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Like a pie chart, a doughnut chart shows the relationship of parts to a whole, ... The colors of slices in pie charts, which contain only one series, are varied by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Charts

  • Charts are used to help people understand
    numerical data through visualization.

  • Appropriate charts can provide different
    perspectives, details, overviews,
    generalizations, and trends in data.
  • These visual language devices filter knowledge
    and provide appropriate chunking, structuring,
    and pacing in the presentation of data.

  • Scientists often distinguish charts from graphs.
  • Charts present numerical relations on a
    comparative basis.
  • Graphs present a functional relation between
    dependent and independent variables.

Examples of scientific charts
  • Bar chart,
  • pie chart,
  • various pictorial charts

Examples of scientific graphs
  • Continuous line plots on linear-linear coordinate
  • on semi-logarithmic coordinate scales,
  • on log-log coordinate scales

  • Electronic spreadsheets usually do not make that
  • They take a more business orientation and refer
    to them both as charts. Thats what we do here,
    matching Excels terminology.

Basic issues in designing and implementing
graphic presentations
  • Simplicity, clarity, and consistency are
    essential for good chart design.
  • Keep extraneous text to a minimum.

Both legibility and readability can be
significantly improved through the selection of
graphic elements and the layout of the material.
  • Legibility deals with the readers ability to
    successfully find, identify, and absorb what a
    chart denotes.

  • Readability concerns the charts interpretation
    and appeal.

Spreadsheet packages offer a variety of chart
types for accomplishing this.
Excel supplies
  • Column
  • Bar
  • Line
  • Pie
  • XY (scatter)
  • Area
  • Doughnut
  • Radar
  • Surface
  • Bubble
  • Stock
  • Cone, cylinder, and pyramid

  • You can create any one of these in Excel by first
    selecting the cells whose values are to be
    displayed in the chart.
  • Then click the Chart Wizard button on the
    standard toolbar and choose from among the
    options presented on the resulting series of
    dialog boxes.

Column charts
  • A column chart shows the data as vertical bars.
  • A column chart shows data changes over a period
    of time or illustrates comparisons among items.
  • Categories are organized horizontally, values
    vertically, to emphasize variation over time.

  • Stacked column charts show the relationship of
    individual items to the whole.
  • Step charts are column charts without space
    between the columns.

  • The 3-D perspective column chart compares data
    points along two axes.
  • In this 3-D chart, you can compare four quarters
    of sales performance in one division with the
    performance of two other divisions.

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Bar chart
  • A bar chart displays the data as horizontal bars.
  • It is used to illustrate comparisons among
    individual items.
  • Categories are organized vertically, values
    horizontally, to focus on comparing values and to
    place less emphasis on time.
  • Stacked bar charts show the relationship of
    individual items to the whole.

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Line chart
  • A line chart shows data plotted with or without
    markers at the data point locations and with or
    without line segments connecting the points.
  • A line chart shows trends in data at equal
    intervals, discretely or continuously.

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Pie chart
  • A pie chart displays the data in a circle divided
    into sectors.
  • It shows the proportional size of items(out of
    100) that make up a data series to the sum of
    the items.
  • NB It always shows only one data series and is
    useful when you want to emphasize a significant

  • To make small sectors/slices easier to see, you
    can group them together as one item in a pie
    chart and then break down that item in a smaller
    pie or bar chart next to the main chart.

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XY (scatter) chart
  • A scatter chart is like a line chart but with a
    greater variety of built-in axes for proportional
  • An xy (scatter) chart either shows the
    relationships among the numeric values in several
    data series or plots two groups of numbers as one
    series of xy coordinates.
  • It shows uneven intervals or clusters of data and
    is commonly used for scientific data.

  • When you arrange your data, place x values in one
    row or column, and then enter corresponding y
    values in the adjacent rows or columns.

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Area chart
  • An area chart shows the area under a curve.
  • It is usually used to emphasize the magnitude of
    change over time.
  • By displaying the sum of the plotted values, an
    area chart also shows the relationship of parts
    to a whole.
  • For example, an area chart might emphasize
    increased sales in Washington and illustrate the
    contribution of each state to total sales.

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Doughnut chart
  • Like a pie chart, a doughnut chart shows the
    relationship of parts to a whole, but it can
    contain more than one data series. Each ring of
    the doughnut chart represents a data series.

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Radar chart
  • In a radar chart, each category has its own value
    axis radiating from the center point. Lines
    connect all the values in the same series.

