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Authentic Assessment My plate is already full

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Title: Authentic Assessment My plate is already full


1
Authentic Assessment?!? My plate is already full!
  • Rita M. Purcell-Robertson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
  • Michele Wiley, PT DPT PCS
  • Loudoun County Public Schools

2
Questions
  • Is authentic assessment worth the time and
    effort?
  • Can the SLPs schedule include one more thing?

3
Objectives
  • Participants in this presentation will be able to
  • Describe authentic assessment of students in the
    school-based setting
  • Determine strategies to facilitate teaming for
    effective and efficient authentic assessment

4
A Parents Perspective Colleen Tamko, 1996
  • What is the real purpose of doing an assessment?
    Is it to compare how a person is to the norm?
    If so, where will that lead to?What can be done
    with information identifying a person's
    weaknesses?Can you build goals on what a person
    cannot do?What is this doing for my child?

5
Authentic Assessment Parent perspective
  • We want others to see our child as a whole person
    and to treat him as they would want themselves or
    their children treated.
  • C. Tomkohttp//kidstogether.org/perspectives/asses
    sment.htm

6
Authentic Assessment Parent perspective
  • Because he has a disability does not mean he does
    not have abilities.
  • It does not matter how he compares to others or
    if his abilities are less then the "norm," they
    are still strengths.
  • Looking at what he can do is important and how to
    build on that to help him achieve his individual
    potential.
  • C. Tomkohttp//kidstogether.org/perspectives/asses
    sment.htm

7
Authentic Assessment Parent perspective
  • Assessments must be based on strengths to be
    useful in building goals and to accurately
    describe an individual.
  • Assessments should be purposeful, not painful.
  • C. Tomkohttp//kidstogether.org/perspectives/asses
    sment.htm

8
Other settings
9
Other settings
  • Our focus is on the SLP in the school setting,
    but our colleagues in other settings are also
    tackling authentic assessment.
  • From Hickley, et al
  • We need to think together about our goals
  • Speech or communicating
  • Talking vs getting a message across
  • Living successfully with aphasia,

10
Aphasia and functional assessment
  • The following information is from J. Hinckleys
    2007 ASHA presentation
  • Intervention for Anomic Aphasia From a Functional
    Perspective
  • http//convention.asha.org/.../1137_1826Hinckley_J
    acqueline_107414_Nov12_2007_Time

11
3 Key Elements of Any Functional Approach
  • Focus on how the individual functions in his/her
    typical environments
  • Focus on communicating the content and social
    meaning of the message in any way possible
  • Any element in the environment can be considered
    a potential target or agent of change

12
Assessment
  • What home management tasks/roles would he
    typically play? What skills currently available?
  • What social tasks/roles would he typically play?
    What skills currently available?
  • What kinds of things does he want to say? What
    topics does he want to talk about/likely to talk
    about?
  • Hobbies reading, politics, movies, travel

13
Outcome Measurement
  • Comprehensive
  • Impairment, activity, participation
  • Individually-relevant
  • Environment-specific

14
School-based setting
15
Definition
  • Educational assessment is the process of
    documenting, usually in measurable terms,
    knowledge, skills, attitudes and beliefs.
  • Assessment can focus on the individual learner,
    the learning community (class, workshop, or other
    organized group of learners), the institution, or
    the educational system as a whole. (Wikipedia)

16
Definition
  • Procedures reflect the real life learning
    environments of the student
  • ..without contrived and standardized
    conditions.
  • Schraeder, 2006

17
CharacteristicsWiggins, 1990
  • Require students to be effective performers with
    acquired knowledge
  • Present students with tasks that mirror the
    priorities and challenges of the instructional
    setting
  • Increase reliability by standardizing criteria
  • Validity is attained by stimulating real life
    scenarios

18
Most importantly-
  • SUPPORTS
  • THE NEEDS OF STUDENTS!

19
Other Fields
20
2001 International Classification of
Functioning,Disability, and Health (ICF)
  • In 1995, WHO began to revise it in such a
  • way as to take advantage of the additional
  • knowledge in the field of disability and
  • make classification that
  • people WOULD ACTUALLY USE.
  • (Threats et al)

21
ICF
  • Significant changes including
  • 1) no longer unidirectional,
  • 2) use of neutral terminology,
  • 3) greatly expanded with operational definitions,
  • 4) addition of environmental Factors
  • 5) extensively field tested.

22

Body Functions
Activities
Participation
Environment
Personal
ICF MODEL
23
Body Functions (Impairments)
  • All body systems-cardiopulmonary, neurological,
    sensory etc.

