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NSF STC Sustainable Futures Research Overview


Energy Introduction. Conservation and efficiency. Consumption. Production (solar, wind) ... Solar 3,850,000 EJ. Wind 2,250 EJ. Biomass 3,000 EJ. 1o energy use ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: NSF STC Sustainable Futures Research Overview

Renewable Energy Solar Energy and Battery
Technology Jerry Schnoor Sustainable Systems
Class 23 March, 2009
Outline of the Class
  • Energy Introduction
  • Conservation and efficiency
  • Consumption
  • Production (solar, wind)
  • Solar Energy
  • Passive, active
  • Photovoltaics (PV)
  • Solar power plants (PV and solar thermal)
  • Battery Technology

U.S. CO2 Emissions by Economic Sector (EIA)
  • Percentage of U.S. CO2 Emissions
  • Transportation all forms 32
  • Industrial 29
  • Commercial 18
  • Residential 21
  • Most of the emissions are from liquid/gaseous
    fuels such as gasoline and diesel for cars and
    trucks (transportation) and natural gas and fuel
    oil for heating buildings (40-50)
  • Another huge source of emissions and the fastest
    growing sector is electricity (40 of all
    emissions) and half of that is produced from coal

U.S. Total Energy Production by source (EIA)
  • Percentage of U.S. Energy Production
  • Renewables 10
  • Petroleum 36
  • Coal 22
  • Natural Gas 24
  • Nuclear 8
  • Percentage of Renewables (10 total)
  • Wind 2
  • Solar 1
  • Geothermal power 5
  • Biomass (and biofuels) 43
  • Hydropower 50

Energy Alternatives for Future Sustainability
  • Energy Efficiency
  • Appliances, motors, insulation, lighting
  • Combustion turbine combined cycle plants
  • Microgeneration technology and distributed power
  • Renewables
  • Solar
  • Wind
  • Geothermal
  • Biomass (wood, chp, biofuels)
  • Hydropower, tidal
  • Other Technologies
  • Gasoline-electric hybrid technologies
  • Clean coal technologies with carbon sequestration
  • Nuclear power
  • Hydrogen fuel cells and other fuel cells

Solar Photovoltaic increasing rapidly Japan leads
Wind power also increasing 100 Gwatts total in
Coal and natural gas usage are also increasing
World oil consumption appears to be peaking
Biofuels are increasing for security reasons to
replace liquid petroleum as transportation fuel
Stimulus Bill is an incentive for sustainability
American Recovery Reinvestment Act of 2009
  • 787 Billion Total
  • 3.5 million jobs over 2 yrs
  • Major infrastructure investment of 111 Billion
  • Computerizing health care records
  • 7 million Pell Grants for students
  • 800 Making Work Pay tax credit for 129 million

American Recovery Reinvestment Act 2009 Energy,
Environment, Infrastructure
  • 80 Billion in spending, loan guarantees and tax
    incentives for energy efficiency, renewable
    energy sources, efficient cars, and carbon
    capture and sequestration for coal-fired power
  • 25 B energy efficiency (5 B weatherization)
  • 11 B smart grid and reliability program
  • Wind, biomass tax credit until 2013
  • 17 B mass transit
  • 2 B for advanced batteries

Energy Conservation Efficiency is best source
of new energy
  • This is the 1 source of energy where we can
    start and save
  • Energy Conservation doing the same
    functionality with less energy by changing
    behavior (e.g. taking mass transit, walking,
    biking, lowering thermostats, planting trees
    south-west, etc.)
  • Energy Efficiency getting the desired
    functionality with new technology (plug-in hybrid
    vehicles, auto thermostats, insulating homes, low
    flow showers, compact fluorescents, passive
    solar, solar hot-water heaters, energy efficient
    appliances, fuel cells)
  • Appliances, motors, insulation, lighting (compact
  • There is still much improvement to be made here,
    and it is being driven by EPA requirements on
    more energy efficient appliances, building codes,
    and voluntary programs (Energy Star) computers
    getting much more efficient battery technology
  • Hybrid Gasoline/Electric engines
  • Gasoline/electric hybrids are increasing rapidly
    and Plug-in Hybrids are coming soon(GM Chevy
    Volt Toyota Prius)

GHG Reduction Strategies An enormous economic
  • Transportation (25 GHGs)
  • Gas mileages 100 mi/gal
  • Fuel efficient, low carbon emitting vehicles
  • Gas-electric hybrids
  • Plug-in hybrids
  • Flex-fuel plug-in hybrids
  • Fuel cell cars

