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Democracy, Part I

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Map of world's political systems, 1900. L. blue=limited democracy pink=absolute monarchy; ... Used by about 35% of world's countries, by most of western ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Democracy, Part I


1
Democracy, Part I
  • Definitions and Directions

2
Sources
  • Robert Dahl, Polyarchy (1971) and On Democracy
    (1998)
  • Samuel Huntington, The Third Wave
    Democratization in the late Twentieth Century
    (1991)
  • Arend Lijphart, Patterns of Democracy (1999)
  • Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, Problems of
    Democratic Transition and Consolidation (1996)
  • Freedom House www.freedomhouse.org

3
General Point 1Democracy is gettingmore
popular
  • 1900 no democracies (by standard of universal
    suffrage for competitive multiparty elections).
  • 1950 22 democracies
  • 2002 121/192 countries classified as electoral
    democracies.

4
Map of worlds political systems, 1900
L. bluelimited democracy pinkabsolute
monarchy purpleconstitutional monarchy gray
green colonial authority orangeempire
5
Map of worlds political systems, 2000
Dark Bluedemocracy light bluelimited
democracy yellowauthoritarian regime
redtotalitarian purplehereditary monarchy
6
CaveatsNot all democracies are equally free
  • 89 Free countries
  • 55 Partly Free countries
  • 48 Not Free countries
  • (Source Freedom House, 2003)

7
General Point 2Mass democracy is modern
  • Distinctions between earlier and later
    democracies
  • 1. direct democracy (vs elected representatives)
  • 2. exclusion (vs inclusion)
  • 3. civil and political rights?

Greek voters, picture from National Geographic,
1944
8
Ways of Defining Democracy
  • its sources of inspiration (the will of the
    people)
  • what it SHOULD be (normative)
  • institutional characteristics -- by its
    PROCEDURES (approach favored by CP)

9
Defining Democracy Your own ideas
  • What are the essential characteristics of
    democracy?

10
What is a democracy?
  • One basic definition
  • A system in which the most powerful
    decisionmakers are selected through fair and
    periodic voting procedures in which candidates
    freely compete for votes, and in which virtually
    all people have the right to vote.
  • (Samuel Huntington)

11
But is this enough? 8 essential components of a
full (liberal) democracy
  • the right to vote
  • the right to be elected/eligibility for public
    office
  • the right of political leaders to compete for
    support and votes
  • free and fair elections
  • freedom of association
  • freedom of expression
  • alternative sources of information
  • institutions that make government policies
    actually depend on votes and other forms of
    (voter) preference
  • (Robert Dahl)

12
Levels of democracy (based on degrees of
democracy)
  • Full (liberal) democracy
  • Electoral democracy, semi-democracy,
    pseudo-democracy, Illiberal democracy

13
Democracy, Part II
  • Institutional Variations

The 80s Kids From left to right, Margaret
Thatcher, Ronald Reagan, Francois Mitterand,
Helmut Schmidt. Source http//www.digischool.nl/k
leioscoop/mitterand.htm
14
Variation 1 degree of territorial political
centralization
  • Federal System vs Unitary System

15
Federal system
  • Decentralized authority
  • sovereignty constitutionally split between at
    least two territorial levels
  • units at each level can act independently of the
    others in some areas.
  • Citizens have political obligations to two (or
    more) authorities
  • Examples U.S., Canada, Germany

16
Unitary System
  • Authority sovereignty centralized in one place
    (the capital)
  • Policies largely set by the center
  • No (or weak) intermediary layer between local and
    central government
  • Local govt subservient to central govt
  • Examples France, Turkey, Britain

17
What are the pros and cons of federal and unitary
systems?
18
Variation 2 Powers and processes of leadership
  • Presidential VS parliamentary systems

19
a. Title power of head of state
  • Presidential system
  • head of govt always called the president is
    elected for a prescribed period and generally
    cannot be dismissed unless guilty of severe
    wrongdoing.
  • Parliamentary system
  • head of the government usually (but not always)
    called the Prime Minister. His/her cabinet
    responsible to the legislature (Parliament) can
    be dismissed through a vote of no confidence.

20
b. How head of state is chosen
  • In Presidential System, presidents are popularly
    elected by populace
  • In a Parliamentary system, head of state selected
    by the legislature.

