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Sustainability for Digitization Programs

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Why Is Sustainability So Important For Digital Initiatives? ... To identify factors compromising sustainability among Digital Initiative (DI's) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Sustainability for Digitization Programs


1
Sustainability for Digitization Programs
  • January 20, 2006
  • Laurie Gemmill
  • ALA Mid-Winter

2
Agenda
  • Welcome and introductions
  • Mini-workshop - Laurie Gemmill
  • Sustainability Issues
  • Business Planning
  • Guiding Principles
  • Needs Assessment and Evaluation
  • Financial Plans
  • Break
  • Panel Discussion of Practice       
  • Bettina Meyer - Western Michigan University
  • Nancy Allen - Collaborative Digitization Program
  • Geri Ingram - DiMeMa
  • Q A - panel

3
Thanks to Contributors
  • Indebted to
  • IMLS Web Wise 2005 Pre-Conference Workshop
    Business Planning for Digital Asset Management in
    Cultural Heritage Institutions, Feb 2005
  • Business Planning for Cultural Heritage
    Institutions
  • Authored by Liz Bishoff and Nancy Allen, January
    2004
  • Published by Council on Library and Information
    Resources

4
Sustainability
  • Projects start with grant funding
  • short term
  • funding is intended as seed money or only used to
    fund innovative projects
  • Projects to programs
  • Projects limited in scope, self-contained
  • Programs
  • ongoing
  • long-term strategic plan
  • integrated into institutional workflow
  • economically sustainable
  • Ongoing projects not as competitive for funds

5
Sustainability
  • What is sustainability?
  • What does it mean to be sustainable?
  • Why it is so important to us?
  • Particularly for digital and preservation
    initiatives?

6
Sustainability - Definition
  • Sustainability . . . refers to all the
    considerations that go into maintaining the
    institutional context for creation and
    maintenance of digital objects and resources, and
    supporting . . . long-term viability
  • National Institute for Networked Cultural
    Heritage (2002)

7
What Does It Mean To Be Sustainable?
8
Sustainable Organizations
  • Adapt to changing environments and client needs
  • Develop independent, diversified and dependable
    sources of revenue
  • Wean themselves from dependency on external funds
  • Develop and grow programmatically

9
Why Is Sustainability So Important For Digital
Initiatives?
  • The investment of resources is greater
  • The promise is greater
  • The expectations are greater

10
Sustainability Issues for Digital Cultural
Heritage Initiatives
  • A Tale of Woe and Intrigue

11
CLIR Survey - 2003
  • Survey of Digital Cultural Heritage Initiatives
    and Their Sustainability Concerns
  • To identify factors compromising sustainability
    among Digital Initiative (DIs)
  • To develop recommendations on ways to counter
    these factors
  • http//www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub118/contents.h
    tml

12
Participants and Process
  • 33 DCHIs a cross-section of the cultural
    community
  • Performing arts organizations
  • Scholarly and professional organizations
  • Museum, archive and visual resource organizations
  • Publishing groups
  • Standards initiatives
  • Humanities centers and projects
  • 5 Funding Agencies
  • Institute of Museum and Library Services
  • National Endowment for the Humanities
  • National Historical Publications and Records
    Commission
  • Getty Grant program
  • Andrew W. Mellon Foundation

13
Woes
  • The Economy 2003
  • Domino effect
  • Memberships, dues, fundraising
  • Moratoriums setback to creativity
  • Funding Trends and Dependencies
  • Funding pool diminishing
  • DCHI too dependent
  • Serving master instead of mission
  • Digital Initiatives as Organizational Projects
  • Special projects rather than programs

14
Woes
  • Missions and Overlapping Domains
  • Passion projects
  • Outdated or changing missions
  • Lack of Standards, Practices, and Preservation
  • Huge editing and integration costs
  • Risk of Obsolescence
  • Unproven Business Models
  • Various models

15
Woes
  • Growing Pains
  • Transition periods high stress
  • Internal Tensions
  • Lack of clarity
  • Competition with other programs/projects
  • Staff changes
  • Uncertain Market Needs
  • Absence of user needs

16
Recommendations
  • Planning
  • Training
  • Repositories for digital assets

17
Intrigue the Secrets to Sustainability
  • Create a product (digital initiative) worth
    sustaining
  • Develop well-defined programs with discrete
    objectives and measurable goals
  • Continually reassess your organization and its
    programs

18
Business Planning Overview
19
Business Planning
  • A business plan is a high-level description of
    how an organization will implement its strategic
    plan, for the organization as a whole or from the
    perspective of a specific project or product
    Planning Process (Bryson, 1995)

