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Computer Concepts A Brief Introduction

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Title: Computer Concepts A Brief Introduction


1
Computer Concepts A Brief Introduction
  • CAS 133 Basic Computer Skills/MS Office XP
  • Russ Erdman - Instructor

2
Computer Concepts
Oh drat these computers! Theyre so naughty and
so complex, I could pinch them!
3
Computer Concepts
  • Where can you find computers?
  • Computers are everywhere

4
Computer Concepts
  • What is computer literacy?
  • Knowledge and understanding of computers and
    their uses.

5
Computer Concepts
  • WHAT IS A COMPUTER?
  • A device that follows instructions, processes
    data arithmetically and logically, produces
    output, and stores the results for future use.
  • Accepts data (input)
  • Manipulates data
  • Produces results (output)
  • Stores results

6
Computer Concepts
  • What are data and information?

7
Computer Concepts
  • What are hardware and software?

8
Hardware, Software and the Computer
Computer Concepts
  • Without SOFTWARE the computer HARDWARE is just a
    giant PAPER WEIGHT!

9
Computer Concepts
  • What are common computer hardware components?

10
Computer Concepts
  • What is an input device?
  • Hardware used to enter data and instructions.

11
Computer Concepts
  • What is an output device?
  • Hardware that conveys information to a user.

12
Computer Concepts
  • What is the system unit?
  • Box-like device containing electronic components
    connected to motherboard


13
Computer Concepts
What are common components inside the system unit?
14
Computer Concepts
  • What is the motherboard?
  • Main circuit board in system unit
  • Contains chips, integrated circuits, and
    transistors
  • Also called the system board

15
Computer Concepts
  • What are two main components on the motherboard?

16
Central Processing Unit
Computer Concepts
  • What is a microprocessor?
  • Single processor chip found in personal computers

17
Computer Concepts
Memory
  • What are two types of system unit memory?

RAM
ROM
p. 4.16
18
Memory
Computer Concepts
  • What is random access memory (RAM)?
  • Memory chips that can be read from and written to
    by processor
  • Most RAM is volatile
  • The more RAM a computer has, the faster it
    operates

p. 4.16
19
Computer Concepts
  • What is storage?
  • Holds data, instructions, and information for
    future use.

Click to view Web Link then click Storage Devic
es
p. 1.7
20
Computer Concepts
  • What are common storage devices or drives?

p. 1.7 Fig. 1-3
21
Computer Concepts
  • What is a floppy disk?
  • Thin, circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid
    plastic
  • A Zip disk is a higher capacity disk

22
Computer Concepts
  • What is a hard disk?
  • High-capacity storage
  • Consists of several inflexible, circular platters
    that store items electronically
  • Components enclosed in airtight, sealed case for
    protection

p. 7. 10 Fig. 7-12
23
Hard Disks
Computer Concepts
  • How does a hard disk work?

p. 7.11 Fig. 7-13
24
Compact Discs
Computer Concepts
  • What is a compact disc (CD)?

CD-ROM
  • Storage medium
  • Most PCs include some type of compact disc drive
  • Available in variety of formats

CD-RW
CD-R
DVDRW
DVD-ROM
p. 7. 17
25
Compact Discs
Computer Concepts
  • A CD-ROMs layout.

26
Computer Software
Computer Concepts
  • What is a computer program?
  • A series of instructions that tells the computer
    what to do

p. 1.10
27
Advantages of a computer
Computer Concepts
  • Speed
  • Reliability
  • Accuracy
  • Storage
  • Communications

28
Advantages of a computer
Computer Concepts
  • Speed
  • Operates at close to the speed of light 186,000
    miles/second!
  • Consider word processing (typing) over writing by
    hand.
  • Reliability
  • Hardware seldom fails
  • When the bank says the computers are down it may
    not be true.

29
Advantages of a computer
Computer Concepts
  • Accuracy
  • Software GIGO (Garbage In Garbage Out)
  • Humans make 1 error every 300 characters typed,
    computers make 1 error every 3,000,000 characters
    processed.
  • Storage
  • Concept of bits (1s 0s), bytes (8 bits),
    kilobytes (1024 bytes), megabytes (1024 KB),
    gigabytes (1024 MB), terabytes (1024 GB).
  • All the works of Shakespeare can fit on one CD…
    with much room to spare!

30
Data Representation
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • Five basic types of data are represented in the
    computer.
  • Numeric
  • Character
  • Visual
  • Audio
  • Instructional

31
Data Representation
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • How do computers represent data?
  • Most computers are digital
  • Recognize only two discrete states on or off

p. 4.13
32
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • A digital computers circuits are binary.
  • The circuits can exist in either one of two
    electrical states, normally represented by 0 and
    1, that is, OFF or ON.
  • Each 1 or 0 is called a binary digit or bit and
    are the basis for measurement of storage.
  • Each character (letter, number, etc.) equals one
    byte.
  • These bytes can add up, especially when
    representing images (graphics).