24
Activities (Limitations)
  • What the individual needs to do
  • tasks that must be performed

25
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26
Participation
  • In all major life areas-community, relationships,
    school, home

27
Environment
  • Policies, Rules
  • Barriers (natural /man made)
  • Attitudes, Technology

28
Personal
  • Family support, personality traits, lifestyle,
    cultural, socioeconomic, ethnic and racial
    factors
  • Very important understanding the impact of the
    disability on the individual

29
Osteogenesis Imperfecta
Body Functions Frequent fractures Pain Weakness Jo
int laxity Bowing of long bones Scoliosis Kyphosis
Decreased endurance
Activities Ambulation Wheelchair
propulsion Transfers Self-Care Manipulation of
Objects Books/computer Backpack PE
Equipment
Participation School attendance Recess Physical
Education Peer interaction Extracurricular
Activities Community Based Instruction Vocational
Training
Environment Architectural access Availability of
assistive devices Transportation Discrimination
due to physical size, use of mobility aids,
wheelchair
Personal Age Type of OI Temperament Adult
caregiver attitudes Self-perception Peer
Influences Medical interventions (drugs,
surgery) Involvement in community programs
(swimming)
ICF MODEL
30
How does this help me??
  • Looking at the model, allows clinician to
    understand needs of the individual and guide
    areas for assessment, intervention and outcome.

31
Collaboration
  • KEY!

32
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33
Collaboration
  • The secret to success is to work less as
    individuals and more as a team.
  • Knute Rockne

34
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35
SLPs in the schools
36
Ways to assess
  • Formalized tools

37
Questions
  • Is authentic assessment worth the time and
    effort?
  • Can the SLPs schedule include one more thing?

38
We talk about.
  • .Curriculum based therapy..but how can we do it
    when we dont know how the child functions within
    the curriculum.
  • .Dismissal..but how can we dismiss when we
    dont know if the child can use his communication
    skills in the natural environment.

39
Educational Impact
  • In the public schools, the communication disorder
    must have an educational impact for the student
    to be eligible for speech-language services.
  • Services are designed to facilitate the students
    access to the curriculum.

40
What does it take to work in the schools?
  • Intelligence
  • Creativity
  • Flexibility

41
Its the law!!!!
  • NCLB and IDEA 2004

42
NCLB and IDEA
  • Meeting students needs within NCLB and IDEA, SL
    services must be implemented
  • To support student access to the curriculum
  • In the Least Restrictive Environment
  • In collaboration with teachers and parents
  • Therefore our assessment must be geared toward
    these goals.

43
From To
  • Medical Model
  • Educational Model

44
From Medical Model To Educational Model
  • From therapy room
  • From identification of deficits
  • From standardized tests
  • From IEP objectives for splinter skills and
    underlying process
  • From fix the deficit and then carry-over
  • To classroom
  • To identification of skills needed to be
    successful in the classroom
  • To data collection
  • Observation/Interview
  • Curriculum-based assessment
  • To IEP objectives addressing classroom
    communication demands
  • To facilitate progress in communication skills
    embedded in the educational program

45
Educational Impact
  • In the public schools, the communication disorder
    must have an educational impact for the student
    to be eligible for speech-language services.
  • Services are designed to facilitate the students
    access to the curriculum.

46
SLP and Student Success
Inclusive Practices
By using inclusive practices including assessment
and therapy in schools, we enable students to
become effective communicators for life.
47
Best Practices Factors to consider
  • Services in the natural environment where
    learning is meaningful and skills may be
    practiced throughout the day
  • Shared responsibility for student success with
    all staff members
  • Shared materials used by teachers and SLP across
    multiple environments
  • System for reinforcement and practice of targeted
    skills throughout the school day
  • So we must have authentic assessments related to
    functional performance in the LRE.

48
Best Practices
  • Create inclusive education environments for all
    students
  • Provide intervention services based on the unique
    and specific needs of the individual in a setting
    that is least restrictive
  • Before we can do this.we must assess performance

49
Authentic Assessments in SLP
  • This dynamic approach offers clinicians a much
    broader view of a child's abilities than static
    assessment, because it allows for greater
    collaboration among professionals, and is more
    curriculum based,..
  • Current static testing is deficit-based and
    mostly looks at the learner's weaknesses, while
    authentic assessment examines both strengths and
    weaknesses and is descriptive in nature.
  • Dr. Roseberry-McKibbin, Assoc. Prof. Speech
    Pathology at California State University, Fresno.

50
Authentic Assessment
  • Authentic assessment approach
  • functional,
  • naturalistic
  • curriculum based,
  • it involves more collaboration with the classroom
    teacher and other team members
  • The team observes the student in different
    natural settings including the classroom, the
    playground, the cafeteria and the home.

