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What is our response to our baptismal call


Assets of just $2,200 per adult place a household in the top half of the world's wealthiest. ... some self-esteem, to take a holiday, read a book. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What is our response to our baptismal call

The Millennium Development Goals
  • What is our response to our baptismal call?

Defining the problem
  • 1.2 billion people live on less than 1 USD per
  • 50 of all people live on less than 2 USD per
  • One child dies of preventable hunger or curable
    disease every 3 seconds
  • A woman dies during childbirth every minute
  • 40 million people are living with HIV/AIDS
  • 8.4 million child laborers are trapped in
    slavery, trafficking, debt bondage, prostitution,
    pornography and other abhorrent conditions
  • There are many more disturbing facts and

What are the MDGs?
  • The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are the
    world's time-bound and quantified targets for
    addressing extreme poverty in its many
    dimensions-income poverty, hunger, disease, lack
    of adequate shelter, and exclusion-while
    promoting gender equality, education, and
    environmental sustainability. They are also basic
    human rights-the rights of each person on the
    planet to health, education, shelter, and
  • (The Millennium Projecthttp//www.unmillenniumpr

What really matters
  • The Millennium Development Goals A pledge made
    through the United Nations to achieve eight
    goals, made by 189 nations and others in the year
  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Achieve universal primary education
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Reduce child Mortality
  • Improve maternal health
  • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Create a global partnership for development

Signatories agreed to commit 0.7 of their
national budgets to these goals
MDG Goal 1
  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Target 1. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
    proportion of people whose income is less than 1
    a day
  • Target 2. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the
    proportion of people who suffer from hunger

From the Muslim tradition Have you ever seen a
human being who contradicts the essence of the
religion? That is the person who pushes the
orphan aside and does not promote feeding the
needy. (Quran 107)
The facts about wealth
  • The richest 1 of adults in the world own 40 of
    the planet's wealth
  • Household wealth, including financial assets and
    debts, land, buildings and other tangible
    property total 125 trillion globally
  • Europe, the US and some Asia Pacific nations
    account for most of the extremely wealthy.
  • More than a third live in the U.S.
  • Japan accounts for 27 of the total
  • The UK accounts for 6
  • France accounts for 5.

World Institute for Development Economics
Research of the United Nations
The facts about wealth
  • Assets of just 2,200 per adult place a household
    in the top half of the world's wealthiest.
  • Assets of 61,000 place household in richest 10
  • Assets of more than 500,000 place households in
    richest 1
  • According to UN, 37 million people fall into this
  • Half the people in the world live on less than 2
    a day
  • 3 billion people fall into this category

MSN Money, Got 2,200? In this world, you're
rich , 12/13/2006
Gods children who live in poverty say
  • Poverty is like living in jail, living under
    bondage, waiting to be free Jamaica
  • Poverty is to come home and see your children go
    hungry and not have anything to give them -
  • For a poor person everything is terrible
    illness, humiliation, shame We are like garbage
    that everyone wants to get rid of. A blind
    woman from Moldova
  • A normal person has some self-esteem, to take
    a holiday, read a book. While now you work
    here or there all day in order to have something
    to eat, and at night you cant even exchange a
    couple of words like normal persons, you drop off
    asleep as if you were dead. Its as if you were
    dead while you were still alive. Middle-aged
    woman from Bulgaria

What Can One Person Do? Faith to Heal a Broken
World Sabina Alkire and Edwin Newell, Church
Publishing, 2005
MDG Goal 2
  • Achieve universal primary education
  • Target 3. Ensure that, by 2015, children
    everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to
    complete a full course of primary schooling

Guinean Proverb Knowledge is like a garden If
it is not cultivated, it cannot be harvested
MDG Goal 3
  • Promote gender equality and empower women
  • Target 4. Eliminate gender disparity in primary
    and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and
    in all levels of education no later than 2015

From the Bahai tradition Only as women are
welcomed into full partnership in all fields of
human endeavor will the moral and psychological
climate be created in which international peace
can emerge. (Universal House of Justice, 1985)
MDG Goal 4
  • Reduce child mortality
  • Target 5. Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and
    2015, the under-five mortality rate