20
Business Planning
  • Before start a project, program or product
  • Process of determining costs, expectations and
    financial goals
  • What are the financial expectations?
  • Make revenue?
  • Support project?
  • ???
  • Parallels to grant writing
  • Components
  • Experience

21
Business Planning
  • Cultural heritage repositories/Non profits do
    many aspects of business planning
  • The natural outgrowth of organizational planning
    process
  • Early days digitization explored technology
    today used to advance mission/goals
  • Need to incorporate at beginning
  • No single recipe for success

22
Partnerships
  • Collaboration increasingly common element of
    sustainability strategy, particularly for digital
    initiatives
  • Funders strongly encourage
  • Can leverage funding
  • Show governmental bodies and others
  • CHI work with community for greater good
  • Higher profile for all involved

23
Successful Partnerships
  • The key is to find a compelling shared goal with
    real added value and to orient the partnership
    and its opportunity seeking activities around
    it.
  • University of Washington and Eastern Washington
    Historical Society
  • UW - expertise in scanning and metadata,
    technology
  • EWHS - expertise on Plateau Indians, selection
    and marketing
  • Consortial digitization endeavors
  • Museum Online Archives of California (MOAC)
  • CDP (Colorado Digitization Program)
  • Ohio Memory

24
Environmental Scanning
  • Knowing about
  • Economic
  • Social
  • Technological
  • Environmental
  • General business trends
  • Examples
  • Amount of leisure time available for cultural
    heritage visits
  • Families are having fewer children

25
Models for Sustainability
  • Subsidy
  • For specific period or long term support
  • Support from operating funds
  • Understood to contribute to overall institutions
    sustainability
  • University of Michigan
  • Supported by library funds, grants, and revenue
    sources
  • Grants (foundation government)
  • Self sustaining
  • Nebraska Historical Society Digital Imaging Lab
  • Generate own funding to support staff and
    infrastructure
  • Combination
  • Begin with subsidy or grant funding, supplemented
    in other ways

26
Identifying a Sustainable Competitive Advantage
  • Services or programs of highest quality available
  • Most reasonably prices services/programs
  • Most experienced staff
  • Most variety of services offered
  • Most highly endorsed services or programs
  • Barry McLeish Successful Marketing Strategies
    for Non Profit Organizations, 1995, 31

27
Identify a Competitive Advantage
  • You need to build new revenue streams
  • Need to be creative but follow mission
  • Digitization Examples
  • Facilitating photo-duplication
  • sell images?
  • Digitization lab
  • cost recovery
  • Licensing

28
Mission, Vision, Values, Goals Your Guiding
Principals
29
Guiding Principles
  • Mission or Vision Statements
  • Values
  • Goals

30
McCarter Field Museums Four Tasks
  • Continue to believe in the strength of our core
    missions
  • Know how generation X, Y, and now Z use
    information and what they expect
  • Lead our businesses not only responding to change
    but also anticipating change
  • Take seriously the challenge of information
    overload

31
Museum Institutional Trajectory
  • 21st Century
  • Focused on
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Educational Tools
  • Engagement (stories)
  • Layered (multimedia)
  • Inside Out
  • Transforming
  • RELEVANT
  • Bill Barnett, Field Museum
  • 20th Century
  • Focused on
  • Multidisciplinary
  • Researched Plans
  • Object Interpretation
  • Hands On
  • Behind the Scenes
  • Memorable
  • ACCESSIBLE
  • 19th Century
  • Focused on
  • Disciplines
  • Inventories
  • Object Presentation
  • Descriptive Info
  • Staged Scenes
  • Exotic and Remote Locales
  • AVAILABLE

32
Mission
  • Remain true to mission
  • Capitalize on strengths
  • Utilize technology

33
Mission, Vision, and Values
  • This should express the purpose of the
    organization and describe what is distinctive
    about it
  • What is the organization trying to accomplish
  • Marketplace niche
  • Quality of products/services
  • Example Washington Resource Library Consortium
  • We saw this idea as a natural extension of the
    digital library system we were already providing.
    We have a plan for integrating the new service
    into the existing organization

34
Assessment
  • Needs and Program Measures

35
Assessment Categories
  • Before Beginning Product/Program
  • Needs assessment or market research
  • learning about user needs and market
    characteristics
  • Measuring Product/Program
  • Outcomes assessment
  • how have you changed individual lives/behaviors,
    or organizational practice, and what difference
    your program made
  • Output assessment
  • data providing information on success in goals

