RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 28af7-YmM4Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES

Description:

RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES. Our power, our future. Residential Solar Power ... Wind is a form of solar energy. ... with other renewables (solar: 20-25 cents per ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:16565
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: melind2
Learn more at: http://www.astro.umd.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES


1
RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
  • Our power, our future

2
Residential Solar Power
  • Using the sun to heat your home

3
Photovoltaics
  • In PV cells, suns energy powers a chemical
    reaction - electricity
  • Commercial residential PV modules anywhere from
    10 to 300 watts
  • Can be used en masse to create power plants
  • Direct current generated must be inverted into
    alternating current energy

4
Pollution Reduction
  • Over 20 years, a 100-megawatt plant avoids 3
    million tons of carbon dioxide.
  • 1000 kWh of solar power saves
  • 8 pounds of sulfur dioxide
  • 5 pounds of nitrogen oxide
  • 1,400 pounds of carbon dioxide

5
Expensive!
  • 5-kW systems can cost up to 40,000!
  • Power costs up to 9/watt!
  • Over 30 states offer incentives
  • California is the leader in encouraging solar
    power use

6
Biomass Fuels
7
Solid Fuel Combustion
  • Combustion of biomass instead of coal tends to be
    cleaner and helps eliminate waste efficiently
  • Products burned are usually wood matter,
    vegetation, waste from lumber yards, etc
    (cellulosic)

8
Digestion
  • Occurs naturally - bacteria feed on decomposing
    waste
  • Releases gases like methane, hydrogen, CO, etc
  • Pipelines running thru waste collect gases
    (landfills, feedlots, zoos)
  • Synthesis gases can become any kind of
    hydrocarbon fuel.

9
Pyrolysis
  • Intense heat (above 800 F) and pressure makes a
    product like charcoal, doubling the energy
    density
  • Highly transportable and efficient

10
Ethanol
  • A.k.a. alcohol chemical formula CH3CH2OH.
  • Produced using the dry mill method.
  • 81 plants in 20 states can produce 4.4 billion
    gallons each year
  • Any cellulosic biomass can be converted into
    ethanol.

11
Ethanol in Cars
  • Mixed with gasoline to form either E10 or E85
  • Number is percentage of ethanol in mixture
  • Increases octane rating and decreases emissions
  • Ethanol is favored oxygenate under Clean Air Acts
    Amendments of 1990
  • Many incentives encourage its use

12
Wind Energy
  • Fastest Growing Source of Renewable Energy

13
History and Definition
  • First use as early as 5000 B.C.
  • First used to generate electricity in Denmark as
    early as 1890.
  • Now, wind-generated electricity is very close in
    cost to the power from conventional utility
    generation in some locations.
  • Wind is a form of solar energy.
  • Caused by uneven heating of atmosphere by the
    Sun, irregularities of the Earths surface, and
    rotation of the Earth.
  • The amount and speed of wind depends on the
    Earths terrain and other factors.

14
Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine
15
Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine
16
Advantages and Disadvantages
  • Wind is free, wind farms need no fuel.
  • Produces no waste or greenhouse gases.
  • The land beneath can usually still be used for
    farming.
  • Wind farms can be tourist attractions.
  • A good method of supplying energy to remote
    areas.
  • Not always predictable.
  • Price of land.
  • Changing landscape.
  • Can kill birds - migrating flocks tend to like
    strong winds.
  • Can affect television reception if you live
    nearby.
  • Noisy. A wind generator makes a constant, low,
    "swooshing" noise day and night.

17
Hydroelectric Power
  • Americas leading renewable energy source

18
History and Basics
  • The earliest reference from 4th century BC Greek
    literature. hydro comes from the Greek word for
    water.
  • By 1980, accounted for 25 of global electricity
    and 5 of total world energy use, totalling 2,044
    billion kilowatt hours (kW h).
  • Water flows from a high potential energy (high
    ground) to lower potential energy (lower ground),
    the potential energy difference is partially
    converted into electric energy through the use of
    a generator.
  • There are two major designs in use that utilize
    water to produce electricity

19
(No Transcript)
20
Hydroelectric Dam
  • Advantages
  • The energy is virtually free.
  • No waste or pollution
  • Reliable
  • Can cope with peaks in demand.
  • Can increase to full power very quickly, unlike
    other power stations.
  • Electricity can be generated constantly.
  • Disadvantages
  • Expensive to build.
  • Environmental concerns upstream and downstream
  • Siting

21
(No Transcript)
22
Pumped-Storage Plant
  • Advantages
  • Without some means of storing energy for quick
    release, we'd be in trouble.
  • Little effect on the landscape.
  • No pollution or waste.
  • Disadvantages
  • Expensive to build.
  • Once it's used, you can't use it again until
    you've pumped the water back up. Good planning
    can get around this problem.
  • Important Concept
  • These plants are not really power stations, but a
    means of storing energy from other power
    stations.