21
c. Status of the head of state
  • In a presidential system, president appoints the
    cabinet and they are considered subservient to
    him.
  • In a parliamentary system, the prime minister
    serves as one among equals

22
d. selection of the cabinet
  • In Presidential system, cabinet appointed
    separately by president
  • In Parliamentary system, cabinet drawn from
    legislature

23
e. Length of term in office
  • In a presidential system, legislators and
    presidents serve fixed terms
  • In a parliamentary system, legislators and
    presidents serve a maximum time in office but a
    ruling party can call early elections if it wants
    to

24
f. allocation of govt powers
  • In presidential system, executive and legislative
    functions separate
  • In parliamentary system, executive and
    legislative functions fused

25
Notes
  • it is common in parliamentary systems to have a
    president or monarch who is the CEREMONIAL head
    of state, and a PM who is in charge of the
    government
  • Examples of Parliamentary systems Britain,
    Turkey, South Africa, Germany
  • Examples of Presidential systems U.S., most of
    South America
  • Many countries have mixed systems, i.e. France

26
Turkey
Examples Presidential or Parliamentary?
  • chief of state President Abdullah Gul
  • head of government Prime Minister Recep Tayyip
    ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003)
  • cabinet Nominated by Prime Minister, confirmed
    by President
  • elections prime minister selected from majority
    party, confirmed by president . President elected
    by parliament.

Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan, 2003
27
Example Brazil
  • chief of state President Luiz Inacio LULA DA
    SILVA (since 1 January 2003)
  • note - the president is both the chief of state
    and head of government
  • elections president and vice president elected
    on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year
    terms

28
United Kingdom
  • chief of state Queen ELIZABETH II
  • head of government Prime Minister Gordon Brown
  • cabinet Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the
    prime minister
  • elections monarchy is hereditary following
    legislative elections, the leader of the majority
    party or the leader of the majority coalition is
    usually the prime minister

Gordon Brown, British PM (photo from the
Birmingham Post)
29
parliamentary system pros and cons?
  • Strengthens parties over individuals
  • Encourages policy-based voting rather than
    voting based on individual charisma or
  • Fusing of legislative exec. branches can
    promote efficiency
  • - Gives the public less choice over leadership
  • - Flexible election terms can less stability
  • - Fusing of executive legislative branches can
    concentrate too much power in one place

30
Presidential systempros and cons?
  • Gives the people more choice over leadership
  • strong government- president more insulated
    and can act with daring
  • higher levels of government accountability
  • Greater stability
  • Clear separation of powers
  • - Power of presidency can be abused
  • - Can encourage deadlock between legislature
    executive
  • - Encourages charisma, , rather than substance
    policies
  • - Set terms rigidity (bad leaders cant be
    easily removed)

31
Institutional variation 3
  • Electoral systems
  • (how voting works
  • who gets elected, and how)

32
Electoral systems 2-3 main types
  • 1- Plurality System (Winner-take-all system)
  • Single member districts whoever gets the most
    votes wins the seat
  • used by about 54 of worlds countries
  • 2-Majority System
  • Single member districts BUT 50 votes needed to
    win
  • Second round of votes run-off elections, etc.
  • 3- Proportional Representation (PR system)
  • Multi-member districts of reps. determined by
    of vote
  • Used by about 35 of worlds countries, by most
    of western Europe

33
Plurality Systems
  • Single-member electoral districts (usually)
  • Also called winner-take-all
  • Simplest most common form First Past the
    Post winning candidate is the one who gains
    more votes than any other candidate, but not
    necessarily a majority of votes.
  • Encourages 2-party systems
  • Examples U.S., U.K, Canada, Rwanda

34
Proportional Representation(PR)
  • Multi-member electoral districts
  • Seats in legislature divided by of votes.
  • Most common type List system parties select
    candidates, who goes to legislature depends on
    what that party gets
  • preferential voting - voters rank preferences
    on party list
  • encourages multi-party system
  • Min. threshold (barrier) parties have to get a
    certain of votes to enter legislature
  • Examples Belgium, South Africa, Spain, Norway,
    Turkey, Brazil

35
Sample ballot from Sonoma Co., USA (Plurality
system)
36
Sample ballot from S. Africas national
elections, 1994 (PR system) Source aceproject.org
37
Example TurkeyHow power is distributed
  • Central government
  • Sets rules policies
  • Appoints officials
  • Government spending
  • In Turkey, 15 of funds to local government
  • In Europe, 50
  • Municipal funding base
  • In Turkey, 75 of city revenue from central govt.
  • Investment plans
  • Road maintenance
  • Social cultural services
  • Caring for cemeteries
  • waste disposal

