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Prejudice and Discrimination

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A WIFE SHOULD MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO MINIMIZE IRRITATION AND ... RATE TRAITS OF TYPICAL OF LEADERS. MALE TRAITS SEEN AS SIMILAR TO LEADERSHIP TRAITS ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Prejudice and Discrimination


1
Prejudice and Discrimination
  • Types (just about anything)
  • Gender
  • Race
  • Age
  • Religion
  • Attractiveness (and height weight)
  • Accent
  • Hair color
  • Sexual orientation
  • Social economic status (e.g., money)
  • Disability
  • Nationality

2
GENDER DISCRIMINATION EXAMPLES
  • VOTING RIGHTS (GRANTED IN 1920) Link
  • JURY SERVICE (NOT UNTIL S.C. CASE IN 1975 THAT
    SERVICE COULD NOT
  • BE CONFINED TO MEN)
  • ACCESS TO ATHLETICS (TITLE IX IN 1972)
  • EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT (ERA) Link
  • Equality of rights under the law shall not be
    denied or abridged by the United States or by any
    state on account of sex
  • TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT GENDER
    INTRODUCED TO
  • DEFEAT THE BILL EXECTUTIVE ORDER 11246
  • FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT (FMLA) FOCUS ON
    MATERNITY LEAVE
  • MEDICAL INSURANCE COVERAGE (E.G., BIRTH
    CONTROL, EXAMINATIONS)
  • SEXUAL HARASSMENT (1986 SUPREME COURT CASE
    DAMAGE AND
  • LIABILITY LIMITATIONS)

3
SOME ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN SCALE ITEMS
  • THE INITIATION OF DATING SHOULD COME MOSTLY
    FROM A MAN.
  • INTOXICATION AMONG WOMEN IS WORSE THAT
    INTOXICATION
  • AMONG MEN.
  • THE SATISFACTION OF A HUSBANDS SEXUAL DESIRE
    IS A
  • FUNDAMENTAL OBLIGATION OF EVERY WIFE.
  • WOMEN SHOULD BE AS FREE TO INITIATE MARRIAGE AS
    MEN.
  • THE INTELLECTUAL LEADERSHIP OF A COMMUNITY
    SHOULD
  • LARGELY BE IN THE HANDS OF MEN.
  • SWEARING AND OBSENITY IS MORE REPULSIVE IN THE
    SPEECH OF A
  • WOMAN THAN A MAN.
  • WOMEN SHOULD WORRY LESS ABOUT THEIR RIGHTS AND
    MORE
  • ABOUT BECOMING GOOD WIVES AND MOTHERS.
  • A WIFE SHOULD MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO MINIMIZE
    IRRITATION AND

4
SAMPLE AGEISM SCALE ITEMS
  • MOST OLD PEOPLE GET SET IN THEIR WAYS AND ARE
    UNABLE TO CHANGE
  • IT IS FOOLISH TO CLAIM THAT WISDOM SOMES WITH
    OLD AGE
  • MOST OLD PEOPLE TEND TO LET THEIR HOMES BECOME
    SHABBY AND
  • UNATTRACTIVE
  • MOST OLD PEOPLE SPEND TOO MUCH TIME PRYING INTO
    THE AFFAIRS OF
  • OTHERS AND GIVING UNSOUGHT ADVICE
  • MOST OLD PEOPLE SHOULD BE MORE CONCERNED WITH
    THEIR
  • PERSONAL APPEARANCE THEYRE TOO UNTIDY
  • IF OLD PEOPLE EXPECT TO BE LIKED, THEIR FIRST
    STEP IS TO TRY TO GET
  • RID OF THEIR IRRITATING FAULTS
  • OLD PEOPLE HAVE TOO MUCH POWER IN BUSINESS AND
    POLITICS
  • MOST OLD PEOPLE MAKE ME FEEL ILL AT EASE

