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Rome: Importance

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Rome: Importance 'successor' to Greece 'carrier' of Greek civilization ... Nero. Changes. reduction of political competition. end to expansion. reduction in the army ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Rome: Importance


1
Rome Importance
  • successor to Greece
  • carrier of Greek civilization
  • political model for later Europe
  • measure of success for nations and individuals

2
Importance, cont
  • model for later monarchies
  • model for later, mixed constitutions
  • Great Britain, U.S., etc.
  • model for most European legal systems
  • model for the concept of citizenship

3
Roman History
  • The Regal Age ca. 779-509 B.C.
  • The Republic 509-27 B.C.
  • The Empire 27 B.C.-1453 A.D.
  • Early Empire 27 B.C.-325 A.D.
  • Later Empire 325 A.D.-1453 A.D.

4
Location
  • Italy
  • Tiber River
  • between Etruscan and Greek cities
  • part of the Latin League

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Early history
  • Indo-European
  • entered Italy ca. 2000 B.C.
  • settled south of the Tiber
  • primitive institutions

8
The Kings
  • Seven kings
  • Romulus
  • historical kings?
  • the Etruscan kings
  • the last three

9
The Republic
  • revolution
  • patricians (2-4) and plebeians (96-98)
  • constitutional government
  • influenced by Athens?
  • the constitution of Cleisthenes?

10
Offices
  • 2 consuls
  • 2 praetors
  • aediles
  • quaestors
  • dictator

11
Important institutions
  • the assemblies
  • the elective offices
  • patron-client relationships
  • The Twelve Tables

12
Struggle of the Orders
  • struggle for political participation
  • plebeian institutions the tribunes
  • the secessions
  • the compromises
  • no political violence until 133 B.C.

13
Roman Expansion
  • conquest of Veii Romes Trojan War
  • gradual expansion for a century
  • the Latin League
  • extension of citizenship
  • Romans, half-citizens, Latins, allies
  • continuous expansion
  • Celts, Samnites, etc.

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Expansion, cont
  • Etruscans
  • Greeks
  • Carthage ???
  • three Punic Wars
  • 254, 220, 146 B.C.
  • control of Western Mediterranean

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Expansion, cont
  • the Hellenistic Monarchies
  • the Greek Federal Leagues
  • lots of wars, Romans are dragged in...a lot
  • Romans get tired of it
  • control of most of the Med. basin by 100 B.C.
  • but still essentially a city-state

20
Roman Religion
  • rustic Italian cults
  • overlay of Greek religion
  • Etruscan influences
  • Romans as pack rats

21
Roman art
  • best we dont even talk about that

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Roman architecture
  • great skill
  • engineers and architects
  • roads, cities
  • concrete

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Roman Literature
  • copied from Greek models
  • interests in rhetoric, law, and satire
  • Stoic and Epicurean philosophy

37
The Late Republic 133-27 B.C.
  • introduction of violence into domestic politics
  • competition for status and recognition
  • civil war

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Important Figures
  • Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
  • Marius and Sulla
  • Pompey the Great, Marcus Crassus, Julius Caesar
  • First Triumvirate
  • Marc Antony, Marcus Lepidus, Octavian Caesar
  • Second Triumvirate

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Gaius Marius
42
Gaius Julius Caesar
43
Pompey the Great
44
Cicero
45
Octavian Augustus
46
Octavian as pontifex maximus
47
Marc Antony
48
The Empire
  • unification of the Mediterranean basin and
    western Europe
  • extended citizenship
  • empire-wide commerce
  • Roman law
  • tolerance for local autonomy

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The Julio-Claudians
  • Augustus
  • Tiberius
  • Caligula
  • Claudius
  • Nero

53
Changes
  • reduction of political competition
  • end to expansion
  • reduction in the army
  • further extension of citizenship

54
The Flavians
  • Year of the Four Emperors (69 A.D.)
  • Vespasian
  • Titus
  • Domitian

55
The Antonines the Good Emperors
  • Edward Gibbon
  • the height of the Empire
  • the culmination of the pax Romana
  • succession by adoption of the most competent

