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Transitional words and phrases

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Three types of Transition signals. 1. Sentence Connectors ... Pet owners upset by soaring veterinary costs can now register for Medipet - a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Transitional words and phrases


1
Transitional words and phrases
  • ????

2
  • Contents
  • Common mistakes
  • Transition signals
  • Paragraph coherence
  • Appositives

3
Transition signals
4
Three types of Transition signals
  • 1. Sentence Connectors
  • (transition phrases conjunctive adverbs)
  • 2. Clause connectors
  • (coordinating conjunctions subordinating
    conjunctions)
  • 3. Others

5
1. Sentence Connectors (transition phrases
conjunctive adverbs)
  • Transition phrases
  • Appear in the beginning, middle, or end of a
    sentence.
  • A coma is needed.
  • Example
  • For example, the Baltic Sea (, for example) in
    Northern Europe is only one-fourth as saline as
    the Rea Sea in the Middle East (, for example).

6
Conjunction Adverbs
  • Often used with a semicolon and a comma to join
    two independent clauses.
  • Examples
  • In warm climate zones, water evaporates
    rapidly therefore, its net profit declined.
  • Some English words do not have exact
    equivalents in other languages for example,
    there is no German word for the adjective fair,
    as in fair play.

7
2. Clause Connectors
  • Coordinating conjunctions ???? used with a
    comma to join two independent clauses and to form
    a compound sentence.
  • Examples
  • In a matriarchy, the mother is the head of the
    family, and all of the children belong to her
    clan.
  • In warm climate zones, water evaporates, so
    the concentration of salt is greater.

8
Yet and But
  • Yet and But an opposite idea is coming.
  • Yet preferred when the 2nd clause is an
    unexpected or surprising contrast to the 1st
    clause.
  • But preferred when the 2 clauses are direct
    oppositions.
  • Yet is similar in meaning to nevertheless but is
    similar to however.
  • Examples
  • Thomas Edison dropped out of school at age 12,
    yet he became a famous inventor.
  • I want to study art, but my parents want me to
    become an engineer.

9
Subordinating conjunctions ????
  • Used to introduce a dependent clause, which is
    joined to form a complex sentence.
  • Position use a comma if the DC comes before the
    IC do not use a comma if the DC comes after the
    IC.
  • Examples
  • Although the companys sale increased last
    year, its net profit declined.
  • The companys net profit declined last year
    although its sales increased.

10
3. Others
  • Indicating transition additional (adj.) despite
    (prep.) examples (n.).
  • Examples
  • An additional reason for the firms bankruptcy
    was the lack of competent management.
  • Examples of vocabulary differences between
    British and American English include
    petrol/gasoline, windscreen/windshield, and
    lorry/truck.
  • Despite increased sales, the companys profit
    declined last quarter.

11
Common Transition Signals
12
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15
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16
Paragraph Coherence
  • Coherence how sentences hold together.
  • A coherent paragraph does more than simply lay
    down the facts -- it organizes them, creating a
    logical argument that makes sense from idea to
    idea. Coherent paragraphs have a beginning, a
    middle, and an end. Elements that contribute to
    coherence, such as transitional devices, linking
    pronouns, and repetition of key words.

17
Four ways to achieve coherence
  • 1. Repeating key nouns / key words
  • 2. Using linking pronouns
  • 3. Using transition signals
  • 4. Applying logical order

18
  • Example
  • Limited investment in the housing sector makes it
    practically impossible to allocate sufficient
    resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. A
    high rate of urban population growth has
    increased the country's needs for housing. A
    small group of city officials has laid out a new
    plan to combat the crisis. A solution to the
    housing-shortage problem is a vital policy issue
    here. The housing problem has grown in the last
    twenty years.
  • Limited investment in the housing sector makes it
    practically impossible to allocate sufficient
    resources for urban dwellers' housing needs. In
    fact, the problem has grown in the last twenty
    years. Because a high rate of urban population
    growth has increased the country's needs for
    housing, a solution to the housing-shortage
    problem is a vital policy issue here. A small
    group of city officials has laid out a new plan
    to combat the crisis.