From the Jewish tradition By the breath of
children, God sustains the world. (Talmud
Bavli, Shabbat 119b
MDG Goal 5
  • Improve maternal health
  • Target 6. Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990
    and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

From the Sikh tradition We are born of women,
we are conceived in the womb of women, we are
engaged and married to women. We make friendship
with women and the lineage continues because of
women. (Guru Nanak Dev, Var Asa)
MDG Goal 6
  • Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases
  • Target 7. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
    reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS
  • Target 8. Have halted by 2015 and begun to
    reverse the incidence of malaria and other major

From the Buddhist tradition May all beings
everywhere plagued with sufferings of body and
mind quickly be freed from their illnesses. (The
Bodhicaryavatara of Shantideva))
Facts about disease
  • Approximately 40 million people were living with
    HIV/AIDS (range 34 46 million) by end 2006
  • Of these, 26.6 million were living in Sub-Saharan
    Africa, and 3.2 million in SSA were newly
    infected in 2003. One in five people are
  • In SSA women 15-24 are 2.5 times as likely to be
    infected as are men.
  • About 30 of people living with HIV/AIDS
    worldwide live in southern Africa, an area that
    is home to just 2 of the worlds population.
  • On 9/11, more than twice as many people perished
    of HIV/AIDS than in the World Trade Towers.
  • Ten times more people perish of poverty-related
    causes than of war or conflict (over 22 million
    in 2001 from preventable disease vs. 230,000 in

MDG Goal 7
  • Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Target 9. Integrate the principles of sustainable
    development into country policies and programs
    and reverse the loss of environmental resources
  • Target 10. Halve, by 2015, the proportion of
    people without sustainable access to safe
    drinking water and basic sanitation
  • Target 11. Have achieved by 2020 a significant
    improvement in the lives of at least 100 million
    slum dwellers

From the Hindu tradition May there be peace on
earth, peace in the atmosphere and in the
heavens. Peaceful be the waters, the herbs and
plants. May the Divine bring us peace.
(Atharva-Veda XIX-9)
Facts about the environment
  • Ban Ki Moon, Secretary General of the U.N. says
    that Global Warming is a reality
  • Predicts that it will be major driver of war and
    conflict in coming decades
  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 90
    certain that human-generated greenhouse gases
    account for most of the global rise in
    temperatures over the past half-century
  • U.S. is world's leading emitter of greenhouse
  • Ban will press the G8 (U.S., Russia, Britain,
    France, Germany, Japan, Canada and Italy) to
    address this during their June 2007 summit in
  • "We are all complicit in the process of global
    warming," Ban said. "Unfortunately, my generation
    has been somewhat careless in looking after our
    only planet."

Washington Post, U.N. Secretary General Calls
Global Warming a Priori , 3/7/2007
Facts about the environment
  • The poor are so desperate for food that they
    overuse their land even though they know the
    result will be lessened fertility next year
  • Lakes are over-fished, forests are not managed
    sustainably, land is overgrazed
  • Glaciers are melting, river and coastal waters
    are rising and claiming arable land, and many of
    the poor are being deprived of their only sources
    of subsistence
  • Christian Aid estimates that climate-change-associ
    ated diseases will have killed 182 million in
    sub-Saharan Africa by the end of this century

Un International Forum on the Eradication of
Poverty November 2006Coop America Quarterly
Fall 2006
MDG Goal 8
  • Develop a global partnership for sustainable
  • Target 12. Develop further an open, rule-based,
    predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and
    financial system (includes a commitment to good
    governance, development, and poverty reduction
    both nationally and internationally)
  • Target 13. Address the special needs of the Least
    Developed Countries (includes tariff- and
    quota-free access for Least Developed Countries,
    exports, enhanced program of debt relief for
    heavily indebted poor countries HIPCs and
    cancellation of official bilateral debt, and more
    generous official development assistance for
    countries committed to poverty reduction)
  • Target 14. Address the special needs of
    landlocked developing countries and small island
    developing states (through the Program of Action
    for the Sustainable Development of Small Island
    Developing States and 22nd General Assembly

