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Expository Text and Technology HOW.


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Title: Expository Text and Technology HOW.

Expository Text and Technology HOW.
  • Jeff Piontek and Alison Inouye
  • Hawaii Department of Education

Adolescent Literacy
  • More than eight million students in grades 4-12
    are struggling readers (NCES, 2003)
  • Students who enter ninth grade reading
    significantly below grade level are 20 times more
    likely to drop out of high school than their
    higher achieving classmates (AEE,2005)

50 of Graduating Seniors HSTW, 1999
  • Cannot relate aspects of the text to its overall
  • Cannot connect ideas in the text to personal
  • Cannot draw conclusions
  • Lack the capability to explain a reading
    selections main idea, purpose or information
    supporting the conclusion
  • Deficient in their analytical skills
  • Have difficulty in advancing in our
    information-based society

Big Questions
  • How long does it take to learn to read?
  • In what grades should reading be taught?
  • Whose job is it to teach reading?
  • What should we teach?
  • How should it be taught?
  • How do we go beyond functional literacy and teach
    reading for leading?

The answers so far.
  • One keeps learning to read throughout ones life,
    each time one reads a new type of document.
  • Reading should be taught throughout the grades
    from Kindergarten through post graduate.
  • It is every educators job to teach reading.
  • Reading for information should be the major focus
    of reading instruction.
  • Reading should be taught directly, with the goal
    of putting the students consciously in control of
    their reading process.
  • We go beyond functional literacy when we teach
    students to read strategically, critically and
    with metacognitive awareness.

Do you know where youve been?
Do you know where youre going?
You never know for sure..
What is around that curve..
Think-Jot Down-Share or Reflect
  • How do you think children learn to read well?
  • How do you think home culture impacts the
  • Why do you think so?

New Literacy Studies
  • Social orientation of reading and writing
  • Literacy varies from one context to another.
  • Readers and writers have different conceptions of
    the meanings of what they are doing. These
    meanings are not just individual or cognitive,
    but derive from social practices.

Learning to Read Well
  • Long-term developmental process.
  • Goal read a variety of materials with ease and
    interest, for varying purposes, with
    comprehension even when materials are difficult
    and not intrinsically interesting.
  • Extracting and constructing meaning through
    interaction and involvement with written language.

The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled
Reading (Scarborough, 2001)
Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually
acquired over years of instruction and practice.
Integrating Technology into School Curricula
  • Since the 1970s a debate has persisted regarding
    the effectiveness and importance of integrating
    technology into school curricula (Butzin, 2001
    Leu Kinzer, 2000).

Integrating Technology into School Curricula
  • Advocates argue that technology
  • Improves student learning outcomes and prepares
    them for a technology-rich workplace (Butzin,
  • In support of those effects, technology can be
    used to
  • Present material to be learned
  • Help learners solve problems
  • Assist in drill and practice
  • Facilitate time management
  • Increase computer literacy (see Abbott Faris,

Integrating Technology into School Curricula
  • Critics argue that
  • Predictions that computers and movies would
    replace schools have not come true
  • American schools have spent large sums of money
    putting technology in schools yet, American
    students score lower than their international
    peers on measures of achievement
  • Tight school budgets are further constrained by
    the need to invest additional money to maintain
    the technology infrastructure in schools

Integrating Technology into School Curricula
  • A growing body of literature supports advocates
    claims that technology increases student
    achievement, engagement, their technology skills,
    motivation, and workplace preparedness.

Integrating Technology into School Curricula
  • Project CHILD (Butzin, 2001)
  • Instructional model from Florida State University
  • Incorporates technology into K-5 classroom
  • Longitudinal data show increased reading,
    language arts, and mathematics test scores
  • Other effects fewer discipline problems, more
    positive attitudes toward school, greater
    engagement, and more positive parent involvement

Integrating Technology into School Curricula
  • This contributes to the evidence and describes
  • How technology changes literacy instruction
  • How changes in literacy instruction affect what
    and how students learn
  • The use of Web logs (blogs) to support K-5
    students reading and writing development

Literacy Instruction and Technology
  • Literacy is tied inherently to technology because
    technology profoundly affects how we communicate.