5
TELEVISION IMAGES
  • PERCENT REPRESENTATION
  • OVERALL MALES 31 RATIO
  • ACTION-ADVENTURE SHOWS MALES 61
  • SOAP OPERAS AND COMEDIES EQUAL REPRESENTATION
  • SEX-ROLES
  • FEMALES PORTRAYED AS WIVES AND PARENTS (AND
    PERFORMING IN-HOME ACTIVITIES
  • CONVERSATION OF FEMALES GENERALLY ABOUT
    RELATIONSHIPS, FAMILY, ROMANCE
  • TRAITS
  • FEMALES SHOWN TO BE AS MORE EMOTIONAL
  • LESS COMPETANT (AS SUBORDINATE TO MALES)
  • FEMALES PORTRAYED AS HAVING LESS CONTROL

6
TELEVISION IMAGES (CONT.)
  • 4) EMPLOYMENT STATUS
  • FEMALES NOT AS OFTEN SHOWN AS EMPLOYED OUTSIDE
    THE HOME
  • WHEN EMPLOYED
  • FEMALES WORK IN LOWER STATUS JOBS
  • LESS LIKELY TO BE MARRIED
  • IF MARRIED, 10 TIMES MORE LIKELY TO BE UNHAPPY
    IN THEIR MARRIAGES
  • 5) ADVERTISING
  • MALES DO ABOUT 90 OF THE COMMENTARY
  • FEMALES IN 80 OF ADS REGARDING HOUSEHOLD AND
    FEMININE PRODUCTS
  • 70 OF MALES IN HIGH LEVEL JOBS IN COMMERCIALS

7
TELEVISION IMAGES (CONT.)
  • WHO ELSE IS NOT ON TELEVISION?
  • THE ELDERLY (ESPECIALLY OLDER FEMALES)
  • HISPANICS 1.5
  • AFRICAN-AMERICANS
  • MALES 6-9
  • FEMALES 5-7
  • WHO IS ON TELEVISION?
  • PRIME TIME TV YOUNG, ATTRACTIVE, PROSPEROUS
  • EXPERTS ON TV NEWS MOSTLY MALES

8
Sherifs Robbers Cave (Boys Camp) Study
  • INTRODUCTION OF COMPETITION (E.G., BASEBALL,
    FOOTBALL, TUG-OF-WAR)
  • RESULT ---
  • OPEN HOSTILITY TO OUT-GROUP MEMBERS
  • GREATER IN-GROUP SOLIDARITY

9
Sherif (cont.)
  • INEFFECTIVE SOLUTIONS ---
  • INCREASED SOCIAL CONTACT BETWEEN GROUP MEMBERS
  • PRESENTATION OF ACCURATE/FAVORABLE INFORMATION
    ABOUT THE OTHER GROUP
  • C) BRING LEADERS TOGETHER
  • D) ATTEND RELIGIOUS SERVICES

SOLUTION -- WORK ON COMMON GOALS EVERYONE HAS
TO WORK TOGETHER (E.G., BREAK IN WATER MAIN, CAR
PROBLEMS, FOR MOVIES)
10
Jigsaw Classroom
Process Each person is given information to
present to the group that is valuable to find a
solution to a given problem
Timeframe --- 45 minutes, 3 times/week
11
  • JIGSAW CLASSROOM RESULTS
  • INCREASED LIKING FOR CLASSMATES
  • INCREASED SELF-ESTEEM
  • INCREASED LIKING FOR SCHOOL
  • DECREASED NEGATIVE ETHNIC STEREOTYPES
  • HIGHER SCORES ON STANDARDIZED TESTS

12
Additional Jigsaw Classroom Results
  • GREATER PARTICIPATION IN SCHOOL ACTIVITIES
  • GREATER ABILITY TO ROLE-TAKE (EMPATHIZE WITH
    OTHERS)
  • DIFFERENT ATTRIBUTIONS FOR SUCCESS FAILURE
    (I.E., MORE EXTERNAL ATTRIBUTIONS FOR FAILURES OF
    OTHERS AVOIDENCE OF FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION
    ERROR)