56
The Good Emperors
  • Nerva
  • Trajan
  • strong military leader
  • Hadrian
  • excellent administrator
  • Hellenophile
  • Antoninus Pius
  • Marcus Aurelius
  • the embodiment of the philosopher king

57
The Rise of Christianity
  • Jesus of Nazareth
  • teacher, prophet, revolutionary
  • the Jesus Movement
  • Paul of Tarsus
  • cultural mixture Jewish and Greek
  • founder of Christianity

58
Rise of Christianity, cont
  • disappearance of Jewish followers 70 A.D.
  • growth of the Pauline church
  • the poor, women, children, slaves
  • no success among men, the educated, etc.
  • benefits of Roman infrastructure and the pax
    Romana

59
Roman suspicion
  • the First Jewish War
  • eastern religion
  • corrupted the mos maiorum
  • that is, traditional family values
  • rumors of orgies and cannibalism
  • Second Jewish War
  • Trajans Rescript

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The Crisis of the Third Century
  • End of the practice of adoption
  • The Severian Emperors
  • the army as a social class
  • abandonment of the Augustan constitution
  • collapse of the senate and other organs of state
  • collapse of the civil adminstration

62
Crisis, cont
  • collapse of society
  • breakdown of social classes
  • collapse of the economy
  • collapse of trade and coinage
  • barbarian invasions
  • civil wars
  • Thirty emperors
  • The Danubian emperors (soldiers)

63
Crisis, cont
  • Aurelian - restituor orbis
  • Decius - persecutions of those who corrupt
    traditional family values
  • Diocletian

64
Diocletian and Reform
  • The Tetrarchy
  • The Annona
  • The Edict of Maximum Prices
  • The new provinces
  • The eastern frontiers
  • The new capitals
  • The persecutions
  • Edict of Toleration, 311

65
Constantine
  • The divided empire, united
  • The Battle of the Milvian Bridge
  • The conversion of Constantine
  • The Edict of Milan - 314
  • The First Ecumenical Council
  • The New Capital
  • Constantinople

66
Books for you to read
  • H.H. Scullard and M. Cary. A History of Rome to
    325
  • J.B. Bury. The Later Roman Empire
  • A.H.M. Jones. The Later Empire
  • J.J. Norwich. A Short History of Byzantium
  • E. Gruen. The Last Generation of the Roman
    Republic
  • Michael Crawford. The Roman Republic
  • Colin Wells. The Roman Empire
  • Averil Cameron. The Later Roman Empire

67
More Books
  • M. Gelzer. Caesar
  • C. Meier. Caesar
  • A. Everitt. Augustus
  • E. Gruen. Diaspora Jews among the Greeks and
    Romans
  • W.G. Kummel. Introduction to the New Testament
  • Keith F. Nickle. The Synoptic Gospels

68
And more books….
  • Joel Carmichael. The Birth of Christianity
  • A. Schweitzer. The Quest for the Historical
    Jesus
  • W. Barnes Tatum. The Quest for Jesus
  • M. Grant. Jesus An Historians Review of the
    Gospels
  • M. Grant. The Jews in the Roman World
  • M. Grant. St. Paul
  • E.P. Sanders. The Historical Figure of Jesus
  • Paula Fredrickson. Jesus of Nazareth King of the
    Jews

69
More….
  • Bart Ehrman. Jesus Apocalyptic Prophet of the
    New Millenium
  • Geza Vermes. Jesus the Jew
  • L. Michael White. From Jesus to Christianity
  • S.G.F. Brandon. The Trial of Jesus of Nazareth
  • Hyam Maccoby. Mythmaker Paul and the Invention
    of Christianity
  • Morton Smith. Jesus the Magician

70
And yet more…
  • www.etsu.edu/cas/history/religionsbib.htm
  • R. Helms. Gospel Fictions
  • R. Helms. Who Wrote the Gospels
  • H.Y. Gamble. The Canon of the New Testament
  • D.A. Carson. The King James Debate A plea for
    realism
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