33
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • Consider the math 1 byte 1 character, 5
    characters per word, 400 words per page, 200
    pages per book.
  • Floppy Disk 1,440,000 bytes 3.6 books
  • Zip Disk 100,000,000 bytes 250 books
  • CD 700,000,000 bytes 1,750 books
  • DVD 4,200,000,000 bytes 10,500 books
  • Hard Drive (small in lab) 6,000,000,000 bytes
    15,000 books
  • Hard Drive (newer) 100,000,000,000 bytes
    250,000 books

34
Representing Symbols and Text
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • Each letter and symbol in a text document must be
    translated into a binary number for storage in
    the computer.
  • Symbols and Text
  • Includes characters, punctuation, symbols
    representing numbers.
  • Each symbol can be assigned a numeric value
  • Two standardized sets of codes for symbols
  • ASCII (American Standard Code for Information
    Interchange)
  • EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange
    Code)
  • Developed by IBM for use on their mainframe
    computers.

35
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • The ASCII code, or simply ASCII, is used by
    virtually all other computers in the United
    States and Europe as well. All personal computers
    use the ASCII code.

A partial listing of the ASCII character set
  • 0 - 0110000
  • 1 - 0110001
  • 2 - 0110010
  • 3 - 0110011
  • 4 - 0110100
  • 5 - 0110101
  • 6 - 0110110
  • 7 - 0110111
  • 8 - 0111000
  • 9 - 0111001
  • - 0111010
  • A - 1000001
  • B - 1000010
  • C - 1000011
  • D - 1000100
  • E - 1000101
  • F - 1000110
  • G - 1000111
  • H - 1001000
  • I - 1001001
  • J - 1001010
  • K - 1001011
  • a - 1100001
  • b - 1100010
  • c - 1100011
  • d - 1100100
  • e - 1100101
  • f - 1100110
  • g - 1100111
  • h - 1101000
  • i - 1101001
  • j - 1101010
  • k - 1101011
  • Ctrl_at_(NULL) - 0000000
  • CtrlA - 0000001
  • CtrlB - 0000010
  • CtrlC - 0000011
  • CtrlD - 0000100
  • CtrlE - 0000101
  • CtrlF - 0000110
  • CtrlG(Bell) - 0000111
  • Space - 0100000
  • Delete - 1111111

36
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • A new coding system has recently been developed
    called UNICODE.
  • Unicode provides a unique number for every
    character, no matter what the platform, no matter
    what the program, no matter what the language.
  • Why UNICODE?
  • No single encoding could contain enough
    characters for example, the European Union alone
    requires several different encodings to cover all
    its languages and what about Asian languages with
    all there characters.
  • Even for a single language like English no single
    encoding was adequate for all the letters,
    punctuation, and technical symbols in common use.

37
Computer Concepts
Storage
Representation of Images
  • Digitized picture of a tiger.

38
Computer Concepts
Storage
Representation of Images
  • Black and white pixels are either 0 or 1.

0001000000000000000000000000000000000000010101
0100000000000000100000000000000000000000000101
0110000000000000100000000000000000000000000011
1010101000000000010000000000000000000000000011
1001000000000000101100000000000000000000000101
0100010000000000011110000000000000000000000111
0100100100000000011111010101011100000000000011
0001000000000000111101110111111101000000001011
0000101001000001101111101111110110000000001111
0000010100000000111110111101011101000000000111
0000010100100011101010101011010000000000010111
0000001010100000011101010101101010100000011111
0000010110000001010100100000000000000000001110
0000000000011001010100000000000000000000001111
0000000000010110010100000000000000000000101111
0010010101010100100101010000000000000001011111
1000001111110100101101110101011000000010110111
1001001111010111111111110101101101011111111111
0110010111110111111111111111111101111110111111
1010101101111111111111111111111111111111111111
1010000111011111111111111111111111111111111111
0101010011111111111111111111111111111111111111
0110000101011111111111111111101111110011110101
0101111011111111111111111111111011010101110101
1010101011111111111111111010110111101111011111
0000001011111111111101011101101001111110101010
0000001011111111111101111111110010111101101010
0000000111111010111110111011101001111110101010
0000000111111111111111010111111101111110111011
0000101111101101010110000101111111111111101011
39
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • Gray-Scale
  • Each pixel contains a value representing some
    shade of gray.
  • The more shades of gray possible, the more memory
    will be needed.
  • 4 shades of gray needs 2 bits per pixel
  • 00, 01, 10, 11
  • 8 shades of gray needs 3 bits per pixel
  • 000, 001, 010, 011, 100, 101, 110, 111
  • 64 shades of gray needs 6 bits per pixel
  • 000000, 000001, … 111110, 111111