Literacy Instruction and Technology
  • Literacy
  • A basic definition the skills needed to read and
  • A more complex definition the skills necessary
    to communicate effectively within a particular
    cultural context (Nixon, 2003)
  • The second definition assumes social significance
    is associated with an individuals ability to
    communicate using the tools valued by a culture

Literacy Instruction and Technology
  • Assuming the more complex definition
  • Culturally-compatible literacy instruction
    changes continually as technological changes
    influence how we communicate and how we present
  • Is this the case?

Literacy Instruction and Technology
  • Mackey (2003) notes that new readers learn about
    reading from extensive textual experiences across
  • These media include
  • Computerized Story Books/eBooks
  • Games
  • Music
  • Film
  • Television
  • Search Engines
  • Instant Messaging
  • Email
  • Telephone calls via the Internet
  • (Boone Higgins, 2003 Nixon, 2003)

Literacy Instruction and Technology
  • Literacy is not simply reading and writing, but
    communicating and sharing knowledge using the
    technology valued by a culture

Literacy Instruction and Technology
  • Four skill areas related to literacy instruction
  • Collaborating with others
  • Communicating with others
  • Finding and evaluating information
  • Solving problems by creating and communicating
  • How does technology influence what and how
    students learn these skills?

What is Learned
  • As technology evolves, the content of literacy
    instruction changes to include
  • Non-linear texts with integrated graphics and
  • Print and electronic formats for information
  • Sharing of information beyond traditional means
    of written and spoken communication
  • Instruction should foster a student-centered
  • environment that encourages collaboration, active
  • and open communication

How Students Learn
  • A student-centered, constructivist learning
    environment assumes that learners actively
    construct and create their representations of
    meaning using their current and past knowledge
  • Technology-mediated literacy instruction can
    support such an environment

How Students Learn
  • Social learning strategies
  • As networked information resources change, no
    single individual will be fully literate in all
    technologies social learning strategies may used
    to support learning
  • Learners will support each others attempts to
    become literate by modeling literate behaviors
    and sharing knowledge
  • Cooperative learning activities will support the
    social negotiation of meaning and understanding
  • (Leu Kinzer, 2000)

How Students Learn
  • Peer collaboration
  • Elementary students used the Internet to search
    for information regarding a project
  • As peer editors, the students assisted each other
    as they clarified ideas and chose which
    information to include/exclude
  • The students also assisted with managing
    technical aspects of the information search
  • (Kelley, Finley, Koehler, Picard, 2001)

How Students Learn
  • Self-regulated learning
  • Teenage girls exposure to online communities
    encouraged them to teach themselves how to use
    different types of hardware and software
  • One participant taught herself HTML and
    JavaScript in an effort to construct products
    valued by the online community
  • Both girls were internally motivated to seek out
    additional information related to personal
    interests and their interactions in the online
  • (Chandler-Olcott Mahar, 2003)

How Students Learn
  • The previous examples argue for authenticity when
    integrating technology into school curricula
  • Web logs (blogs) can offer an authentic forum for
    practicing writing and literacy skills

Web Logs
  • Blogs can combine technology with academic
    content, practice, and assessment
  • Kennedy (2003) describes blogs as part Web site,
    part journal, part free-form writing space ( 3)
  • Education blogs allow students to publish their
    written work in a public forum
  • Blogs also can include commentary, criticism,
    and/or interpretation (Kennedy, 2003)

Web Logs
  • In the elementary classroom
  • Students write individually and may share their
    writing with other students by reading aloud or
    posting writing in the classroom
  • This approach does not foster interchange among
  • Writing to a blog, however, may increase
    students motivation to write and their attention
    to what they have written because
  • Increased attention to writing and motivation to
    write may improve organization, style, and
    sophistication of ideas (Tompkins, 2002)

Web Logs in the Elementary Classroom
  • For K-5 students, the reading/language arts
    standards are summarized as
  • Print awareness
  • Reading comprehension
  • Literary response
  • Writing for research
  • Writing compositions
  • Reading fluency
  • Proper usage (grammar)

Web Logs in the Elementary Classroom
  • For K-5 students, the technology ideals fall into
    four categories
  • Foundations
  • Technology terms, acceptable use practices, using
    input devices, using software
  • Information acquisition
  • Acquiring and evaluating information from
    electronic sources
  • Problem solving
  • Using word processing and multimedia software
    using communication tools to interact with groups
  • Communication
  • Publishing information in a variety of media

Expository Writing Writing to Learn
  • There are many approaches and many activities to
    help students write in expository style.
  • Comparing, contrasting or evaluating key points
    in a chapter
  • Writing critical report, e.g. famous people,
    details and/or events
  • Writing an essay on science topics related to
    knowledge and ideas they already know
  • Writing letters to convey personal reactions or
    to request information on a topic
  • Writing scripts to dramatize key events in
  • Writing historical fiction
  • Writing a childrens book on a science topic
  • Writing an editorial or communication on an issue
  • Writing an illustrated glossary of key terms
  • Creating captions for photos of a scientific
  • Creating a puzzle of key terms to use in their

Web Logs in the Elementary Classroom
  • Using Web logs to facilitate students reading
    and writing helps them acquire the needed skills
    to achieve competency
  • Importantly, Web logs are an authentic writing
    and publishing technology that is
    student-centered in the tradition of the
    constructivist approach to learning

Investigating Web Logs and Students
Reading/Writing Achievement
  • Many universities are examining how the
    additional writing and reading practice created
    by posting to a Web log affects two measures of
  • Students scores on grade-level reading/writing
    achievement tests
  • The sophistication of students posts to the Web
    log as classified by the hierarchical levels of
    Blooms (1956) taxonomy of skills in the
    cognitive domain

Investigating Web Logs and Students
Reading/Writing Achievement
  • Primary research questions
  • Are Web logs a viable technology for improving
    students reading/writing achievement?

Blog Information
  • Resources
  • http//www.blogger.com
  • http//www.blogspot.com
  • http//www.diaryland.com
  • http//www.ebloggy.com
  • The Educational Blog Network
  • http//www.ebn.weblogger.com/

What do we know about reading?
  • Good instruction is the most powerful means of
    promoting its development.
  • Instruction designed to increase reading fluency
    leads to significant gains in word recognition
    and fluency and to moderate gains in
    comprehension (National Reading Panel
    meta-analysis of 14 studies).

Differences in Teaching Reading
  • Reading Instruction
  • Reading instruction teacher teaches to help
    students with sequential development of reading
  • Content Area Reading
  • Content teacher teaches reading skills and
    content at the same time
  • Teaches the sequential development of ideas
  • Makes students better learners
  • Helps students improve academic achievement
  • Helps students improve their attitude toward

Explicit instruction is essential
Comparing Narrative and Informational text
Expository Text Structures
  • Description
  • Compare/Contrast
  • Cause and Effect
  • Chronology/Sequence
  • Procedural
  • Persuasive
  • Question/Answer
  • Problem/Solution

Signal Words Point the Way
Text Structure Signal Words
Description/ Hierarchical List
Cause Effect
Compare/ Contrast
Problem/ Solution
Question Answer
For instance For example Furthermore Such
as Also To begin with Most important Also In
fact In addition And to illustrate
Since Because This led to On account of Due to As
a result of For this reason Consequentially Thens
o Therefore thus
In like manner Likewise Similar to The difference
between As opposed to After all However And
yet But Nevertheless On the other hand
One reason for the A solution A
problem Where The question is One answer
is Recommendations include
How When What Next Why Who How many The best
estimate It could be that One may conclude
Until Before After Finally Lastly Firstlast Now
then On (date) At (time) First,
second Meanwhile Not long after initially
Examples of Expository text(From Literacy by J.
David Cooper)
  • Description
  • The tiger is the master of the Indian jungle. It
    stalks its prey in deadly silence. For an hour or
    more, it carefully watches and then slowly,
    placing one foot softly in front of the other
    closes in.
  • Characteristics
  • Presents information and gives characteristics
  • Unlike other expository structures it does not
    provide clues to aid in word comprehension
  • Closest to narrative text and
  • Basic information for noting details and select
    important information

  • The power of the great tigers is like that of no
    other animal in the jungle. With one steady
    lunge, it can destroy its prey, seemingly without
    any effort at all. Unlike other predators, the
    tiger basks in the sun after an attack to prepare
    for its next kill. The actions of the tiger
    resemble those of no other animal in the Indian
  • Characteristics
  • Required to note the likeliness and difference
    between two or more objects or ideas
  • Found in social studies and science
  • Clue words and phrases like, unlike-resemble,
    different from, same as and
  • Reader must recognize the objects or ideas being
    compared and similar and different
  • Key terms similarly, both, different from and

  • We observed the tiger from our vehicle as it
    stalked the herd of deer. As a result of the
    slight noise from our running camera, the tiger
    turned and knew we were there. This didnt stop
    him from returning to its intended prey. Slowly
    and carefully it moved forward, not making a
    sound. The deer initially unaware of its
    presence, but because of the shifting winds they
    caught the tigers scent. This was enough to scare
    them away.
  • Characteristics
  • Casual relationship is either stated or implied
  • Used in content area textbooks, newspapers and
    magazine articles
  • Clue words therefore, consequently, because as a
    result of, since, the reason for, if/then, thus,
    so and
  • Readers must identify the element being related
    and recognized or infer the cause and effect

  • As master of the jungle, the male tiger plays
    many roles. First, he is the hunter of prey who
    stalks in deadly silence. He is beauty of the
    jungle, an expert at doing nothing so that he can
    rest and be ready for the hunt. Finally, the lord
    of the jungle is the active seeker of mates, who
    begins his mating with a nuzzle but ends with a
  • Characteristics
  • A number if ideas or descriptions in a related
  • Often called a list or sequence
  • Uses clue words first, second, next and finally
  • Readers must infer the relationship between the
    listed points and the overall topic, noting
    details and identifying sequence of ideas

  • One problem to be resolved in tiger watching is
    transportation. How is it possible for observers
    to get close to a tiger without scaring it away
    or being attacked? Nature has helped to solve
    this problem by making the tiger and the elephant
    friends. It is possible fro an elephant carrying
    several people to get very near a tiger without
    even being noticed. If it werent for this
    natural friendship, tiger watching would be
    virtually impossible.
  • Characteristics
  • Structure presents a question, problem, or remark
    followed by an answer or solution or reply
  • Often used in mathematics, science and social
  • Clue words as a problem is, the question is, one
    reason is, the problem is, one answer is

  • Rating scale for inferring
  • Not likely
  • Possibly
  • Very likely
  • Almost certain
  • How to infer with nonfiction
  • Think about the facts presented
  • Come up with possible inferences
  • If you have problems think about questions the
    fact raises
  • Try to think of possible answer to your questions
  • There will be your inferences
  • Think about each inference
  • Give each one an inference rating
  • Choose the inferences that have a 3 or 4 rating

A Student Think Aloud Checklist
  • Before reading, I
  • Review the title, the headings,
    illustrations yes/no
  • Thought about what I already know about the
    topic yes/no
  • Made predictions about what the text was
    about yes/no
  • Made up my own questions yes/no
  • During reading, I
  • Predicted what might happen next yes/no
  • Thought about ideas, not stated in the
    text yes/no
  • Understood the main idea of the text yes/no
  • Understood the important details in the
    text yes/no
  • Summarized each section-key ideas/thoughts yes/no
  • Made up questions to clarify information for
    myself yes/no
  • Checked when I wasnt sure about
    something yes/no
  • After reading, I
  • Summarized everything I had read yes/no
  • Thought about what I read and what I already
    know yes/no
  • Made notes to help me understand certain
    ideas yes/no

Physical Features
  • Text organizers
  • Index
  • Preface
  • Table of contents
  • Glossary
  • Appendix
  • Bibliography
  • Footnote
  • Photo Credit
  • Fonts and effects
  • Titles
  • Headings
  • Subheadings
  • Boldface print
  • Italics
  • Bullets
  • Captions
  • Color, Size
  • Labels
  • Font Style
  • Graphics
  • Diagrams
  • Cutaways
  • Cross sections
  • Overlays
  • Tables
  • Graphs
  • Charts
  • Word bubbles
  • Timelines
  • Distribution
  • Maps
  • Flow Charts
  • Illustrations and Photographs
  • Illustrations Icons
  • Photographs Visual Layout

