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LowCarbohydrate, HighProtein diets and weight loss

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The South Beach Diet. Dr. Arthur Agatston - 2003. Insulin resistance syndrome can cause obesity ... VLC (Similar to Atkin's, South Beach,or Protein Power) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LowCarbohydrate, HighProtein diets and weight loss


1
Low-Carbohydrate, High-Protein diets and weight
loss!
  • By Katie Swafford

2
Agenda
  • Purpose
  • Prevalence of obesity
  • Defining low-carbohydrate, high protein (LCHP)
    diets
  • History of LCHP diets
  • Overview of the different LCHP
  • Studies
  • Weight maintenance
  • Conclusions
  • Implications

3
Purpose
  • Define a LCHP
  • Evaluation of low-carbohydrate high-protein
    diets, and the effectiveness of weight loss.

4
Obesity
  • Rapidly increasing
  • More than 1 billion overweight adults
  • 300 million obese adults
  • 325,000 deaths/year
  • Overweight BMI 25-29.9
  • Obesity BMI 30

5
Common Names
  • Very-low-carbohydrate diet
  • Low-carbohydrate diet
  • High-protein diet
  • Ketogenic diet
  • High fat diet

6
Define a LCHP?
  • What does it mean to you?
  • USDA
  • CHO 55 Protein 15 Fat 20

7
History
  • 1860s
  • Discovered by William Harvey
  • Banting diet
  • Named after Harveys pt William Banting
  • Later followers
  • Blake Donaldson in 1944
  • Stillman and Baker in 1967

8
Carbohydrate Addicts
  • Dr. Rachael Heller and Dr. Richard Heller
  • 1991
  • Hunger, cravings, or desire for carbohydrate rich
    foods.
  • Releases more insulin than necessary, thus not
    feeling satisfied after eating or within 2 hours
    of eating.
  • Exercise

9
Entry Plan
  • 2 weeks
  • Eat 2 meals that are low in CHO
  • The third meal - Reward meal
  • Rich in CHO foods
  • 60 minutes
  • Nourished and well balanced meal
  • Consumed at the same time everyday

10
Next Step
  • Based on weight loss, choose a plan that fits
    your needs
  • Plan A used for slow wt loss
  • Plan B used for slow wt loss
  • Plan C used for rapid wt loss
  • Plane D used for rapid wt loss

11
Sugar Busters Diet
  • Leighton Steward - 1995
  • Sugar is Toxic
  • Overproduction of insulin
  • Successfully control insulin levels by
    controlling intake of sugar
  • Exercise

12
Diet
  • 3 balanced meals with 1-2 snacks, 1 snack may be
    a dessert after dinner
  • Eat low glycemic indexed CHO
  • Food should not overflow plate
  • No midnight snacks, do not eat after 800 pm

13
The Zone Diet
  • Barry Sears - 1984
  • Too much CHO ? fat and sluggish
  • The key is to regulate insulin Too much or not
    enough insulin is indicated if you get hungry
    within 2-3 hours after eating a meal
  • Exercise

14
  • Keep insulin in a tight range by hormonal
    carburetor
  • Based on CHO blocks - 9g, Pro blocks - 7g, Fat
    blocks - 1.5g
  • 11 ratio of Pro and CHO, plus 1 fat

15
  • 3 meals and 2 snacks
  • CHO 40, Pro 30, Fat 30
  • 1000-1600 calories/day
  • Eat low glycemic index CHO

16
Protein Power
  • Dr. Michael Eades and Dr. Mary Eades
  • 1996
  • Insulin is the culprit
  • High insulin levels produce obesity

17
  • Phase 1
  • 4-6 weeks eat 30g of CHO or less/day
  • Phase 2
  • Eat 55g of CHO or less/day
  • Increase daily CHO intake until the amount in
    grams is equal or slightly more than protein
    intake
  • Gradually increase CHO intake to 10g weekly

18
Atkins Diet
  • Dr. Robert Atkins
  • High insulin levels cause one to be overweight or
    obese by preventing fat from breaking down.
  • Eat low glycemic foods

19
Phase 1
  • The Induction phase
  • 14 days
  • Less than 20g of CHO/day
  • salad greens and other vegetables
  • Addiction of CHO gone in 3-days

20
Phase 2
  • Ongoing weight loss or OWL
  • Pick your goal wt
  • Increase 5g of CHO/day
  • If wt loss continues add another 5g of CHO
  • Add 5g of CHO/day until you stop losing wt

21
Phase 3
  • Pre-maintenance
  • The last 5-10
  • Increase 10g of CHO/week as long as you continue
    to lose wt
  • If at goal wt maintain CHO for a month
  • If you gain drop 10g of CHO

22
Phase 4
  • Lifetime maintenance
  • Made it to goal wt
  • If gain more than 5 go back to induction phase
    and then OWL
  • Exercise

23
The South Beach Diet
  • Dr. Arthur Agatston - 2003
  • Insulin resistance syndrome can cause obesity
  • Eat low glycemic CHO
  • Eat until you are no longer hungry
  • Exercise

24
Phase 1
  • Restricts all CHO for 14 days
  • No bread, rice potatoes, pasta or baked goods,
    fruit, candy, cake, cookies, ice cream, or sugar,
    no beer or alcohol,
  • Will lose 8-13 s

25
Phase 2
  • Will lose 1-2 /week
  • Slowly add good CHO back into diet.
  • Gradually add CHO until you stop losing wt.
  • On this phase until you reach goal wt.