From the Christian tradition Give to the one
who asks you, and do not turn away from the one
who wants to borrow from you... (The Bible,
Matthew 542
MDG Goal 8, continued
  • Develop a global partnership for sustainable
  • Target 15. Deal comprehensively with the debt
    problems of developing countries through national
    and international measures in order to make debt
    sustainable in the long term
  • Target 16. In cooperation with developing
    countries, develop and implement strategies for
    decent and productive work for youth
  • Target 17. In cooperation with pharmaceutical
    companies, provide access to affordable essential
    drugs in developing countries
  • Target 18. In cooperation with the private
    sector, make available the benefits of new
    technologies, especially information and
    communications technologies

Who is keeping track?
  • U.N.s page on tracking the goals is at
  • A 2006 progress chart is at http//mdgs.un.org/uns
  • The World Bank is monitoring progress and
    publishing statistics
  • World Bank Global Data Monitoring Information
    System - www.developmentgoals.org
  • Organization for Economic Development at
  • Various other organizations are voluntarily
    monitoring progress
  • Effectiveness of charities is monitored by
    organizations like Charity Navigator,

(No Transcript)
What the Bible says
  • I do not mean that there should be relief for
    others and pressure on you, but it is a question
    of a fair balance between your present abundance
    and their need, so that their abundance may be
    for your need, in order that there may be a fair
  • As it is written, The one who had much did not
    have too much, and the one who had little did not
    have too little.
  • 2 Corinthians 813-15
  • he said to them, Whoever has two coats must
    share with anyone who has none and whoever has
    food must do likewise.
  • Luke 311

What One Can Do
  • Pray
  • Include the MDGs in the Prayers of the People
  • Idea One MDG per week
  • Follow the Anglican Cycle of Prayer, which prays
    for a different part of the church each week
  • Do an MDG Stations of the Cross liturgy
  • Subscribe to the World in Prayer,
  • Subscribe to the Micah Challenge Prayer Series -
  • Listen to the voices around you

What One Can Do
  • Study
  • Do a class, book study or film series
  • What Can One Person Do? Faith to Heal a Broken
    World , Sabina Alkire and Edwin Newell, Church
    Publishing, 2005, contains a book list
  • Eradicating Global Poverty, Lallie Lloyd
  • God's Mission in the World study guide produced
    jointly between TEC and ELCA
  • Show a relevant film and have a discussion
  • An Inconvenient Truth (documentary, 2006)
  • The Girl in the Café (HBO Films, comedy-drama,
  • Invisible Children (documentary, 2006)
  • Others

What One Can Do
  • Donate
  • Give 0.7 of your personal income to MDG-related
  • Diocesan Convention passed resolution urging this
  • Good list of partners at www.one.org
  • Give gifts from Episcopal Relief and
    Developments Gifts for Life catalog.
  • Encourage your congregation to give 0.7 of the
    congregations budget
  • Diocesan Convention passed resolution urging this
  • Encourage your diocese to give 0.7 of the
    diocesan budget
  • El Camino Real is one of a minority of dioceses
    that do not support MDGs in the diocesan budget

How much is 0.7?
What is .7
Charitable Giving and the Economy
  • Those making 20,000 or less a year give away
    more, as a share of their income, than do higher
    income groups.
  • Each dollar of giving appears to create 19 of
    extra national income
  • Charitable giving strengthens the cohesion of
    society at large.
  • Appears to make the givers themselves more
  • Transforms people into better or happier people.

MSN Money, America the charitable A few
surprises, 11/27/2006
What one can do
  • Connect
  • Organize or join a mission trip, or sponsor
    someone who wants to engage in mission
  • e.g. Habitat for Humanity international build
  • e.g. Midwives on Mission
  • Invite someone who has made a mission trip to
    make a presentation or give a talk
  • Mentor a girl or woman
  • Sponsor children or families through
    organizations like Care Share International
  • Adopt a school or clinic or other project with
    the intention of sustained sponsorship

What One Can Do
  • Raise Awareness
  • Host or help sponsor a U2charist
  • an Episcopal Eucharist service that features the
    music of the rock band U2 and a message about
    God's call to rally around the Millennium
    Development Goals. 
  • Build Awareness among Youth and Children
  • Engaging, meaningful activities
  • e.g. Build a cross using colored popsicle sticks,
    e.g. one popsicle for child that person that dies
    of hunger during a period of time, such as e.g.
    1800 popsicle sticks for the number of children
    who die during Sunday 1000 service
  • Get ideas from the Youth Action Guide at

What One Can Do
  • Act Volunteer
  • Volunteer hours are worth some 150 billion
    annually (measured by using an estimated average
    value of 18.04 per hour)
  • Volunteering provides spiritual richness to life
  • Expand social circles and increase friendships
  • Organizations that match those who want to
    volunteer with organizations that need volunteers
  • www.211.org
  • www.volunteermatch.org
  • www.pointsoflight.org

MSN Money, America the charitable A few
surprises, 11/27/2006 The Avenue, In Search of
a Richer Life, Spring 2007
What one can do
  • Act Imagine and engage in Quick Win
  • Quick Win campaigns are important, concrete
    actions that can be taken to support the
    Millennium Development Goals. You and your
    community group can organize your activities
    around a particular Quick Win that is meaningful
    to you follow your passion.
  • Ideas
  • Supplying anti-malarial bednets
  • Raise money for books educational equipment

What One Can Do
  • Socially and environmentally responsible thinking
    and living
  • Be willing to pay more for luxuries likecoffee
    and chocolate and other foods. Look for the
    Fair Trade symbol
  • Certifies that the item is produced in an
    environmentally sustainable way, that the grower
    is receiving sustainedfair prices, and that
    slave, child and/or sweatshop laboris not used
  • Purchase organic products
  • Certifies that item contains 95 organic
    ingredients and produced without conventional
    fertilizers or synthetic pesticides and use
    sustainable and environmentally-friendly
    agricultural methods.

What One Can Do
  • Socially and environmentally responsible thinking
    and living
  • Drive less
  • Leaving the car at home once a week prevent 55
    pounds of air pollution each year from being
    emitted into our environment
  • Combine errands to save on number of trips
  • Cold engines pollute up to five times more than
    warm ones
  • Take public transit.
  • Bay Area is served by a number of transit
  • Most major events are served by public
    transportation options
  • Call 511 or visit 511.org for information on how
    local transit can get you where you're going

What one can do
  • Socially and environmentally responsible thinking
    and living
  • Telecommute
  • Just one day a week makes a difference, saving
    over a pound of pollution
  • Encourage your employer to support full-time
    telecommuting if your job only needs face-to-face
    meetings occasionally
  • Telecommuting may become mandated in some states,
    including California
  • Refuel in the evening and never top off
  • Putting gas into your vehicle releases Volatile
    Organic Compounds (VOCs) into the air. Throughout
    the day, these VOCs mix with oxides of nitrogen
    (NOx) in the air, "cook" in the summer heat, and
    form ground-level ozone. Refueling in the evening
    decreases the opportunity for VOCs to form into

What one can do
  • Socially and environmentally responsible thinking
    and living
  • Responsible use of chemical products
  • Avoid consumer spray products which add 50 tons
    of pollution to the Bay Area environment each day
  • Aerosol products include hairspray, furniture
    polish, cooking sprays, bathroom cleaners, air
    fresheners, antiperspirants, insecticides, and
    hobby craft sprays. Consider solids, sticks, and
    gels instead.
  • Use water-based paints oil-based paints contain
    high percentage of VOCs that evaporate into the
    atmosphere and create smog.
  • It's OK to barbecue, but DON'T USE LIGHTER
    FLUID!Lighter fluid literally goes up in smoke,
    causing a half-ton of smog each day in the Bay
    Area. Use an electric or a chimney briquette
    starter instead- you'll actually get a faster
  • Do your garden chores gasoline-free. Gas lawn
    mower produces as much pollution as 40 new cars
    in one hour. On Spare the Air days, don't use
    gasoline-powered equipment like leaf blowers and
    chain saws. Put off lawn care for a day or two
    until the air is cleaner - then get a good
    workout by pushing that trusty, old hand mower!

What One Can Do
  • Socially and environmentally responsible thinking
    and living
  • Recycle hazardous waste instead of flushing down
    drains or toilets
  • This includes expired pills and other
  • Harvest rainwater to use for gardening and other
  • Reduce energy use and use eco-friendly sources
    for power that you do use
  • Purchase Carbon Offsets to compensate for
    resources that you consume
  • Talk to your broker/financial advisor about
    making socially responsible investments

What One Can Do
  • Advocate
  • Write or make an appointment with your political
  • Tell them that you support the Millennium
    Development Goals and the Millennium Project's
    recommendations for achieving them.
  • Write letters to local newspapers
  • Send a letter to the editor to help you reach a
    larger audience of people. The web site of
    www.results.org has a number of useful tools that
    can be adapted to help you target both
    politicians and media outlets in your own
  • Encourage your employer to embrace principles of
    Corporate Social Responsibility

What One Can Do
  • Advocate
  • Join existing networks
  • Many large organizations are already working on
    poverty issues, and supporting them is one way to
    build support for the Goals.
  • Join the Episcopal Public Policy Network and the
    ONE Campaign

What the Bible says
  • Then the king will say to those at his right
    hand, Come, you that are blessed by my Father,
    inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the
    foundation of the world for I was hungry and you
    gave me food, I was thirsty and you gave me
    something to drink, I was a stranger and you
    welcomed me, I was naked and you gave me
    clothing, I was sick and you took care of me, I
    was in prison and you visited me.
  • Matthew 2534-36

Where is home for you?
  • The home we ultimately seek is found in
    relationship with creator, with redeemer, with
    spirit our natural home is in God
  • That vision of homegoing and homecoming that
    underlies our deepest spiritual yearnings is also
    the job assignment each one of us gets in baptism
    - go home, and while you're at it, help to build
    a home for everyone else on earth
  • You and I have been invited into that ministry
    of global peace-making that makes a place and
    affirms a welcome for all of God's creatures

From Presiding Bishop Katharines Investiture
homily 11/4/2006
Where is home for you?
  • This church has said that our larger vision will
    be framed and shaped in the coming years by the
    vision of shalom embedded in the Millennium
    Development Goals - a world where the hungry
    are fed, the ill are healed, the young
    educated, women and men treated equally, and
    where all have access to clean water and adequate
    sanitation, basic health care, and the promise
    of development that does not endanger the rest of
  • That vision of abundant life is achievable in our
    own day, but only with the passionate commitment
    of each and every one of us. It is God's vision
    of homecoming for all humanity.

From Presiding Bishop Katharines Investiture
homily 11/4/2006
Groundwork by GC2006
  • As of 11/2006, 74 of 111 (66) dioceses had
    embraced the Millennium Development Goals and
    0.7 giving. The General Convention challenged
    all dioceses to commit 0.7 giving by July 7,
  • El Camino Real is not one of them
  • General Convention issued a challenge to every
    department and funded mission and ministry of the
    Episcopal Church to give 0.7 of their money
    toward the MDGs.
  • A pledge by all members of Program, Budget and
    Finance to give 0.7 of their personal incomes
    toward the MDGs challenged to all bishops and
    deputies to do the same.
  • A line item representing more than 0.7 of the
    budget for the Episcopal Church has been
    dedicated to supporting the MDGs, and an
    additional 1,326,000 in new and increased
    mission funds were identified that support the

The Episcopal Church and MDGs
  • Three organizations engaged in cooperative,
    complementary efforts
  • The ONE Episcopalian Campaignwww.episcopalchurc
  • Partnership between Episcopal Church and and the
    ONE campaign (www.one.org) to rally Episcopalians
    ONE by ONE to the cause
  • The ONE campaign is a a coalition of 2 million
    people and over 70 non-profit, advocacy and
    humanitarian organizations that advocates that
    the U.S. government allocate an additional 1 of
    its budget toward the MDGs over the 0.7
    originally pledged by all UN signatories

The ONE Episcopalian campaign is sponsored by
Episcopal Public Policy Network (EPPN) the
advocacy arm of the Episcopal Churchs MDG
The Episcopal Church and MDGs
  • Three organizations engaged in cooperative,
    complementary efforts
  • Episcopalians for Global Reconciliationwww.e4gr.o
  • Works with every level of the church connecting,
    educating, encouraging, providing resources and
    empowering ministry for the MDGs
  • EGR is not a granting agency, nor do we do any
    direct development work. Instead, we Encourage
    MDG-related ministries and promote the work of
    ERD, ONE and any effort aimed at effectively
    engaging this mission.
  • A primary way EGR invites the Church to engage
    the MDGs at every level is through 0.7 giving