40
Computer Concepts
Storage
Representation of Images
  • Representing colors in pictures takes even more
    bits than gray-scale.
  • The more colors the more bits and thus more

Memory is required
Processing power is required
A better graphics card is required
41
Computer Concepts
Storage
  • Fact All types of information are stored in
    binary form.
  • Problem The computer has no way of discerning
    between types unless a file is marked in some
    manner for identification by the operating system.
  • Files are marked as to type with unique icons and
    have an extension that indicates file type.
    (e.g., .doc, .txt, .html, .xls, .ppt, .wav, .jpg
    and so forth)

42
Computer Concepts
Storage
Windows files showing their icons and extensions
43
Advantages of a computer
Computer Concepts
  • Communications
  • Allows us to easily share data
  • Networks
  • Email
  • The Internet
  • The World Wide Web
  • Modern Wireless Devices
  • Cell phones
  • WiFi and Bluetooth

44
Types of Computer Software
Computer Concepts
  • What is system software?
  • Programs that control the operations of the
    computer and its devices

p. 1.12
45
Types of Computer Software
Computer Concepts
  • The operating system (OS) on the computers in the
    lab is Windows 2000 Professional.
  • Some other OS names are
  • DOS (Disk Operating System)
  • Windows 98, Me, XP
  • Windows 2000 Active Server
  • Unix
  • Linux
  • Macintosh OS X and others

46
Types of Computer Software
Computer Concepts
  • What is application software?
  • Programs that perform specific tasks for users

47
Types of Computer Software
Computer Concepts
  • There must be some type of (OS) system software
    for application software to run on.
  • The application software must be compatible with
    the OS software.
  • The application software we will work with
    includes
  • Word (Word processing)
  • Excel (Spreadsheets)
  • Access (Databases)
  • Internet Explorer (Web Browser)
  • M.S. Paint (Graphics)
  • Other

48
User Interface
Computer Concepts
  • What is the user interface?
  • Controls how you enter data and commands and how
    information displays
  • Types of user interfaces include command line and
    graphical.

p. 1.12
49
User Interface
Computer Concepts
  • What is a graphical user interface (GUI)?
  • Uses visual images such as icons
  • Icons represent programs, instructions, or some
    other objects

p. 1.12
p. 1.12 Fig. 1-13
50
The PC (Microcomputer) vs. Minis, Mainframes,
Supercomputers
Computer Concepts
Fast Expensive Complex Large
  • Computers are compared as to their
  • Speed
  • Cost
  • Size
  • Complexity

Super Computers
Mainframe Computers
Minicomputers
Microcomputers
Slow Cheap Simple Small
p. 1.12
51
The PC (Microcomputer) vs. Minis, Mainframes,
Supercomputers
Computer Concepts
  • Microcomputers
  • Are single-user systems (PCs) only one
    processor.
  • Minicomputer
  • Most often used by several people (10 to hundreds
    of users). Usually faster than a microcomputer
    but the difference is rapidly fading.
  • May have more than one processor.
  • Mainframe
  • A powerful multi-user computer capable of
    supporting many hundreds or thousands of users
    simultaneously.
  • Has many processors
  • Supercomputer
  • An extremely fast computer that can perform
    hundreds of millions of instructions per second.
  • May have hundreds of processors

p. 1.12
52
Computer Concepts
Computers have shrunk in size while getting more
powerful
p. 1.12
53
Computer Concepts
Constructed out of electromagnetic relays,
rotating shafts, and clutches.
Described as sounding like a roomful of ladies
knitting. Contained more than 750,000 componen
ts, 50 feet long, 8 feet tall and weighed 5 tons.
Harvard Mark I (IBM ASCC)
ENIAC took 200,000 man-hours to build
Weighed 30 tons Used 18,000 vacuum tubes (one
went out every 12 minutes) 1,000 times faster
than the Harvard Mark I
p. 1.12
ENIAC
54
Why do we say a computer has a bug?
Computer Concepts
  • We owe that concept to Grace Hopper
  • A Naval officer, she was the third programmer on
    the Mark I
  • Considered the Mother of COBOL (Common Business
    Oriented Language)
  • Found first computer bug - a moth stuck in the
    computers electromagnetic relays and fouling it
    up.

p. 1.12
55
Computer Concepts
  • The invention of the transistor and integrated
    circuits led to
  • Smaller computers
  • Many more diverse capabilities and uses for
    computers
  • Todays Intel Pentium 4 chip has 25 layers and 55
    million transistors in a chip about 3/8th of an
    inch square

p. 1.12
56
Computer Concepts
Thats all folks!
p. 1.12
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