23
Ocean Energies
  • Waves, tides, ocean currents, ocean thermal energy

24
General Information
  • 70 of Earths surface is covered by oceans
  • Huge potential a mere .1 of total energy
    potential in oceans would satisfy all of
    mankinds energy needs five times over.
  • United States faces siting challenges and
    economic obstacles
  • Europe leader in ocean energies
  • Exploiting Location and natural geography
  • Winds blown across Atlantic (West - East)
  • create bigger waves - more energy potential
  • Areas for underwater currents and tides

25
Wave Power vs. Ocean Currents
  • Waves push high-pressure oil through hydraulic
    motors to generate electricity fed to grid via
    underwater cable
  • Wave farms 30 MW / sq. km enough to power
    20,000 homes
  • All systems manipulate wave motions to power
    hydraulic pumps or spin turbines
  • European power costs roughly 9 cents/kWh
  • Britains example
  • Turbines anchored to ocean floor, currents spin
    blades, generate electricity.
  • More efficient than wind 8 mph ocean current
    vs. 230 mph wind
  • 10 cents/kWh estimate
  • Verdant Power company plans to build 5-10 MW
    field in East River in New York

26
Tidal Power
  • Damming estuaries, water flows through turbines
  • One method ebb generation
  • High and low tides are very predictable
  • Can only produce electricity at certain times
  • Not many places in the world where its efficient
  • 5-10 meter difference between high and low tides
  • High costs to build deters private investors
  • Negative impact on estuarine ecosystems

27
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)
  • Hawaii can exploit this technology because of its
    location near the equator
  • Sun heats water to depths of 100 meters to
    temperatures around 24-30 degrees Celsius
  • Flashing into steam
  • Cold water from deeper in ocean condenses the
    steam, produces desalinated water!
  • OTEC can serve much of Hawaiis energy needs, but
    not really any of the contiguous United States

28
Geothermal
  • Exploiting Earths temperatures to produce
    electricity and heat our homes.

29
Direct Heating vs Generating Electricity
  • Immediate, usable energy
  • Can heat buildings or entire areas
  • Relatively warm air in winter
  • Warm water piped under streets in Klamath Falls,
    OR melts snow
  • Same principle of relative temperatures allows
    for cooling of buildings in summer
  • Different types of plants depending on geothermal
    area
  • Hot water/steam
  • Not-so-hot water
  • Using steam directly to spin turbine
  • Flashing steam to spin turbine

30
Advantages
  • Reliability the Earths heat provides a
    constant source of energy
  • Low impact on environment
  • Room for improvement 2,300 MW in 2004, D.O.E.
    estimates could be 15,000 MW by 2014
  • Hot Dry Rock
  • How does it work?
  • If the technology works, we could tap geothermal
    energy ANYWHERE!

31
Disadvantages
  • Depletion of water
  • Re-injecting water
  • Earthquakesshould plants be responsible?
  • Heat depletion
  • Natural cooling of Earths crust cannot be
    avoided
  • Plants become less and less efficient
  • Economics
  • Building costs 1175-1750 per kW installed
    capacity
  • Geothermal areas arent always near electricity
    grids

32
Projections for Geothermal
  • National Commission on Energy Policy estimates
    4-6 cents per kWh
  • Compares favorably with other renewables (solar
    20-25 cents per kWh)
  • Compares favorably with coal and NG 4-5 cents
    per kWh
  • Estimates depend on availability of geothermal
    resources and success of HDR technology

33
Encouraging Development Through Government
Policies
  • Energy Policy Act of 2005, Tradable Permits,
    State Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS)

34
National Level
  • Congress passed Energy Policy Act of 2005
  • To expand renewables so they become economically
    competitive energy sources
  • Increase US consumption of renewable energy
  • At least 3 from 2007-09
  • Developing existing renewable sources
  • Hydroelectric 10,000,000 budget for incentives
    to plants
  • Up to 750,000 to any particular plant
  • Goal increase efficiency by at least 3
  • Biomass synergy between forest-clearing and
    biomass facilities expand markets for products
    of forest clearing
  • National Commission on Energy Policy
  • Tradable permits system

35
State Level
  • State Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS)
  • AZ, CA, CO, CT, IA, ME, MD, MA, NJ, NM, NY, NV,
    PA, RI, TX, WI
  • States with ample renewable resources
  • Hawaii, Illinois, Minnesota shifting towards
    adopting them
  • Most have adopted them in the past five years,
    more will catch on as conventional energy sources
    run out.

36
The Future
  • Energy Policy Act means we will see more
    renewables in the next ten years efficiency will
    increase
  • Tradable-permits system, if passed, will provide
    huge economic boost to renewables
  • consumption of renewables will increase by up to
    60
  • depends on solving problems of initial allocation
    of permits, and other countries cooperation
  • Action at the state level will increase as the
    nation seeks to find alternatives to fossil fuels
  • More renewables legislation will undoubtedly be
    put into effect as we run out of energy
About PowerShow.com