13
  • Reducing Prejudice and Discrimination
  • Key Factors
  • Support of Authority
  • Equal Status Contact
  • Work on Common Goals
  • (e.g., Sherifs work and cooperative classrooms)

14
  • Some examples of prejudice and discrimination
  • Gender ---
  • Female attractiveness and support for the
    feminist movement
  • Female attractiveness and corporate success
  • Female traits and leadership
  • Race ---
  • Blacks versus Whites shoving incident and
    perception of violence
  • Black versus Whites and interview performance
    (self-fulfilling prophecy)

15
Female attractiveness and support for the
feminist movement
30 PHOTOS OF WOMEN RATED IN TERMS OF
ATTRACTIVENESS (5-POINT SCALE)
PROCEDURE --PLACE 15 PICTURES INTO EACH PILE
Do not support feminist movement
Support feminist movement
  • RESULTS ---
  • LESS ATTRACTIVE FEMALES PERCEIVED AS FEMINIST
  • NO DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MALES FEMALES
  • NO EFFECT OF RATER ATTITUDES REGARDING WOMEN'S
    LIBERATION

16
Female attractiveness and corporate success
GENDER
FEMALE
MALE
REGULAR
FAST
REGULAR
FAST
UNATTRACTIVE
ATTRACTRIVE
RATED ON VARIOUS FACTORS (E.G., ABILITY,
INTEGRITY, LIKEABILITY)
KEY IS PERCEPTION OF LEVELS OF FEMININITY. IF
HIGHLY FEMININE, NOT SEEN AS VERY CAPABLE.
17
Female traits and leadership
RATE TRAITS OF TYPICAL MALES
RATE TRAITS OF TYPICAL FEMALES
RATE TRAITS OF TYPICAL OF LEADERS
MALE TRAITS SEEN AS SIMILAR TO LEADERSHIP TRAITS
18
RACE DISCRIMINATION
SHOVING INCIDENT (DURING A DEBATE) BLACK SHOVES
WHITE PERSON 75 DEFINED IT AS ACT OF
VIOLENCE WHITE SHOVES BLACK PERSON 17 DEFINED
IT AS ACT OF VIOLENCE
  • WHITES INTERVIEWED BLACK APPLICANTS
  • MORE DISTANCE
  • LESS EYE CONTACT
  • LESS OPEN
  • BLACKS VIEWED LESS WELL
  • WHITES INTERVIEWERS TREATED WHITE APPLICANTS THE
    SAME WAY AS BLACKS
  • WHITE APPLICANTS VIEWED LESS WELL

19
AGE AND INTERVIEW QUESTIONS
QUALIFICATIONS
LOW
AVERAGE
HIGH
YOUNG
OLD
EASIER QUESTIONS ASKED TO OLDER APPLICANTS
DESPITE QUALIFICATIONS
20
EFFECT OF LABELS
RANDOMLY ASSIGNED LABELS
LOW
ARMY RECRUITS
AVERAGE
THIS GROUP HAD BETTER PERFORMANCE SCORES ON
VARIOUS MEASURES ALSO VIEWED THEIR LEADERS AS
MORE EFFECTIVE
HIGH
SELP-FULFILLING PROPHECY AT WORK (LEADERS SPENT
MORE TIME WITH THE HIGH EXPECTATION GROUP)
21
PERCEIVED SIMILARITY
IN AND OUT-GROUP BIAS
  • SELECTION TO THE IN-GROUP
  • ABILITY
  • RESPONSIBILITY
  • 3) TRUST

IN-GROUP
OUT-GROUP
  • LIKING, SPEND TIME WITH LEADER
  • CHALLENGING, VISIBLE JOBS
  • BETTER MEMORY FOR GOOD
  • BEHAVIOR
  • TREATED WARMLY
  • PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS
  • ALLOCATION OF REWARDS
  • LESS DESIREABLE JOBS
  • LESS TIME SPENT WITH SUPERVISOR
  • TREATED FORMALLY
  • LOWER PERFORMANCE EVALUATIONS
  • LESS REWARDS
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