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Landmines and Cluster Bombs: An Enduring Problem

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Title: Landmines and Cluster Bombs: An Enduring Problem


1
Landmines and Cluster BombsAn Enduring Problem
2
Brief History of Landmines
  • 14th century Chinese text, the Huolongjing,
    describes a mine made of bamboo, black powder,
    and lead pellets. It was placed underground.
  • Detonated by a flint device that directed sparks
    onto a series of fuses

3
Brief History of Landmines
  • In 1500s, fougasse mines were developed.
  • Buried explosives, covered with rocks or metal
  • Detonated by tripwires or by long fuses
  • High maintenance, and due to susceptibility of
    black powder to dampness.

4
Brief History of Landmines
  • First modern, mechanically detonated
    anti-personnel mines created by Confederate
    troops under Brigadier General Gabriel Raines
  • Raines had begun working with explosive booby
    traps in the Seminole Wars in Florida in 1849
  • Used more reliable and reproducible mechanical
    detonation devices

5
Brief History of Landmines
  • Improved mines were designed in Imperial Germany
    around 1912
  • Designs were copied and manufactured by all major
    participants in the First World War

6
Brief History of Landmines
  • Antipersonnel mines were first used on a large
    scale in WWII
  • Initially used to protect antitank mines, to stop
    them from being removed by enemy soldiers
  • Later antipersonnel mines used to slow or halt
    enemy movement, by being placed in great numbers

7
Design
  • Triggered by a variety of means (pressure,
    vibration, movement, magnetism)
  • Many have an additional touch or tilt trigger, to
    prevent enemy engineers from defusing it.

8
Design
  • Use as little metal as possible, to make location
    by metal detectors more difficult.
  • Mines made mostly from plastic are also very
    cheap to produce

9
Design
  • Wide variety of designs
  • Makes detection and disarming very difficult

10
Design
  • Claymores

11
Design
  • Claymores
  • Stake mines

12
Design
  • Claymores
  • Stake mines
  • Bounding fragmentation mines

13
Design
  • Often deliberately designed to maim, rather than
    kill
  • Stabilizing and evacuating an injured soldier
    hampers an actively fighting force
  • More resources are taking up by caring for an
    injured solder than dealing with a dead soldier
  • Cheap and easy to make, around 1 each
  • (can cost more than 1000 to find and destroy)

14
Marking minefields
  • Ideally, minefields laid by armies should be well
    marked, to prevent friendly troops from entering
  • All mines locations should be recorded, since
    warning signs can be removed or destroyed, and so
    safe routes through the mine fields can be
    followed by friendly soldiers

15
Unreliable marking
  • In the fog of war protocols are not always
    accurately followed
  • New landmines designed to be scattered by
    helicopter, plane, by artillery, or ejected from
    cruise missiles, make precise recording
    impossible
  • (US air deployed mines have a self-deactivating
    design, but reliability is uncertain)

16
Deliberately unmarked fields
  • Non-state armies (rebel groups, guerilla
    fighters) do not reliably uphold these
    conventions
  • Often, their goal is to spread fear and panic in
    the community, and deliberately terrorize
    civilians. So mined areas are deliberately not
    marked
  • Such tactics were regularly employed in the
    Southern African conflicts throughout the 70s
    and 80s
  • Angola, Mozambique, Nambia, South Africa,
    Zimbabwe, are still plagued with landmines as a
    result.

17
Landmines are indiscriminate
  • The vast majority of victims are civilians, not
    soldiers.
  • According to the Landmine Monitor Report 2003,
    only 15 of reported casualties were military
    personnel

18
Mines remain after conflict ends
  • Most of the countries where casualties are
    reported are at peace
  • In 2002-2003, 41 of the 65 countries that
    reported new mine casualties were not
    experiencing any armed conflict
  • Landmines placed during WWI sometimes still cause
    deaths in parts of Europe and North Africa

19
Long term costs to survivors
  • Permanent disability is almost certain
  • A growing child needs a prosthetic limb
    frequently refitted each year, and few can afford
    this
  • Many face social exclusion, such as being seen as
    unfit to marry
  • Some children never return to school after their
    accident

20
Long term costs to survivors
  • A death might cost a family their primary
    breadwinner
  • For survivors, vocational training and support is
    often unavailable
  • Many struggle to make a living after their
    accident, and become a burden on their families
  • Victims often end up begging on the streets

21
Mines hamper recovery after conflict ends
  • People in some of the poorest countries are
    deprived of their productive land and
    infrastructure
  • Farm lands, orchards, irrigation canals, and
    wells may no longer be accessible
  • Mines cut off access to economically important
    areas, such as roads, dams, and electricity
    towers

22
Mines hamper recovery after conflict ends
  • Landmines slow repatriation of refugees after a
    conflict ceases, or prevent it altogether
  • They hamper the delivery of relief services, and
    injure or kill aid workers

23
Widespread problem
  • More than 75 countries are affected by
    undetonated mines
  • Some of the most contaminated places
  • Afghanistan, Angola, Burundi, Bosnia
    Herzegovina, Cambodia, Chechnya, Colombia, Iraq,
    Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, India, and Pakistan

24
Widespread problem
  • Nobody knows how many mines are still in the
    ground worldwide
  • The actual number is less important than their
    impact
  • It can only take a few mines, or just the
    suspicion of their presence, to make an area
    unusable

25
Treaties
  • Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons
  • AKA Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions
    on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which
    May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to
    Have Indiscriminate Effects
  • AKA The CCW
  • Was an amendment to the Geneva Conventions of
    1949
  • Concluded in Geneva on October 1980, went in to
    force in December 1983
  • Amended again in 1996

26
CCW
  • Consisted of 5 protocols
  • Protocol II concerns Prohibitions or
    Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps,
    and Other Devices
  • Prohibits the use of non-self-destructing or
    non-self-deactivating mines outside fenced,
    monitored, and marked areas

27
CCW
  • Unfortunately, CCW lacked specific mechanisms to
    ensure verification and enforcement of
    compliance, and had no formal process for
    resolving disputes about compliance.
  • The US only signed 2 of the 5 protocols, the
    minimum required to be considered a signatory

28
Continue Toll
  • NGOs continued to see toll mines took in the
    various communities they had been working in, in
    Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America
  • They knew only a complete ban would adequately
    address the problem

29
The ICBL
  • The International Campaign to Ban Land Mines
    (ICBL) was launched in 1992
  • Formed from 6 NGOs (Handicap International, Human
    Rights Watch, Medico International, Mines
    Advisory Group, Physicians for Human Rights, and
    Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation)
  • Lobbied governments and rallied public support
    for a complete ban

30
Celebrity Support
  • The late Princess Diana focused attention on the
    problem of landmines, and the need for a ban
  • Visited Angola and Bosnia with mine clearing
    organizations, and focused the media spotlight on
    the victims
  • Her work brought increased public support and
    pressure on governments to sign the treaty

31
The Mine Ban Treaty
  • The Convention on the Prohibition of the Use,
    Stockpiling, Production, and Transfer of
    Anti-Personnel Mines and Their Destruction
  • AKA The Mine Ban Treaty
  • Signed by 122 governments in Ottawa, Canada in
    December 1997

32
The Requirements
  • