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Images of the Korean Civil War

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Title: Images of the Korean Civil War


1
Images of the Korean Civil War
2
What you see in movies
3
What happens on the ground
4
What you see in movies
5
What happens to people
6
What you see in movies
7
What happens to people
8
What you see in movies
9
What happens to people
10
What you were shown
11
What you did not see
12
What you did not see
13
What you never see
14
What you never heard about
15
An American War Hero
16
What he did to Korean people
17
How Korean children suffered
18
What the US government said
19
What the US government did
Lt. General Shiro Ishii (1892-1959) Head of Unit
731, the factory of death, during WWII. In
1948, US government provided him with immunity
from war crimes in exchange for his research and
experiments on live human subjects - including
biological warfare, vivisections on living human
beings, climate change experiments, and
injections of chemicals. His research was very
similar to that of Dr. Mengele in Nazi Germany
and thousands died from it.
20
What Americans remember
Witness, through graphic first hand records of
daring photographers, the extent to which the
United States was willing to go to safeguard
democracy in Korea during the historic Korean War
in the 1950s.
21
What Americans remember
"OUR NATION HONORS HER SONS AND DAUGHTERS WHO
ANSWERED THE CALL TO DEFEND A COUNTRY THEY NEVER
KNEW AND A PEOPLE THEY NEVER MET. From the
Korean War Memorial http//www.nps.gov/kwvm/memori
al/memorial.htm
22
How others remember the war
The US way of Death a cartoon by Chow Lu-shih
from the Peoples Daily. China, April 16, 1952
23
Book cover
24
So Far from the Bamboo Grove Background
  • This novel claimed to be based on true personal
    story and historical facts.
  • This riveting novel, based on the author's own
    experiences, describes a Japanese family forced
    to flee their home in Korea at the end of WW II.
    Ages 10-up.(Publishers Weekly)
  • Written by Yoko Kawashima Watkins, a daughter of
    a war criminal (Father was a high ranking gov
    official in Manchuria suspected to have served
    at Unit 731, which was responsible for live human
    experiments and biological weapons development
    served six year in Siberia after WWII).
  • Currently being used at many middle schools
    throughout the US as a (middle school English)
    textbook.

25
So Far from the Bamboo Groves Background
Images of Unit 731 Factory of Death
26
Why this book should not be used as a school
textbook
  • Purposeful distortion of history
  • Racist portrayal of KoreansRaping Japanese girls
    etc.
  • Japan described as a guiltless victim
  • Justified Japans colonial aggression toward
    Korea. Denied atrocities committed toward Koreans
    by the Japanese.
  • Incorrect geographical, historical, cultural
    accounts
  • E.g. No bamboo groves in North Korea.
  • No American bombing of Korea during WWII.
  • Japanese military retreated without incidents
    well before Russian/US military arrived.
  • Very little retaliation from Koreans. Very
    little physical violence toward the retreating
    Japanese.

27
South Korea Politics, culture, modernity
  • Post-civil war Korea

Syngman Rhee, 1950
Syngman Rhee, 1953
28
South Korea Politics, culture, modernity
  • In 1960, South Koreas economy was a disaster and
    going nowhere fast.
  • By 1970, South Koreas economy was one of the
    fastest growing in the world and it was in the
    midst of what was termed a miracle.
  • How was it possible for the same people, with the
    same culture, the same heritage, and the same
    physical resources to have an economic failure in
    1960, but an economic success by 1970?
  • The answer is simple - after 1960, South Korea
    had a developmental state that pushed and pulled
    the country into industrialization.

