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EastSouth Africa

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Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Eritrea, ... Masai. Tutsi. Cushitic. Amhara. Somali. Bantu. Kikuyu. Hutu. Electricity. Hydropower ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EastSouth Africa


1
East/South Africa
2
East Africa
  • Sudan, Burundi, Rwanda, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania,
    Ethiopia, Eritrea, Somalia, Djibouti
  • Horn of Africa

3
Landforms
  • Great Rift Valley
  • West and East Rift Valley
  • Volcanoes within and near both rifts
  • Kilimanjaro- near equator, but snow capped
  • Nile River
  • Flows N through Sudan to Mediterranean
  • Blue and White Nile
  • ½ of water from White Nile evaproates

4
Animals
  • Giraffes, lions, wildebeests, zebras, others
  • Tsetse fly carry human disease sleeping
    sickness
  • Most animals immune
  • Can spread to livestock
  • Area has few farmers/herders
  • Leave animal populations undisturbed
  • National Parks

5
Resources
  • Not rich in resources
  • Soil not productive
  • Small mineral deposits, some oil discovered
    recently
  • Scenery considered a resource
  • Safaris, tourism

6
Europeans
  • Colonized East Africa
  • Built cities, hospitals, ports, roads, schools
  • Education
  • Railways
  • Independence 1950-60s

7
Culture
  • Several hundred ethnic groups
  • Nilotic
  • Masai
  • Tutsi
  • Cushitic
  • Amhara
  • Somali
  • Bantu
  • Kikuyu
  • Hutu

8
Industry
  • Electricity
  • Hydropower
  • Most E African countries produce 90 of their
    electricity through hydropower
  • Uganda- 99

9
Issues
  • Overpopulation
  • Poverty
  • Malnutrition
  • Ethnic Conflicts
  • Genocide
  • Rwanda 1994
  • Hutu and Tutsi
  • 200,000 people died by machete
  • Western world did nothing

10
Somalia
  • Ethnic Somali and Muslim
  • No central government since 1990
  • Clans fight for power
  • Violence
  • Pirate Attacks off Horn of Africa

11
South Africa
  • Angola, Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South
    Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Lesotho,
    Swaziland
  • 4 island groups Madagascar, Comoros, Mauritius,
    Seychelles
  • Wildlife conservation vs. need for land and
    resources

12
Physical
  • Coastal plain and plateau
  • In between is escarpment steep face at edge of
    plateau or other raised area
  • Orange river
  • Zambezi river
  • Victoria Falls
  • Biodiversity- many different plant an animal
    species
  • Namib desert worlds highest sand dunes
  • Kalahari desert plant and animal life
  • Veld grassy, high plains

13
Resources
  • Energy and mineral
  • Petroleum
  • Coal
  • Gold
  • Platinum
  • Diamonds
  • Copper

14
History
  • Hunter/gatherer
  • Bantu
  • Kingdoms
  • Portuguese explored S. African coast
  • Set up small bases for trade

15
Colonial Era
  • Colonial Era
  • Dutch set up small settlement at Cape of Good
    Hope
  • French and German joined Dutch farmers
  • Settlers known as Boers
  • Called themselves Afrikaners
  • Developed new language called Afrikaans
  • Combined Dutch with African words
  • Late 1800s GB took over the Cape area
  • Afrikaners moved inland
  • Diamonds and gold discovered

16
Independence
  • Late 1900s
  • White minority rule
  • Afrikaners continued to control South Africa
  • Apartheid
  • Black South Africans denied political rights
  • Means separateness
  • Similar to separate but equal in U.S.
  • Mixed race called Coloureds and Asians had
    higher status that black South Africans

17
Ending Apartheid
  • Made South Africa an outcast in world community
  • Economic sanctions- penalties intended to force a
    country to change its policies
  • African National Congress (ANC)
  • 1990 South African government released Nelson
    Mandela (leader of ANC) from prison
  • Imprisoned from 1962-1990
  • Nobel Peace Prize in 1993
  • 1994 1st elections open to all citizens
  • Nelson Mandela elected- nations 1st black
    president

18
Challenges
  • Poverty- most serious problem
  • Malnutrition
  • Unemployment
  • High birthrate
  • Housing shortage
  • Urban pollution
  • Drought
  • Flooding
  • Deforestation
  • Soil Erosion

19
HIV/AIDS
  • Over ¼ of population of some countries
  • Boswana 36 of people ages 15-49
  • Average life expectancy falling
  • Education in hope of slowing spread
  • Western drug companies aid
  • P.546- read and answer questions
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