36
(No Transcript)
37
Who Are The Users?
  • College students, faculty, researchers
  • General public in the region
  • International web-using public
  • Physical visitors
  • K-12 students and teachers
  • Hobbyists
  • Businesses
  • Library organizations and their staff
  • Museums and their staff
  • Individuals with disabilities

38
How to Find Out About User Needs and Preferences
  • Expert opinion (librarian or curator judgment)
  • Based on anecdotal evidence
  • Based on curator subject knowledge
  • Often based on knowledge of existing users rather
    than potential or future users
  • http//www.imls.gov/pubs/pdf/userneedsassessment.p
    df
  • Research based knowledge of user preferences
  • Do-It-Yourself Market Research
  • Web Surveys
  • Phone or in-person interviews
  • Focus group research
  • Social Science-Based Methodologies
  • Demographically targeted
  • Quantitative measures
  • Controlled research

39
Needs Assessment or Market Research
  • Determine the data elements to be covered
  • Develop the procedures for collecting the data
    and monitoring the process
  • Careful development of focus group and survey
    questions
  • Collect and analyze the data
  • Prepare reports and present the results
  • Include conclusions

40
Environment and Competition
  • Basic info on environment and competition
  • Who are major competitors?
  • How many customers does each competitors have?
  • What are their strengths/weaknesses
  • Demographic trends
  • Key

41
Evaluation
42
Outcomes Assessment
  • Benefits or changes for individuals or
    populations during or after participating in
    program activities, including new knowledge,
    increased skills, changed attitudes or values,
    modified behavior, improved condition, or altered
    status.
  • Documenting the Difference Demonstrating the
    Value of Libraries Through Outcome Measurement,
    by Peggy D. Rudd, in Perspectives on
    Outcomes-Based Evaluation for Libraries and
    Museums, Washington, DC IMLS.

43
Congruence of Objectives and Assessment
  • Each objective must have measures of success
  • Objective Improve teacher awareness of digital
    resources for classroom use
  • Measure Though pre- and post- testing, measure
    workshop participant learning
  • http//www.cdpheritage.org/about/grants/2001/imls_
    prop_edu_2001.pdf (further examples, pages 2-7)

44
Project Outcomes Assessment Techniques
  • How did you change behavior, organizations,
    lives? What difference did you make?
  • Surveys
  • Written surveys
  • Telephone surveys
  • Email surveys (home-done or corporate)
  • Case study or interview
  • Focus groups (formal, structured discussions)

45
Output Measures Data Collection
  • Some indicators of success are measures you can
    collect without surveys or focus groups
  • How many uses were there?
  • Who used it?
  • How many resources are available?
  • Were activities completed as promised?

46
Example
  • Decide that your targeted user group is teachers
  • Do surveys or focus groups to ask what they need
    or would use in the classroom
  • Create digital resources to meet those needs
  • Follow up with additional focus groups to find
    out how teachers actually used the digital
    resources
  • Modify program depending on results

47
Summary
  • Base your predicted outcomes on research about
    user needs and preferences
  • Build in activities that let you know if you
    succeeded in achieving the outcomes you planned
  • Be ready to change course depending on measured
    results

48
Financial Plans/Costing Analysis

49
Financial Goals
  • You need to work with senior management to
    determine financial goals
  • What is your margin target? (i.e. profit)
  • 10, 20, 50 ?
  • Do you need to
  • Cover fixed costs?
  • Cover fixed and variable costs?
  • Just need to break even for now as beginning
  • Or do you need to earn a 20 margin immediately?

50
Financial Plans
  • Should outline finances for 3-5 years
  • Include revenue and expense components
  • Salaries and fringe
  • Training
  • Legal and accounting
  • Equipment
  • Promotion costs
  • Sales costs
  • Exhibit costs

51
Financial Considerations
  • Work with Legal and Accounting offices to
    determine your institutions specific policies
    on
  • Amortization
  • Overhead
  • Benefits
  • Indirect cost rates

52
Wrap-Up
  • Business planning is essential for long term
    sustainability
  • Remember to create a product/service that is true
    to your institutions mission and goals
  • Do your research!
  • Define your competitive advantage
  • Conduct Needs Assessment, Product Evaluation and
    Usability Assessments
  • Be prepared to change!
  • Businesses must

53
Practitioner Presentations
  • Bettina Meyer Assistant Dean for Resources,
    Western Michigan University Libraries
  • Nancy Allen Dean and Director of Penrose
    Library at the University of Denver
  • Geri Bunker Ingram Customer Service Specialist,
    DiMeMa

54
Questions?
  • Dont Forget Evaluations!
  • Laurie Gemmill
  • OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.
  • 800-848-5878 ext. 6160
  • Laurie_Gemmill_at_oclc.org
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