29
South Korea Politics, culture, modernity
30
South Korea Politics, culture, modernity
31
South Korea Politics, culture, modernity
32
South Korea Politics, culture, modernity
  • South Korean economy was lead by giant,
    family-owned, conglomerates called jaebeol. (??)
  • Today, the leading jaebols are Samsung, Hyundai,
    LG, SK.
  • Samsung - 89.1 billion
  • Hyundai - 57.2 billion
  • LG - - 50.4 billion
  • SK - - 46.4 billion
  • For comparison
  • Peru GNP 73 billion
  • Ukraine GNP 71 billion
  • Kuwait GNP 59 billion
  • Vietnam GNP 52 billion
  • Luxenbourg GNP 30 billion

33
South Korea Politics, culture, modernity
  • Today, South Korea has the 11th largest economy
    in the world.
  • It is 1st in the world in shipbuilding in
    tonnage.
  • 3rd most broadband users among OECD countries.
  • Among global leaders in cell phones and
    electronics.
  • Korean films and TV dramas are extremely popular
    in most parts of Asia.

34
DPRK
  • The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea.
  • (Aka North Korea, the country Americans love to
    hate.)

35
Fun Facts
  • Chief of State is Kim Jongil since July, 1994.
  • Capital city is Pyongyang.
  • Population 23,113,000 in 2006.
  • Area 74,819 square miles. (Slightly smaller
    than Mississippi.) GDP purchasing power 40
    billion (est).
  • GDP per capita 1,800.
  • GDP by sector
  • Agriculture 30
  • Industry 34
  • Service 36 (2002)
  • Education and medical care are free in DPRK.
  • Women get 150 days paid maternity leave, child
    care is free.
  • Literacy rate is 99 for both men and women.
  • Equal wages for men women.

36
Fun Facts
  • DPRK military budget 5.5 billion, 25th in
    world, 1 of total global military spending.
  • S. Korea military budget 20.7 billion, 10th in
    the world, 2 of total global military spending.
  • USA military budget 420.7 billion, 1st in
    world, 43 of total global military spending.
    (This does not include spending on Iraq,
    Afghanistan, or nuclear weapons.)
  • DPRK military spending is 1.3 that of the USA.
  • US has 37,000 troops next to DPRK.
  • DPRK has 0 troops next to USA.

37
Fun Facts
  • The US military budget was almost 29 times as
    large as the combined spending of the six rogue
    states (Cuba, Iran, Libya, North Korea, Sudan and
    Syria) who spent 14.65 billion.

38
Origins of the DPRKOverview
  • The DPRK was officially established on September
    9, 1948, but its beginnings date back to the
    early part of the the 20th century.
  • From 1910 until 1945 Korea was a colony of the
    Japanese Empire. It was during this time that its
    ideological roots began.
  • In 1945, Korea was divided in north south by
    foreign powers.
  • From 1950 to 1953 foreign powers fought the first
    Cold War battles in Korea.
  • In the minds of the DPRK, the very existence of
    their country is an act of resistance to foreign
    powers on the Korean peninsula.
  • Without understanding this point of view and
    their history, you will never understand how and
    why North Koreans see themselves and the world
    the way they do.

39
DPRKIndustrialization and Juche
  • During the first 25 years after the Korean Civil
    War, the DPRK had one of the fastest growing
    economies in the world.
  • Until 1975, it was the 2nd most industrialized
    nation in Asia after Japan.
  • Until 1978, North Koreans had the 2nd highest
    standard of living in Asia after Japan.
  • During the 1960s and 1970s, it was a model of how
    to industrialize outside the capitalist model.
  • A key question to ask is what happened then and
    now?
  • How could a country be so right and then so wrong?

40
DPRKIndustrialization and Juche
  • Industrial slowdowns began by the late
    1970s/early 1980s.
  • There were three major causes for these slow
    downs and the eventual collapse of the economy in
    the late 1990s.
  • (1) The inherent limits to Juche
  • Ability of DPRK to domestically invent new
    technology and improvements on existing machinery
    was limited.
  • DPRKs lack of active exchange programs with
    other nations limited their ability to keep
    abreast of newer innovations and technology.
  • Every increasing economy and energy consumption
    pushed attempts to conserve/substitute to its
    limits.
  • By the 1980s, the DPRK factories had been pushed
    to their limits and were in need of updating and
    modernization.