26
Phase 3
  • Once you hit target wt you are on this the rest
    of your life.
  • More liberal diet. If you want it eat it.
  • If gain wt go back to phase 1 then phase 2 or 3.

27
  • Any Questions?

28
  • Research Studies

29
Foster et al 2003
  • 12 month, multi-center, randomized, controlled
    trial
  • 33 subjects on LCHP diet, 20 left
  • Met with a dietitian
  • 30 subjects on conventional diet, 17 left
  • BMI ranges 30-38

30
  • LCHP (Similar to Atkins or South Beach)
  • First two weeks 20g/day of CHO, gradually
    increase until desired weight is achieved
  • Conventional
  • CHO 60, Fat 25, Protein 15,

31
Weight Loss of Body Wt
32
Samaha et al 2003
  • Randomized
  • Started with 132 volunteers, ended with 79
  • 6 month study
  • BMI 35 or greater
  • Death of one subject

33
  • LC (43)(Similar to Atkins, South Beach, Protein
    Power)
  • 30g or less of CHO/day
  • Pro 22 CHO 37, Fat 41 at 6m
  • LF (36)
  • Pro 16, CHO - 51,Fat - 33 at 6m

34
Weight Loss In kg
35
Brehm et al 2003
  • Randomized 6 month trial
  • 53 obese females and 6 males
  • 42 volunteers completed the study
  • Both groups met with dietitians
  • BMI 33.6 /- 0.3

36
  • LF (calorie restricted)
  • CHO 55, Fat 30 Protein 15
  • 20 subjects
  • VLC (Similar to Atkins, South Beach,or Protein
    Power)
  • 20g of CHO/day after 2w increase to 40-60g/day,
    ad libitum
  • 22 subjects

37
Weight Loss In kg
38
Luscombe et al 2002
  • 26 obese, Caucasian, volunteers
  • 12 week study
  • BMI was not given

39
  • 1600 kcal diet first 8 weeks, energy balance 4
    weeks
  • LCHP (Similar to Zone diet)
  • CHO 40, Fat 32, Protein 28
  • HCLP
  • CHO 55, Fat 29, Protein 16

40
(No Transcript)
41
Layman et al 2003
  • 24 women
  • 10 weeks
  • BMI greater than 26
  • First 4 weeks food prepared in food research
    labs
  • Last 6 weeks food prepared at home

42
  • 1700 kcal/day
  • High CHO diet
  • CHO 58, Pro 16, Fat 26
  • Moderate protein diet
  • CHO 41, Pro 30, Fat 29
  • Similar to Zone diet

43
Weight Loss in kg
44
Skov et al 1999
  • Randomized dietary intervention of 65 volunteers,
    60 complete the study
  • 6 month trial
  • BMI not available
  • Chose food freely from a shop
  • Instructed how to prepare meals

45
  • HC
  • CHO 58, Pro 12, Fat 30
  • HP
  • CHO 45, Pro 25, Fat 30
  • Similar to Zone diet

46
Weight Loss in kg
47
Summary
48
Other Studies
  • Westman et al, 2002
  • Compared only 1 diet (10.3)
  • Johnston et al, 2003
  • Equally effective
  • Racette et al 1995
  • Significant wt loss for both groups
  • Clifton et al, 2002
  • Significant difference

49
More Studies
  • Sondike et al, 2003
  • Significant difference
  • Volek et al, 2002
  • Significant difference
  • Skov et al, 2002
  • No significant difference
  • Golay et al, 1996
  • No significant difference

50
More Studies
  • Golay et al, 1996
  • No significant difference
  • Lean et al, 1997
  • No significant difference
  • Yancy et al, 2002
  • No significant difference
  • Brown et al, 2000
  • No significant difference

51
More Studies
  • Skov et al, 1999
  • No significant difference
  • Landers et al, 2002
  • No significant difference

52
Summary of all Studies
  • 18 studies total

53
Weight Maintenance
  • Little is known about the best way for long-term
    maintenance
  • Little progress has been made in long-term
    maintenance interventions with the exception of
    surgery.
  • Limited data is available

54
Weight Maintenance
  • National Weight Control Registry - 1995
  • 3,000 individuals who lost 30s and kept the
    weight off for more than a year
  • Compared 2,700 members diets to the Atkins
    diet.
  • 8 liberal 90g of CHO
  • 1 ingesting less than 24g of CHO

55
NWCR
  • Higher CHO intake verses 1 group consuming less
    than 24g of CHO/day
  • The low CHO group maintained their weight loss
    for less time and were less physically active.

56
Conclusions
  • People lose weight on most diets
  • American Dietetic Association American Heart
    association

57
Conclusions
Insufficient evidence for or against the use of
low carbohydrate, high protein diets.
58
Professional Implications
  • Need for more research
  • Longer and larger studies required
  • Long-term and efficacy and safety remain poorly
    understood
  • Long-term success rates are not convincing

59
Questions?
  • ?
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