EGR is the education arm of the Episcopal
Churchs MDG efforts, focusing on the power of
What One Can Do
The Episcopal Church and MDGs
  • Three organizations engaged in cooperative,
    complementary efforts
  • Episcopal Relief and Developmentwww.er-d.org
  • Emergency assistance and long-term solutions
  • All programs are designed and assessed in part by
    how well they address the MDGs.
  • If you want to make a gift in support of the
    MDGs, making a donation to ERD is a good way to
    do that

ER-D is the action arm of the Episcopal
Churchs MDG efforts
For more information
  • Most links in this presentation are are gathered
    on the diocesan website at www.edecr.org/mdg.htm
  • Linked from diocesan main web page (see left
    navigation menu)
  • Includes link to MDG Toolkit on the E4GR site,

  • Appendices / Backup Slides

Pray for an End to Poverty
  • Most loving God, your concern for the poor is
    unrelenting - draw our concern into yours your
    compassion for the poor is limitless - draw our
    compassion into yours as you long for justice,
    may we also strive for it.
  • Forgive our doubt, forgive our neglect. Open our
    eyes to structures of oppression and free us from
    apathy and indifference.
  • Give us courage to accept our responsibility,
    wisdom to chart a sound course amid complexity,
    perseverance to finish our work, and the gift of
    your Spirit to do what alone we cannot do. So
    may we serve to the honor and glory of your Name
    and the wellbeing of your beloved people
    throughout the world. Amen.

Prayer for those with AIDS/HIV
  • In the Anglican Cycle of Prayer, we observe World
    AIDS Day on December 1
  • Merciful God,we remember before you all who are
    sick this day, and especially all persons with
    AIDS or HIV infection. Give them courage to live
    with their disease.  Help them to face and
    overcome their fears.  Be with them when they
    are alone or rejected. Comfort them when they
    are discouraged.And touch them with your healing
    Spirit that they may find and possess eternal
    life, now and forever.Amen.
  • Taken from The Mothers' Union, Living
    Positively, "Prayers and Reflections

What the Bible says
  • And you shall hallow the fiftieth year and you
    shall proclaim liberty throughout the land to all
    its inhabitants what was sold shall remain with
    the purchaser until the year of jubilee in the
    jubilee it shall be released, and the property
    shall be returned.
  • Leviticus 2510 28
  • But love your enemies, do good, and lend,
    expecting nothing in return. Your reward will be
    great, and you will be children of the Most High
    for he is kind to the ungrateful and the wicked.
  • Luke 635

What the Bible says
  • The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has
    anointed me to bring good news to the poor. He
    has sent me to proclaim release to the captives
    and recovery of sight to the blind, to let the
    oppressed go free
  • Luke 418
  • Do not be conformed to this world, but be
    transformed by the renewing of your minds, so
    that you may discern what is the will of Godwhat
    is good and acceptable and perfect.
  • Romans 122

The Shakertown Pledge
  • 1.) I declare myself a world citizen
  • 2.) I commit myself to lead an ecologically sound
  • 3.) I commit myself to lead a life of creative
    simplicity and to share my personal wealth with
    the world's poor.
  • 4.)I commit myself to join with others in the
    reshaping of institutions in order to bring about
    a more just global society in which all people
    have full access to the needed resources for
    their physical, emotional, intellectual, and
    spiritual growth.
  • 5.)I commit myself to occupational
    accountability, and so doing I will seek to avoid
    the creation of products which cause harm to
  • 6.) I affirm the gift of my body and commit
    myself to its proper nourishment and physical
  • 7.) I commit myself to examine continually my
    relations with others and to attempt to relate
    honestly, morally, and lovingly to those around
  • 8.) I commit myself to personal renewal through
    prayer, meditation, and study.
  • 9.) I commit myself to responsible participation
    in a community of faith.

Written in a town near Lexington, KY which was
connected to the Shaker Movement, 4/30/1973
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