human inventions.
  • These findings are even more striking because
    they are expressed relatively uniformly by
    Americans of all demographic and socioeconomic
    groups. Differences relate only to the degree of
    opposition to animal patenting, not to the
    central issue of whether it is acceptable or not.
  • AWARENESS OF ANIMAL PATENTS
  • Only 15 of American adults are aware that some
    governments and corporations are getting patents
    on animals, including no more than two in ten
    adults in any demographic subgroup.
  • Men are twice as likely as women to be aware of
    animal patents (19 vs. 10) and adults with a
    college degree are also more likely than those
    with less education to be aware of governments
    and corporations obtaining patents on animals
    (20 vs. 12).

5
SURVEY SUMMARY
  • ETHICS OF ANIMAL PATENTS
  • Seven in ten American adults (70) agree that it
    is unethical for corporations to make animals
    sick in the hopes of getting a patent on that
    animal, while only 25 disagree. Large
    majorities of adults across the board agree this
    practice is unethical. The only relatively weak
    group are adults 65 and older, who are less
    likely to agree (56) than those who are younger
    (73).
  • Two in three American adults (68) agree that it
    is unethical to issue patents on animals as if
    they were human inventions, with only 25
    disagreeing. As with the previous question,
    majorities of adults across the board think this
    is unethical.
  • Agreement is lower among seniors (54) than among
    younger adults (71) and women are more likely
    than men to agree this is unethical (71 vs.
    64). Agreement is also slightly higher among
    adults in more affluent households (50,000 or
    more a year) than those in less affluent homes
    (75 vs. 65).

6
DETAILED FINDINGS
7
DETAILED FINDINGSAwareness of Animal Patents
8
Awareness of Animal Patents
  • Only 15 of American adults are aware that some
    governments and corporations are getting patents
    on animals no more than two in ten adults in any
    demographic subgroup are aware of this.
  • Men are twice as likely as women to be aware of
    animal patents (19 vs. 10).
  • Adults with a college degree are also more likely
    than those with less education to be aware of
    governments and corporations obtaining patents on
    animals (20 vs. 12).

9
Awareness of Animal Patents (continued)
A1 As you probably know, a patent is usually
granted to inventors giving them the exclusive
right to make, use, or sell their inventions.
Are you aware that some governments and
corporations are getting patents on animals?
Dont Know 1
Not Aware Total 84 Gender Men 79 Wo
men 88Age 18-34 86 35-54 85
55 81 Education High school or less
87 College incomplete 88 College
graduate 79Region Northeast 83
Midwest 87 South 84 West 81
Yes, Aware15
No, Not Aware 84
Base Total respondents (1008)
10
DETAILED FINDINGSEthics of Animal Patents
11
Ethics of Animal Patents
  • Seven in ten American adults (70) agree that it
    is unethical for corporations to make animals
    sick in the hopes of getting a patent on that
    animal only 25 disagree. Large majorities of
    adults across the board agree this practice is
    unethical.
  • Adults 65 and older are less likely to agree
    (56) than those who are younger (73).
  • Two in three American adults (68) agree that it
    is unethical to issue patents on animals as if
    they were human inventions only 25 disagree.
    As with the previous question, majorities of
    adults across the board think this is unethical.
  • Agreement is lower among seniors (54) than among
    younger adults (71).
  • Women are more likely than men to agree that it
    is unethical to issue patents on animals as if
    they were human inventions (71 vs. 64).
  • Agreement is slightly higher among adults in more
    affluent households (50,000 or more a year) than
    those in less affluent homes (75 vs. 65).

12
Ethics of Animal Patents (continued)
A2A Please tell me if you agree or disagree
with the following statement It is unethical
for corporations to make animals sick in the
hopes of getting a patent on that
animal.
Dont Know 5
Agree Total 70 Gender Men 67 Women
72Age 18-34 75 35-54 74
55 60 Education High school or less 6
6 College incomplete 74 College
graduate 73 Region Northeast 72
Midwest 73 South 67 West 70
Agree 70
Disagree25
Base Total respondents (1008)
13
Ethics of Animal Patents (continued)
A2B Please tell me if you agree or disagree
with the following statement It is unethical
for governments to issue patents on animals as if
they were human inventions.
Dont Know 7
Agree Total 68 Gender Men 64 Women
71Age 18-34 75 35-54 70
55 59 Education High school or less 6
4 College incomplete 72 College
graduate 71 Region Northeast 69
Midwest 69 South 68 West 66
Agree 68
Disagree25
Base Total respondents (1008)
14
APPENDIX
15
RELIABILITY OF SURVEY PERCENTAGES
  • Results of any sample are subject to sampling
    variation. The magnitude of the variation is
    measurable and is affected by the number of
    interviews and the level of the percentages
    expressing the results.
  • The table below shows the possible sample
    variation that applies to percentage results
    reported herein. The chances are 95 in 100 that
    a survey result does not vary, plus or minus, by
    more than the indicated number of percentage
    points from the result that would be obtained if
    interviews had been conducted with all persons in
    the universe represented by the sample.

Size of Sample on
Approximate Sampling Tolerances Applicable
Which Survey Results
to Percentages At or Near These
Levels______________ Are Based
10 or 90 20 or 80 30 or 70 40 or
60 50   1,000 interviews 2 2 3 3 3 500
interviews 3 4 4 4 4 250 interviews 4 5
6 6 6 100 interviews 6 8 9 10 10   Add
itional Sampling Tolerances for Samples of 1,000
Interviews   9 or 91 8 or 92 7 or 93 6 or
94 5 or 95 2 2 2 1 1   4 or 96 3 or
97 2 or 98 1 or 99 1 1 1 .2
16
SAMPLING TOLERANCES WHEN COMPARING TWO SAMPLES
  • Tolerances are also involved in the comparison of
    results from independent parts of the sample. A
    difference, in other words, must be of at least a
    certain number of percentage points to be
    considered statistically significant that is
    not due to random chance. The table below is a
    guide to the sampling tolerances in percentage
    points applicable to such comparisons, based on a
    95 confidence level.

Differences Required
for Significance At Size of Samples
or Near These Percentage
Levels Compared 10 or 90 20 or 8
0 30 or 70 40 or 60 50 1,000 and 1,000 3
4 4 4 4 1,000 and 500 3 4 5 5 5 1,000
and 250 4 6 6 7 7 1,000 and 100 6 8 9 1
0 10 500 and 500 4 5 6 6 6 500 and 250
5 6 7 7 8 500 and 100 6 9 10 11 11 25
0 and 250 5 7 8 9 9 250 and 100 7 9 11
11 12 100 and 100 8 11 13 14 14
17
Questionnaire
18
Survey Questions
  • Q. As you probably know, a patent is usually
    granted to inventors giving them the exclusive
    right to make, use, or sell their inventions.
  • Are you aware that some governments and
    corporations are getting patents on animals?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Dont know
  • Please tell me if you agree or disagree with each
    of the following statements
  • Q. It is unethical for corporations to make
    animals sick in the hopes of getting a patent on
    that animal.
  • Agree
  • Disagree
  • Dont know
  • Q. It is unethical for governments to issue
    patents on animals as if they were human
    inventions.
  • Agree
  • Disagree
  • Dont know
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