19
Why is this paragraph less coherent?
20
Repetition of key nouns
  • (how many key nouns, pronouns are used?)

21
Use of consistent pronouns Avoid change of
person or change of number. (why is it
inconsistent?)
22
Transition signals Which paragraph is easier to
understand?
23
Appositives ???
24
Constructing appositives
  • Appositives are used principally to expand the
    meaning of nouns by supplying defining or
    identifying details about them.
  • We can construct an appositive from any sentence
    in which a noun phrase follows the to be verb
    (is, are, was, were). Eliminate the subject and
    the verb, insert commas or dashes.
  • Generally, we position an appositive next to the
    noun that it identifies, whether that noun is at
    the beginning or end of a sentence.

25
Examples
  • Farmers try to control the poinsettia whitefly by
    digging up entire fields of infested crops. The
    poinsettia whitefly is a pesticide-resistant
    superbug.
  • (Relative clause)

26
  • In 1904, a Saint Louis doctor introduced peanut
    butter as a health food for the elderly. Peanut
    butter is the favorite food of American children.

27
Appositives can be just as handy for summarizing
or generalizing.
  • Example
  • To avoid bankruptcy, some major national
  • airlines are joining forces with successful
  • regional airlines, a trend that is likely to
  • continue.

28
Short summarizing appositives - appositives of
one or two words - can produce a striking effect,
especially at the end of a sentence.
  • Half an hour later, the second police diver
    returned with the same report - nothing.
  • Incorporated into humanistic programs in our
    schools is one of the most dehumanizing practice
    in education standardized testing.

29
Longer summarizing appositives can fill in
important background information.
  • The sunbelt states of the South and West
    states that remained rural and backward during
    the industrialization of our country have come
    to dominate the U.S. economy during the
    technological revolution.
  • Bloodhounds are friendly and gentle creatures,
    not the vicious beasts their name would lead you
    to expect.

30
When we pack appositives into a series, they
summarize by listing characteristics
  • In Aesops fables, the animals that overcome
    great odds represent qualities we want for
    ourselves power, intelligence, thoughtfulness,
    and honesty.

31
Whether positive or negative, appositive are
normally nouns. Adjectives can be used as
appositives, if we move them from their normal
position in front of the noun they modify.
  • My blind date turned out to be an honest,
    fun-loving, affectionate, and wonderful person.

32
Practice
  • 1. ____ Stark, forbidding, awesome, spectacular
    Death Valley is a hauntingly beautiful place to
    visit.
  • 2. ____Shanghai is different from other Chinese
    cities more European and cosmopolitan.
  • 3. ____ A number of U.S. presidents including
    Lincoln, Roosevelt, and Kennedy have died in
    office.
  • 4. ____ Appositives are generally set off by
    commas, dashes, or colons. The different
    punctuation marks create different effects.

33
Examples
  • Pet owners upset by soaring veterinary costs can
    now register for Medipet, a pre-paid insurance
    plan for dogs and cats.
  • Pet owners upset by soaring veterinary costs can
    now register for Medipet - a pre-paid insurance
    plan for dogs and cats.
  • Pet owners upset by soaring veterinary costs can
    now register for Medipet a pre-paid insurance
    plan for dogs and cats.

34
More examples
  • The popular US president John Kennedy was known
    for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.
  • John Kennedy, the popular US president, was known
    for his eloquent and inspirational speeches.
  • John Kennedy the popular US president was quite
    different from John Kennedy the unfaithful
    husband.

35
  • Web links
  • http//owl.english.purdue.edu/ (????????)
  • http//www.chineseowl.idv.tw/html/c_new.htm
  • (The Chinese online writing lab ??? Ted
    Knoy)
  • http//blog.udn.com/trjason
  • (??? ??????? )
  • http//www.cybertranslator.idv.tw/grammar/grammar.
    htm
  • (??????)
  • http//www.mhhe.com/mayfieldpub/tsw/esl-link.htm
    (Common writing problems)
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