38
Turkey Top leadership
  • Prime Minister
  • (usually) from majority party
  • Officially appointed by the President of the
    Republic from among the members of the Turkish
    Grand National Assembly.
  • (cabinet) ministers nominated by the Prime
    Minister and appointed by the Turkish Grand
    National Assembly
  • The Prime Minister, as Chairman of the Council
    of Ministers, shall ensure cooperation among the
    ministers, and supervise the implementation of
    the governments general policy. The members of
    the Council of Ministers are jointly responsible
    for the implementation of this policy. 

39
The PMs duties
  • 1)To provide cooperation among ministries, to
    supervise the execution
  • of government general policy, to take
    necessary measures with a view to providing
    public services as listed in the constitution and
    laws,
  • To develop the principles required for an
    efficient administration of state affairs, to
    supervise the implementation of the government
    program as well as the development of annual
    plans,
  • 3) To examine acts, regulations and
    recommendations on decisions in terms of
    compliance with the constitution and other
    regulations, and to maintain relations with the
    legislation organ,
  • 4) To set and improve the principles on the
    preparation of regulations, to ensure the
    codification and publication of active
    regulations,
  • 5) To provide efficiency in administration,
    simplification of administrative processes and
    procedures, to follow developments in state
    organization systems,
  • 6) To set principles for a more efficient system
    of supervision and inspection in the state
    organization, and to carry out supervision and
    inspection if deemed necessary,
  • 7) To collect, evaluate and regulate important
    documents for Turkish Nation and State, to set up
    archive laboratories, to present archive
    documents to scientists and scientific
    activities,
  • 8) To take necessary measures for an efficient
    crisis management at the time of natural
    disasters, migration and other important events
    threatening national security, and to ensure
    efficient coordination among public
    establishments in the crisis management.
  • Source http//www.basbakanlik.gov.tr

40
Turkey The president
  • ARTICLE 101.
  • The President of the Republic shall be elected
    for a term of office of seven years by the
    Turkish Grand National Assembly from among its
    own members who are over 40 years of age and who
    have completed their higher education or from
    among Turkish citizens who fulfill these
    requirements and are eligible to be deputies. 
  •  The President-elect, if a member of a party,
    shall sever his relations with his party and his
    status as a member of the Turkish Grand National
    Assembly shall cease.  ARTICLE 102. The
    President of the Republic shall be elected by a
    two-thirds majority of the total number of
    members of the Turkish Grand National Assembly
    and by secret ballot.

http//www.abdullahgul.gen.tr/EN/Video.asp
41
Turkey How Votes are Counted
  • 550 seats in Parliament
  • 85 electoral districts
  • Districts have from 2-26 representatives in the
    Parliament
  • PR List System (Closed List)
  • 10 percent threshhold

42
(No Transcript)
43
Who won which provinces in Turkey, 2002 and 2007
compared
44
France
  • 577 deputies in the National Assembly
  • 577 legislative districts
  • single-district, majority system (2 rounds of
    voting)
  • Candidates who win more than 50 in the first
    round win seat
  • If no one does, 2nd round with top two
    candidates
  • the candidate who wins the most votes wins the
    seat

45
Pros Cons of Plurality Systems
  • gives voters clear choice
  • maintains close geographic link between voters
    and elected officials
  • creates effective government -- clear majority
    party and unified opposition
  • - Not very representative many votes wasted
  • - Excludes smaller minority parties from
    representation

46
Pros Cons of PR systems
  • highly representative all or nearly all votes
    count
  • encourages diversity range of perspectives
  • Greater voter turnout
  • - Can lead to fragmentation ineffective govt.
  • - List PR, in particular, can weaken link
    between voters elected officials (officials
    more loyal to party than voters)

47
Note Many countries used mixed-PR systems
some sort of mixture between plurality PR
systems!
48
Examples Mexico
  • 500-person Chamber of Deputies
  • Elections every three years
  • Parallel voting 300 deputies elected in
    single-seat constituencies by first-past-the-post
    plurality
  • Other 200 elected through PR voting with
    open-party lists
  • country is divided into 5 constituencies
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