51
School Function Assessment(Haley and Coster)
  • Created by OT and PT
  • Useful with students with multiple disabilities
  • Looks at task performance, task support, and
    environment
  • Activities include movement, recreational, social
    communication
  • Done by questionnaire

52
Informal Assessments
  • Portfolios
  • Work Samples
  • Goal Attainment Scaling
  • Data
  • Video

53
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54
SLPs must think outside the box..and develop
creative resources
55
Team Roles and Responsibilities
  • Support the curriculum
  • Consult and collaborate
  • Follow inclusive practices
  • Incorporate curriculum
  • Support SOLs

56
Integrated assessment and service
  • Support SOL oral language strands
  • SL connections to literacy
  • SL co-teaching in the classroom

57
Communication Based Classroom
  • Educational focus on communication development
  • Level of communication in classroom matches
    student
  • Allow time for communication
  • Capture the moment
  • Communication skills in natural settings
  • Communication in context of ongoing activities

58
Communication Based Classroom
  • Visual tools to support communication
  • View behavior in the context of communication
  • Specifically teach pragmatic skills
  • Strong relationship between the academic skills
    and the childs experience
  • Communication should be integrated not separate

59
Getting started..
  • SLP Guidelines from VA DOE
  • http//www.doe.virginia.gov/VDOE/Instruction/Sped/
    sp-lang.html
  • Provides checklists for
  • Parents
  • Teacher
  • SLP
  • students

60
Ways to collaborate
  • Efficient
  • Effective
  • Share the load

61
Activity
  • Fill in the ICF chart for your setting.
  • Brainstorm some ways to measure these areas.
  • Discuss how members of the team could divide the
    tasks.
  • How could you fit authentic assessment into your
    schedule?

62
Discussion
63
Final Thoughts
  • Challenges
  • Best Practices
  • Creative Resources
  • Collaboration

64
Questions?
Rita M. Purcell-Robertson, Ph.D., CCC-SLP
Rita.purcell_at_loudoun.k12.va.us Michele Wiley, PT
DPT PCS Michele.wiley_at_loudoun.k12.va.us Loudoun
County Public Schools 571-252-1011
65
Thanks for coming!
66
References
  • Gelman, J. (Dec. 1995) Authentic Assessment
    Dynamic Approach Offers Broad View of Abilities.
    Advance for Speech-Language Pathologists and
    Audiologists. http//speech-language-pathology-aud
    iology.advanceweb.com/Article/Authentic-Assessment
    .aspx
  • Hinckley, J., Howard, D., Martin, N., Thompson,
    C., Simmons-Mackie, N., Worrall, L. and
    Holland, A. (2007 ) Aphasia Rehabilitation
    Unplugged Impairment and functional approaches
    ASHA Convention http//convention.asha.org/.../113
    7_1826Worrall_Linda_072452_Nov12_2007_Time_04274.
  • Schaeder, T. (July 2006) Authentic Assessment of
    Functional Performance. Advance for Speech
    Language Pathologists.
  • Tomko, C. (1996) Pain in the Assessment.
    http//www.kidstogether.org/perspectives/assessmen
    t.htm 

67
References
  • Threats, T., Fisher Smiley, D.m Gagne, J., Wark,
    D. ( 2006) The International Classification of
    Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)
    Implications for Rehabilitative Audiology. ASHA
    Convention Abstracts http//convention.asha.org/20
    06/handouts/855_0111Fisher_Donna_088853_1119060451
    09.pdfsearch22ICF22
  • Wiig, E., Secord, W., Glaser, A., Sotto, C. and
    Penderville, J. (2003) Classroom Performance
    Assessment. Red Rock Educational Productions,
    Inc. Ohio Columbus.
  • Wiggins, G. (Dec. 1990) The Case for Authentic
    Assessment. ERIC Digest.
  • Worrall. L , McCooey, R., Davidson, B., Larkins,
    B. and Hickson, L. (2002) The vaildity of
    functional assessments of communication and the
    activity/participation components of the ICIDH-2
    do they reflect what really happens in real-life?
    Journal of Communication Disorders. 35, 2,
    107-137.
  •  

68
Websites of interest
  • Standards for states http//education.umn.edu/nceo
    /TopicAreas/Standards/StatesStandards.htm
  • VA Guidelines for SLPS http//www.doe.virginia.gov
    /VDOE/Instruction/Sped/sp-lang.html
  • Free handouts http//www.superduperinc.com/handout
    s/handouts_topic.asp?topic36
  • T/TAC online http//www.ttaconline.org/
  • Resources for SLPs http//www.mnsu.edu/comdis/kust
    er2/welcome.html
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