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LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT

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Title: LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT


1
Children
6
Cognitive Development in Infancy
John W. Santrock
2
Cognitive Development In Infancy
  • What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • How Do Infants Learn, Remember, and
    Conceptualize?
  • How Are Individual Differences in Infant
    Intelligence Assessed and Do These Assessments
    Predict Intelligence?
  • What Are Some Early Environmental Influences on
    Cognitive Development?
  • What Is the Nature of Language and How Does It
    Develop in Infancy?

3
Images of Children
What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • The stories of Laurent, Lucienne, and Jacqueline
  • Piagets children are the models for his theory
  • Meticulous observations on cognitive development

4
Cognitive Processes
What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • Adaptation involves adjusting to new
    environmental demands
  • We build mental structures to help us adapt
  • Children actively construct their own cognitive
    worlds

5
Cognitive Processes
What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • Schemes mental representations or actions that
    organize knowledge
  • Assimilation incorporating new information into
    existing schemes
  • Accommodation adjusting schemes to fit new
    information and experiences

6
Cognitive Processes
What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • Organization grouping isolated behaviors and
    thoughts into higher-order system
  • Equilibrium mechanism for shifting from one
    level of thought to another
  • Disequilibrium result of cognitive conflict
  • Cognition qualitatively different in each stage
    of development

7
Sensorimotor Stage
What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • First of Piagets stages
  • Lasts from birth to about 2 years of age
  • Infants construct understanding of the world by
    coordinating sensory experiences with physical,
    motoric actions use of symbols

8
Sensorimotor Substages
Figure 6.1
9
Understanding Physical Reality
What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • Object Permanence
  • Understanding that objects and events continue to
    exist even when they cannot be seen, heard, or
    touched
  • One of infants most important achievements,
    assessed by violation of expectations
  • Understanding of causality

10
Object Permanence
(a)
(b)
Fig. 6.2
11
The Infants Understanding of Causality
12
Evaluating Piagets Sensorimotor Stage
What Is Piagets Theory of Infant Development?
  • New way of looking at infants
  • Piagets views need modification his
    explanations of cause are debated
  • Object permanence occurs earlier
  • Distinguishing objects by 3 to 4 months
  • A-not-B error infant selects familiar hiding
    place (A) rather than new hiding place (B)

13
Conditioning
How Do Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize?
  • Consequences of behavior produce
  • Rovee-Collier experiment on memory
  • Classical conditioning pairing of new stimulus
    to conditioned response
  • Operant conditioning consequences of behavior
    affect probability of that behavior reoccurring

14
Attention
How Do Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize?
  • Focusing of mental resources on select
    information helps cognitive processing
  • Habituation decreased responsiveness to stimulus
    after repeated presentations
  • Dishabituation habituated response recovered
    after a change in stimulation
  • Short lookers versus long lookers

15
Attention
How Do Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize?
  • Joint attention individuals focus on same
    object or event
  • Requires
  • Ability to track anothers behavior
  • One person directing anothers attention
  • Reciprocal interaction
  • Important to caregiver-infant interactions

16
Memory
How Do Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize?
  • Retention of information over time
  • Attention is important for encoding
  • Implicit memory recall is automatic
  • Explicit memory recall is conscious effort
  • Infantile or childhood amnesia
  • Most remember little from first 3 years
  • Immaturity of prefrontal lobe

17
Imitation
How Do Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize?
  • Meltzoff Infant can imitate facial expression
    within a few days after birth others disagree
  • Deferred imitation imitate actions seen earlier
    use of unusual gestures (extending arm, pointing
    index finger, etc.)
  • Piaget begins about 18 months of age
  • Meltzoff begins much earlier than 18 months
  • Mirror neurons play role in infant imitation

18
Concept Formation and Categorization
How Do Infants Learn, Remember, and Conceptualize?
  • Categories grouping objects, events,
    characteristics by common features
  • Concepts ideas on what categories represent
  • Conceptual categories perceptual variability
    found in 7- to 9-month-old infants
  • Object-examination test

19
Infant Intelligence
How Are Individual Differences in Infant
Intelligence Assessed and Do They Predict IQ?
  • Infant testing movement grew
  • Gesell distinguish abnormal babies for adoption
    agencies
  • Developmental quotient (DQ) overall
    developmental score, combines domains
  • Motor
  • Language
  • Adaptive
  • Personal-social

20
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
How Are Individual Differences in Infant
Intelligence Assessed and Do They Predict IQ?
  • Widely used in assessment of infant development
    has three components
  • Mental scale auditory and visual attention
  • Motor scale
  • Infant behavior profile
  • Assesses infant, predicts later behavior

21
Infant Intelligence
How Are Individual Differences in Infant
Intelligence Assessed and Do They Predict IQ?
  • Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence
  • Increased use focus on infant ability to process
    information
  • Encoding attributes of objects
  • Detecting object similarities and differences
  • Forming and retrieving mental representations
  • Similar infant performances across cultures

22
Predicting Intelligence
How Are Individual Differences in Infant
Intelligence Assessed and Do They Predict IQ?
  • Older children IQ tests focus on verbal ability
  • Infants IQ tests focus on perceptual-motor
    development and social behavior
  • Gesell and Bayley scales poor predictors
  • Fagan good correlation with later IQ tests
  • Habituation and dishabituation linked to IQ