41
DPRKIndustrialization and Juche
  • (2) 1980s, poor policy choices by DPRK leaders
    attempting to create innovative solutions in
    response to practical problems.
  • Leadership watched price of oil skyrocket,
    decided to cash in on global mineral markets.
  • Borrowed 2 billion dollars from foreign banks
    and Russia to finance extractive industries.
  • Spend large sums on military build-up so as to
    gain independence from Chinese and Russian
    military aid.
  • (3) After borrowing capital and spending on new
    machinery and military, the bottom fell out of
    mineral prices in global market. DPRK was left
    with large debts and no way to repay them.
  • Foreign investors demanded DPRK cut medical
    system, educational support, welfare for people
    to repay debt.
  • Following Juche ideology, the DPRK defaulted on
    loans so as to provide for the welfare of its
    people. DPRK still has external debts of roughly
    10 to 12 billion. (8 billion to Russia, which
    they have offered to forgive.)

42
DPRKIndustrialization and Juche
  • In the mid-1990s, a series of natural disasters
    ruined the weakened economy and the agricultural
    base of the DPRK.
  • Beginning in 1995, the DPRK suffered from the
    worst weather on the Korean peninsula in
    centuries.
  • Consecutive years of flooding and droughts pushed
    a strained agricultural base to collapse.
  • Already living a spartan lifestyle, North Koreans
    found themselves without adequate food and
    starvation set in for millions.
  • The end result has been a near collapse of the
    economy and widespread suffering, both of which
    are not characteristic of the DPRK.

43
DPRKIndustrialization and Juche
44
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • The DPRKs Nuclear Program

45
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Many Americans are deeply concerned with DPRKs
    nuclear program.
  • The DPRK nuclear weapons pose no threat to the
    US, Japan, or ROK.
  • Why does the DPRK want to have them, and why does
    the US object so much when the DPRK gets them?

46
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Nuclear weapons can be ideal weapons.
  • Nuclear weapons are cheap to maintain relative to
    a conventional army.
  • Even a handful of them provide an excellent
    defense from invasion.
  • Once a nation has nuclear weapons, no one will
    try to topple that government since a desperate
    government will use nuclear weapons to defend
    itself.

47
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Nuclear weapons do have a number of drawbacks.
  • Nuclear weapons are so total in their
    destruction, that to use them may invite
    retaliation in kind from an enemy.
  • Nuclear weapons offer total destruction and
    therefore do not provide nations with a wide
    range of military options.
  • Once a country has nuclear weapons it may prompt
    its neighbors to try to acquire them.
  • Having nuclear weapons may encourage a first
    strike mentality in your enemy.

48
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Who already has nuclear weapons?
  • USA - 9,960 warheads
  • Russia - 16,000 warheads
  • Britain -
  • France - 350 warheads
  • China - 130 warheads
  • Israel - 75 to 200 warheads
  • India - 40 to 50 warheads
  • Pakistan - 30 to 52 warheads
  • DPRK - 1 to 6 warheads

49
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Myth of DPRK nuclear aggression
  • The DPRK has no territorial designs on its
    neighbors China, Russia, and Japan and does not
    wish to invade the USA.
  • If the DPRK sold nuclear weapons to terrorists,
    and they used them, the world would immediately
    destroy the regime. The DPRK leadership is
    anything but suicidal.
  • The DPRK will not launch a nuclear attack on ROK
    unless provoked by a military attack.
  • ROKs population is Korean, brethren of DPRK.
  • A nuclear attack on ROK would provoke a
    counter-attack by the US, totally destroying the
    DPRK.

50
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Why does DPRK want a nuclear program and
    weapons?
  • DPRK nuclear program is needed to provide much
    needed domestic energy.

51
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Why does DPRK want a nuclear program and
    weapons?
  • Nuclear weapons provide DPRK with national
    security.
  • They live under the threat of US nuclear weapons
    and military might each day.
  • Their economy is struggling and a large army is
    costly.
  • Nuclear weapons means that no one is likely to
    invade them or try for regime change.
  • They are an excellent bargaining chip when
    dealing with the USA and other nations.