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Surface chart
  • A surface chart is useful when you want to find
    optimum combinations between two sets of data.
  • As in a topographic map, colors and patterns
    indicate areas that are in the same range of

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Bubble chart
  • A bubble chart is a type of xy (scatter) chart.
    The size of the data marker indicates the value
    of a third variable.
  • To arrange your data, place the x values in one
    row or column, and enter corresponding y values
    and bubble sizes in the adjacent rows or columns.
  • For example, a chart might show that Company A
    has the most products and the greatest market
    share, but not the highest sales.

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Stock chart
  • The high-low-close chart is often used to
    illustrate stock prices.
  • This chart can also be used for scientific data,
    for example, to indicate temperature changes.
  • You must organize your data in the correct order
    to create this and other stock charts.

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  • A stock chart that measures volume has two value
    axes one for the columns that measure volume,
    the other for the stock prices.
  • You can include volume in a high-low-close or
    open-high-low-close chart.

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Cone, cylinder, and pyramid
  • The cone, cylinder, and pyramid data markers are
    variations of columns and bars. They can add a
    special effect to 3-D column and bar charts.
  • So instead of having bars and columns you use
    cones, cylinders, and pyramids.

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Some general guidelines in designing any chart
  • The ones most used in the business environment
  • Line
  • Bar and column
  • Pie

Line charts
  • These use a line to connect data points on a
    measurable area, e.g. a Cartesian grid, to show
    one dependent variable plotted against an
    independent variable, such as time.
  • With a line chart you can show long series of
    data, interpolate between points, extrapolate
    beyond known data values, and compare several
    data lines.

Line charts (cont.)
  • The purpose of a line chart is to emphasize a
    trend rather than actual amounts.

Guidelines in designing a line chart
  • Since there are the data point lines and grid and
    axis lines, make the data lines the thickest.
  • Make the grid lines thin or leave them out.
  • Axes should be medium weight they should be
    part of the rectangle that defines the entire
    data area.

Line chart (cont.)
  • If theres enough room around the data area,
    place the tick marks and scale values outside the
  • If there is more than one line, distinguish them
    by color or texture.
  • Avoid presenting more than 5 data lines.
  • Be careful that when lines overlap, they are in
    an order where textures or colors wont be mixed.

Line chart (cont.)
  • For legibility keep all typography horizontal, if
  • Sans serif fonts in a single font design are
    often the most legible (Marcus 1992101).
  • The title can be centered but a stronger
    structure is flush left aligned with the left
    side of the data area rectangle.

Line charts (cont.)
  • Keep the number of digits in the scales on the
    axes at a minimum.
  • Avoid labeling boxes or leader lines since the
    chart might get too cluttered.

Bar (horizontal) and column (vertical) charts
  • Bar charts can be interchanged with line charts
    in terms of purpose.
  • But they are better for emphasizing actual values
    or differences, especially between positive and
    negative values.

Bar and column charts (cont.)
  • Bar charts use thick lines, bars, or columns to
    emphasize the magnitude or size of the data
  • They can stand separately, be grouped, or stood
    end to end.
  • Most of the issues relating to line charts also
    apply to bar charts.

Bar and column charts (cont.)
  • If you need to put data values near the end of
    the bars or columns, make them small.
  • The space between bars should be half the width
    of the bars or less.(Or leave it out altogether.)

Bar and column charts (cont.)
  • Select colors and textures that do not cause
    optical illusions or emphasize one segment in
    comparison to others.
  • Avoid putting more than three bars in a group
    since the values they represent may become
  • One way to do this in Excel is to limit the
    variables you will be charting to three or so.

Pie charts
  • A pie chart shows the interrelation of components
    to a whole.
  • Its use is discouraged when you want a reader to
    compare areas accurately either within a chart or
    across several charts.
  • It usually charts the values of a single variable.

Pie charts (cont.)
  • Place the title centered over or under the pie if
    there arent any other constraints.
  • But flush left or further left is OK if the title
    were to obstruct a label.
  • Place sector labels outside the sector.
  • Arrange groups of labels simply.
  • Use leader lines to identify small sectors but
    dont use many different angles.

Pie charts (cont.)
  • Avoid using more than 7 sectors.
  • Avoid having sectors that take up less 5 of the
  • Use textures and colors uniformly.

Where does Excel get the information it needs to
create a chart?
  • Labels of axes and legends come from column and
    row headings
  • Data points come from worksheet cell values

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Some pointers for creating bar and column charts
  • 1 To get the proper labels on legends and on
    axes, you have to tell the system by including in
    your selected region not only the data points you
    want plotted but also the labels from the label
    column and the label row.