Choosing Reading Materials for Pre-teens and
  • Increasingly interested in local, national, and
    international current events
  • Editorials and articles from the newspaper and
    news magazines
  • Defining what makes them unique individuals and
    learning how they fit in the world
  • Novels set in the past and in the present
  • Novels with young characters who are experiencing
    and coping with the challenges of growing up

Choosing Reading Materials forPre-teens and Teens
  • Question authority
  • Classic and modern novels that deal with big
    issues such as when the needs of a community are
    more important than those of individuals
  • Striving for independence, yet still want to be
    connected to their families
  • Your favorite books/explain why they are
    important to you
  • Books that you can share laughter, a good
    mystery, an action-paced adventure, a science
    fiction journey

Choosing Reading Materials forPre-teens and Teens
  • Gradually learning to think abstractly and
    understand the reasons behind views that differ
    from their own
  • Books that challenge them to think out of the
    box and see the world beyond their daily
  • Thinking about what they will do in their
    lives---college, careers, and more
  • Books that introduce a wide range of
    opportunities and experiences
  • http//www.lib.virginia.edu/databases/ebooks.html

. . . on past objectives
Keep your eye on the priorities . . .
The Big Ideas A summary
1. Explicit and systematic instruction in the
critical knowledge and skills required for
proficient reading
2. Extensive practice activities that are both
supervised and independent as well as engaging
3. Reliable and valid assessments beginning in
4. Resources devoted to increasing intensity and
power of instruction for students lagging behind
You Cant Tutor What Hasnt Been Taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught

The Challenge of the vocabulary gap
This gap arises because of massive differences in
opportunities to learn school vocabulary in the
We are still learning about the conditions that
must be in place to substantially reduce the
vocabulary gap by third grade.
Latin Greek Roots
  • http//www.quia.com/jg/275995.html
  • http//english.glendale.cc.ca.us/quizr.html
  • http//hyper.vcsun.org/HyperNews/nherr/get/SED646/
  • http//www.resourceroom.net/Comprehension/index.as

Facts (Strategy)
  • Tell your partner three facts which you have
    learned from today.

Fact or Opinion? (Strategy)
  • Check what your partner said were actual facts,
    not just their opinion.
  • Will everyone think the same thing?
  • Can they prove what they said?
  • If not, it is probably an opinion, not a fact!

Is it important on how information is presented?
Across a science teachers desk
  • Describe momentum
  • Something you give someone when they are going
  • Where is the equator?
  • The equator is a menagerie lion running around
    the Earth through Africa.
  • Describe the body parts you have studied
  • The body consists of three parts-the brainium,
    the borax and the adominable cavity. The brainium
    contains the brain, the borax contains the heart
    and lungs, and the adominable cavity contains the
    bowels, of which there are five a, e ,I o and u.

Teachers Make a Difference!
  • Teachers make decisions
  • Teachers choose books
  • Teachers choose instructional strategies
  • Teachers assess
  • Teachers remediate

LittleFingers Online Games - Honey Pot Hunt
- Rhyming Words http//www.quia.com/jg/65870.htm
lRhyming Words - Kindergarten http//www.quia.co
m/jg/65765.htmlBBC Education - Wordblender Game
lusters/blender/game.shtml Storyplace Preschool
Library http//www.storyplace.org/preschool/other
.asp Storyplace Elementary Library
World - Real of Make Believe http//www.cogcon.co
m/gamegoo/games/tina/tina.html LittleFingers
Online Games - Space Germs!http//www.little-g.co
m/shockwave/germs.html Disney Interactive
x.html?23 Learning Planet - Alphabet Action
sp PBS Kids - Between the Lions A.B.Cow
http//pbskids.org/lions/games/abcow2.html The
Little Animals Activity Centre - Digby Mole's
Word Game http//www.bbc.co.uk/education/laac/wor
ds/dg3.html Sony Wonder Click-A-Part Choo Choo
  • You can download the presentation
  • http//jeff.piontek.googlepages.com
  • Click on presentations and IRA
  • Thank you
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