Plug-in Electric Hybrid Vehicles
  • Advantages
  • Use wind power at night to recharge the battery
    at a cost of
    in 200 million car batteries)
  • 50-100 mpg depending on your ratio of commuting
    to long-haul See GM Volt
  • Disadvantages
  • More expensive cars
  • Recharging stations time-to-recharge range
    lithium ion batteries

Fuel Cell Cars are highly efficient and could be
run on gasoline, methane, methanol, or ethanol...
Another Renewable Energy Source Iowa Wind Power
  • Iowa is now 2nd in the U.S. in nameplate capacity
  • Its cost competitive
  • 0.05 cents/Kwh
  • Iowa has 2790 MW so far, (10-15 of total)
  • Green collar jobs (1000s) at wind turbine mfgs.
  • Enjoys federal production tax credit
  • Wind power is clean and renewable, but we need to
  • find a method to store it

Wind Power Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Clean renewable energy, no GHGs
  • Cost effective already with federal subsidy of
    about 0.015 per kWh
  • Abundantly available (Dakotas, Texas, parts of
    Iowa, Minnesota, California, Montana, off shore)
  • Winds generation profile matches well with solar
  • Income for farmers, ranchers
  • Can be used to make clean hydrogen via
  • Compressed air storage, too (possible storage
  • Disadvantages
  • Intermittent source wind is not storable
  • Peak power problem peak demand is often when
    wind is not blowing (July-Aug in Iowa)
  • Wind is far from population centers and suffers
    from transmission losses maintenance costs
  • Noise and sight pollution
  • Bird mortality hitting turbine blades (less now)
  • Power companies control the connect costs and
  • Not adaptable to private homes or urban

Solar Energy
  • No country uses as much energy as is contained
    in the sunlight that strikes buildings each day.
    Denis Hayes
  • An immense power potential world-wide (in
    Exajoules, EJ)
  • Solar 3,850,000 EJ
  • Wind 2,250 EJ
  • Biomass 3,000 EJ
  • 1o energy use 487 EJ
  • Electricity use 56.7 EJ
  • Applications solar hot water, off-grid
    electricity, mobile appliances, distributed
    power, small power plants
  • In India, solar cells are now cheaper than
    kerosene lamps
  • Japan leads in solar cell manufacturing (70,000
    homes in Japan have solar roofing)
  • Disadvantages are mainly those of cost
    (0.20-0.60 per kWh) and connecting to the grid
    for distributed power systems

Solar Energy
  • Passive solar heating (positioning of building
    w.r.t. sun, mechanical blinds and overhangs, and
    energy absorbing materials to provide heating)
  • Solar Photovoltaics PV (absorbing suns energy
    onto semiconductors for direct generation of
  • Solar thermal (absorbing suns energy onto
    material for an active use)
  • Solar hot water heating
  • Solar cooking
  • Solar power
  • Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)
  • Linear concentrators parabolic troughs
  • Dish/engines
  • Power towers
  • Thermal storage

Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Technology use
mirrors to reflect and concentrate sunlight
Four Types of CSP 1) Parabolic Trough Systems
2) Power Towers 3) Linear Concentrators and 4)
Linear Fresnel reflectors
Concentrating Solar Power for electricity
  • MicroDish is one form of solar PV Concentrating
    Technology on a CT tracker
  • Focuses sunlight on a high efficiency
    multi-junction cell
  • Uses Spectrolab solar cells
  • Arizona Public Service in Prescott Arizona

Solar Photovoltaics for Power Production
  • Amonix concentrating photovoltaic array (CPV) is
    another type of power plant electricity
    generation Arizona Public Service
  • Rectangular solar arrays standing in excess of 40
    ft high
  • Each array consists of 2-5 megamodules
  • Each megamodule consists of a concentrating lens
    that focuses sunlight onto a very small
    photovoltaic cell for high efficiency

Solar Photovoltaics for Power at Utility Scale
  • Arizona Public Service has a 2 MW PV facility in
    Prescott, Arizona in cooperation with Sandia
    National Laboratories
  • This is a demonstration system to assess field
    performance, OM, and cost

Renewable Energy Solar PV Homes
  • Solar homes can be fitted with racks of PV cells
    on the roof
  • SUNSLATES roofing tiles by Atlantis Energy with
    AstroPower PV modules (a 5 kW system with battery
    backup and linked to the local utility)
  • 1,000,000 homes in California and Japan are doing

Solar PV Home and Electric Car in California
Solar Photovoltaics Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Advantages
  • Clean renewable energy
  • Perfect for off-grid and specialty applications
  • Power production pattern fits very well with wind
    often times
  • Source of hydrogen via electrolysis in
    distributed power applications
  • Costs are decreasing rapidly
  • Disadvantage
  • High cost
  • Uses materials that have relatively high,
    non-renewable environmental burdens (LCA), e.g.,
    semiconductor metals and batteries
  • Solar PV is not storable except by using
    batteries or producing hydrogen