23
Nutrition
What Are Some Early Environmental Influences on
Cognitive Development?
  • Affects physical development
  • Malnutrition limits cognitive development
  • Early nutritional supplements, proteins and
    calories, have positive long-term effects

24
Poverty
What Are Some Early Environmental Influences on
Cognitive Development?
  • Positive effects sought by manipulating
    childrens early environments
  • Emphasis on prevention, not remediation
  • Early intervention programs vary
  • Many low-income parents cannot provide
    intellectually stimulating environment

25
Early Intervention and Retention in School
Fig. 6.9
26
Poverty
What Are Some Early Environmental Influences on
Cognitive Development?
  • Best intervention programs are
  • Long lasting
  • Time-intensive
  • Providing direct educational benefits
  • Often in educational context
  • Does not rely solely on parental training
  • Comprehensive and multidimensional

27
Defining Language
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Language form of communication (verbal, written,
    gestures) based on system of symbols highly
    organized
  • Infinite generativity ability to produce endless
    number of meaningful sentences using finite set
    of words and rules

28
Languages Rule Systems
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Five systems of rules
  • Phonology
  • Sound system of language
  • Basis and sequences for sets of words
  • Phoneme smallest unit of sound
  • Morphology
  • Units of meaning in word formation
  • Morpheme smallest unit of meaning

29
Languages Rule Systems
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Syntax
  • Ways words combine to form acceptable phrases and
    sentences
  • Semantics
  • Meanings of words and sentences
  • Pragmatics
  • Appropriate use of language in context

30
How Language Develops
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Babbling and gestures
  • Crying present at birth, signals distress
  • Cooing begins about 1 to 2 months
  • Babbling occurs in middle of first year, strings
    of consonant-vowel combinations
  • Gestures begins about 8 to 12 months about same
    for hearing and deaf children

31
Recognizing Language Sounds
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Birth to 6 months
  • Citizens of the Word recognize most sound
    changes in any language
  • After 6 months, learn own language
  • Gradually lose ability to recognize sound changes
    in other languages
  • 8 to 9 months detect word boundaries

32
First Words
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • First words at 10 to 15 months
  • First words name important people, familiar
    animals and objects, body parts, greetings
  • Infants understand about 50 words at 13 months
    (receptive vocabulary) but unable to say them
    until about 18 months (spoken vocabulary)

33
Variation in Language Milestones
Fig. 6.12
34
Language Growth
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Vocabulary spurt 18 months to 2 years
  • 50 words at 18 mos, 200 words at 2 years
  • Overextension applying words too broadly
  • Underextension applying word too narrowly
  • Two-Word Utterances
  • Telegraphic speech use of short and precise
    words without grammatical markers

35
Biological and Environmental Influences
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Biological
  • Evolution of CNS and vocal apparatus
  • Human language about 100,000 years old
  • Childrens language acquisition similar all over
    the world (biological basis)

36
Biological and Environmental Influences
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Brains Role in Language
  • AphasiaBrain damage that involves a loss of
    ability to use words
  • Brocas areaBrains left frontal lobe that
    directs the muscle movements involved in speech
    production
  • Wernickes areaBrains left hemisphere involved
    in language comprehension

37
Brocas Area and Wernickes Area
38
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Chomsky
  • Humans biologically prewired for language
  • Children born with LAD biological ability to
    detect features and rules of language
  • Theoretical not physical part of brain
  • Supporters cite uniformity of language milestones
    across languages and cultures

39
Environmental Influences
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Behaviorists view cannot explain
  • Creation of novel sentences
  • Learning of a native language syntax without
    reinforcements
  • Extensive research on environment
  • Environment influences language skills
  • Importance of social context Wild Boy of
    Aveyron and Genie

40
Environmental Influences
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Tomasello interaction view
  • Language learned in specific contexts
  • In early development children use social skills
    to acquire language
  • Childs vocabulary linked to familys
    socioeconomic status
  • Type of talk parents direct to child
  • Elaborated or restrictive vocabularies

41
Environmental Influences on Language
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Child-directed speech
  • Spoken in higher pitch than normal with simple
    words and sentences
  • Holds attention, maintains communication

42
Environmental Influences
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Other strategies used naturally
  • Recasting rephrasing what child says
  • Expanding sophisticated restating of what the
    child says
  • Labeling assigning, identifying objects by name

43
How Parents Can Facilitate Infants Language
Development
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Barons Growing Up With Language
  • Infants
  • Be active conversational partner
  • Talk as if infant understands what is being said
  • Use a comfortable language style
  • Toddlers
  • Continue being active conversational partner
  • Remember to listen
  • Use comfortable and appropriate styles
  • Be flexible with child
  • Avoid stereotypes

44
Language Input in Professional and Welfare
Families and Young Childrens Vocabulary
Development
Welfare
Fig. 6.16 (a)
45
Language Input in Professional and Welfare
Families and Young Childrens Vocabulary
Development
Fig. 6.16 (b)
46
Interactionist View of Language Development
What Is The Nature of Language and How Does It
Develop in Infancy?
  • Biology and sociocultural experiences contribute
    to language development
  • Parents and teachers construct LASS language
    acquisition support system
  • Children acquire native language without explicit
    teaching

47
Children
6
  • The End
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