52
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Why is the DPRK not a threat to the US with its
    nuclear weapons?
  • (1) The US has 1,000 to 10,000 times the number
    of warheads of DPRK. US retaliation means
    extinction for the DPRK.
  • (2) DPRK currently lacks the technology to reduce
    its nuclear warheads down to the size necessary
    to fit on a missile.
  • (3) DPRK currently lacks the missile technology
    to reach the US.
  • (4) DPRK missiles are notoriously inaccurate. A
    recent missile launch aimed at the East Sea,
    missile the entire sea and flew over Japan by
    mistake.

53
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Why would the DPRK consider the US a threat to
    its security?
  • (1) The Korean Civil war was expanded by the US.
  • (2) America almost used nuclear weapons against
    the DPRK during the Korean Civil War.
  • (3) US used nuclear weapons on Japan, even when
    it was not necessary.
  • (4) Currently, the US has nuclear missiles
    targeting DPRK.
  • (5) Bill Clinton almost attacked DPRK in 1994.
  • (6) Bush has referred to DPRK as part of the axis
    of evil. (DPRK watched what happened to Iraq.)

54
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • US-DPRK nuclear weapons agreement in 1994.
  • North Korea would freeze its existing nuclear
    program and agree to enhanced International
    Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards
  • Both sides would cooperate to replace the DPRK's
    graphite-moderated reactors for related
    facilities with light-water (LWR) power plants by
    2003.
  • Both countries would move toward full
    normalization of political and economic relations
    and US would guarantee non-aggression towards
    DPRK.
  • Both sides will work together for peace and
    security on a nuclear-free Korean peninsula.
  • DPRK would receive oil shipments until new light
    water reactors were completed.

55
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • Failure of US-DPRK 1994 nuclear weapons
    agreement.
  • Light water nuclear power reactors were canceled
    in 2002. They were only 40 done making
    completion impossible by 2003 anyway.
  • US included DPRK in axis of evil, a hostile act.
  • US re-aimed nuclear missiles on DPRK, thereby
    violating agreement to not threaten DPRK.
  • Under IAEA treaty, any non-nuclear nation that is
    threatened by a nuclear nation, has the legal
    right to build nuclear weapons for their own
    defense.

56
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • US-DPRK nuclear weapons agreement in 2007.
  • North Korea would freeze its existing nuclear
    program and agree to enhanced International
    Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards
  • Both sides would cooperate to replace the DPRK's
    graphite-moderated reactors for related
    facilities with light-water (LWR) power plants
    by.
  • Both countries would move toward full
    normalization of political and economic relations
    and US would guarantee non-aggression towards
    DPRK.
  • DPRK would receive oil shipments until new light
    water reactors were completed.
  • The conditions negotiated in 2007 are virtually
    the same as those agreed upon in 1994.

57
DPRKNuclear Weapons
  • DPRK negotiated with the US but refused to budge
    on its basic policy of step-by-step freeze -
    meaning it would not surrender nuclear program
    prior to commencing talks.
  • Nuclear program was the one and only bargaining
    card DPRK had. To surrender to US demands that
    they dismantle the program prior to talks would
    remove its only advantage.
  • DPRK negotiated a basic return to 1994 agreement.
    As long as US promises non-aggression towards
    DPRK, need for nuclear weapons largely vanishes.

58
DPRKHope for the Future
  • South Koreans used to consider North Koreans as
    a sort of monstrous, inhuman being. Now, they
    consider North Koreans at worst a slightly
    naughty cousin. This is an undeniable impact of
    the Sunshine Policy. There is no going back.
  • Bruce Cumings, Professor, University of Chicago
  • It would be wonderful to make friends with North
    Korean kids.
  • Shin Jeong-eon, South Korean 3rd grader

59
DPRKHope for the future
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