Solar Cell Construction Materials Science
  • Each solar cell consists of a semi-conducting
    surface (like silicon dioxide in thin films) to
    receive the suns photons and convert them into
    electrons of current (the photoelectron effect)
  • Electronic circuits are fitted on the back of the
    cell to carry the electricity away
  • The circuits can be of various designs including
    flexible plastic substrates (organic electronic

Green Power Switch Program
  • Lovers Lane solar power plant in Bowling Green,
  • 36 kW system consisting of 960 solar PV panels,
    enough to meet the power demand of 4 average
  • Power is fed into the Tennessee Valley Authority

More Efficient BatteriesBasics and Advances
  • Johna Leddy
  • University of Iowa
  • Department of Chemistry
  • johna-leddy_at_uiowa.edu

Electrochemical Power Sources Batteries ( Fuel
  • Batteries recharge required
  • Fuel Cell fueled constantly
  • Theoretical efficiency 100
  • no moving parts
  • Portable power

Current and Voltage
  • Batteries A circuit of electron
    and ion conductors
  • Current and voltage
    generated by reactions
    at electrode
  • Current (I) charge passed per time
  • Charge set by electrons
  • Rate of charge/s (A C/s)
  • To increase current, larger electrode
  • Voltage (V) net driving force (umph)
  • Energy/charge (V J/C)
  • Set by inherent energy of reaction
  • To increase voltage, stack more cells
  • Car battery, 12 V, 6 cells of 2 V each

Power and Energy
  • Power (P) rate of energy output
  • Set by current and voltage (P IV)
  • Instantaneous
  • Watts J/s (e.g., 40 W light bulb)
  • Energy power output over time
  • Sums power over time
  • Net energy
  • kWh 3.6 MJ (e.g., 40 W for 24 h 960 W h 1
    kW h)

40 W
Batteries Designed to Optimize..
  • Power
  • Energy
  • Charge and discharge rates
  • Rechargeability
  • Cycle life
  • Shelf life
  • Volume (/volume, density)
  • Weight (/ weight, specific)

Alkaline Battery Market
  • Primaries (single use)
  • Worldwide, 4B / year
  • Not very rechargeable or recyclable in U.S.

Single Use Or Rechargeable
  • Primary
  • Single use (disposables)
  • Chemistry not reversible
  • Alkalines
  • Secondary
  • Multiple use (rechargeables)
  • Of most interest in renewable applications
  • Lead acid and laptop batteries

Wind, Solar, and Batteries
  • Load leveling (back up power supplies)
  • Power storage from wind and solar sources

Various photovoltaics
Excess power to batteries
Li Batteries
  • Laptop and cell phones batteries
  • Weight, volume, life, chemistry
  • Health Care Used in pacemakers, hearing aids,
    implanted defibrillators (0.5 M/yr), drug
    delivery devices, neurostimulators, wheelchairs
  • First pacemakers 1960
  • Early 1970s longevities 10 years
  • The storage batteries of choice in the first
    generation of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

Toyota Prius Hybrid (Battery
  • Nickel-Metal Hydride battery (NiMH in 168 cells
    yielding 202 V) is recharged continuously by
    braking and de-accelerating and electric motor
    adds to the power of the vehicle, taking some
    burden off the gasoline engine, and thus
    increasing fuel economy
  • 46 mpg in net 82 kW vehicle of 3000 lb
  • Total energy operating cost 3.25 / mile vs 2.94
    / mile Tahoe SUV
  • Alternating current AC
  • Warranty on battery 100 K miles or 8 yrs
  • But Li-ion storage battery is also needed if you
    want to run as electric vehicle for short haul
  • Plug-in hybrid battery concerns
  • Cost, Lifetime, Replacement

Thermodynamics of Common Batteries
Battery Characteristics
  • Voltage, energy, power, cycles, charging time
  • by volume and weight

  • Energy Conservation and Efficiency are the first
    and best source of new energy because they save
    money, GHGs, and energy
  • Renewable sources of energy are growing fast
    (solar and wind at 30 growth/yr) and are
    attractive in some applications
  • Solar photovoltaics (PV) as collectors on
    rooftops appear to be attractive alternatives for
    distributed electricity production but their cost
    is still too high (large subsidies are required)
  • Concentrating solar power plants (both PV and
    thermal solar) appear to be viable sources of
    power in sunny desert areas
  • Battery technology will need to improve to help
    store wind and solar power, and to provide low
    carbon fuels for plug-in hybrids
  • Improvements in the grid will also be needed to
    move distributed sources of power to the people
    who consume it

  • S U S T _ _ N _ B _ E
  • F U T U _ E
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