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  • 2 For a bar or column chart, make sure your
    selection delimits/describes a rectangle

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  • 3 Make sure the upper left-most cell is blank. If
    it isnt, Excel may have trouble interpreting
    what you want as labels on your legend, etc.

Upper left-most cell is empty
  • 4. Select your labels and data points
    systematically e.g. top-to-bottom and

Top-to-bottom and left-to-right
Types of things you can format on a chart
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Number formats, axis scale, and tick marks
  • You can specify the range of values displayed on
    the value axis and change the interval between
    values along the axis.
  • For example, instead of starting at 0 (zero), the
    chart in our example displays the range of values
    25 to 275.
  • You can also specify whether an axis has tick

  • You can format numbers in a chart as you would
    numbers on a worksheet.
  • To apply the most common number formats, click
    the axis or data label that has the number you
    want to format, and then apply currency, percent,
    or comma style formatting by clicking the buttons
    on the Formatting toolbar.

Formatting with colors, textures, and gradient
  • You can apply colors, borders, and fill effects
    to data markers, the chart area, the plot area,
    and other chart items.
  • To apply a fill effect, such as a texture or a
    picture, click a chart item, click the arrow next
    to Fill Color, and then click Fill Effects.
  • Next, select the options you want on the
    Gradient, Texture, Pattern, and Picture tabs.

To format texts, including rotating text
  • You can format text in a chart as you would any
    other text
  • Click the text or item, and then change the font,
    size, and color by clicking the buttons on the
    Formatting toolbar.
  • To rotate text 45 degrees up or down, click the
    Angle Text Upward or Angle Text Downward icons on
    the Chart toolbar.

Special formatting options for each chart type
  • Special lines, bars, data markers, and other
    options are available for different chart types.
  • For example, you can get a layered effect for
    column and bar charts by changing the overlap
    property for data series.
  • A line chart can have a shadow behind each
    diamond-shaped marker and use a smoothed line.

  • Lines can connect the data series in a stacked
    bar chart.
  • To set special formatting for a data series,
    click the data series, click Data Series on the
    Format menu, and then select the options you want
    on the Patterns and Options tabs.

  • You can choose to display or hide titles,
    gridlines, axes, data labels, legends, or a data
    table in your chart.
  • Some of these items are available only in certain
    types of charts.
  • You can also display or hide some of these items
    by using the buttons on the Chart toolbar.

To add labels to data points or series
  • The chart type associated with the selected data
    series or data point determines the type of label
    you can add.
  • 1 To add data labels to a data series, click the
    data series.
  • To add a data label to a single data point, click
    the data series that contains the data marker you
    want to label, and then click the data marker for
    the data point you want to label.

  • 2 On the Format menu, click Data Series or Data
  • 3 On the Data Labels tab, select the options you
  • Note You can quickly label all data points.
    Click the chart, click Chart Options on the Chart
    menu, and then select the options you want on the
    Data Labels tab.

To add a title to a chart
  • 1 Click the chart to which you want to add a
  • 2 On the Chart menu, click Chart Options, and
    then click the Titles tab.
  • 3 To add a chart title, click in the Chart title
    box, and then type the text you want.
  • To add one or more axis titles, click in the
    appropriate box for each title, and then type the
    text you want.

  • Note To insert a line break in a chart title or
    axis title, click the text on the chart, click
    where you want to insert the line break, and then
    press ENTER.

Change the size, color, or shape of line, xy
(scatter), or radar chart markers
  • 1 Click the line with the data markers you want
    to change.
  • 2 On the Format menu, click Data Series, and then
    click the Patterns tab.
  • 3 Under Marker, select the options you want.

To overlap or space data markers in bar and
column charts
  • You need to select only a single data series to
    change the overlap or spacing of all data series
    of the same chart type.
  • 1 Click a data series in the chart you want to
  • 2 On the Format menu, click Data Series, and then
    click the Options tab.

  • 3 To change the overlap of the data markers in
    each category, enter a value between -100 and 100
    in the Overlap box. The higher the value, the
    greater the overlap within the category.
  • 4 To change the spacing between categories of
    data markers, enter a value between 0 (zero) and
    500 in the Gap width box. The higher the value,
    the greater the distance between each category.

To vary colors in the same data series
  • In a single-series chart, you can vary the colors
    of data markers within the same data series. The
    colors of slices in pie charts, which contain
    only one series, are varied by default.
  • 1 Click the data series you want to change the
    colors for.
  • 2 On the Format menu, click Data Series or Data
    Point, and then click the Options tab.

  • 3 Select the Vary colors by point check box or
    the Vary colors by slice check box.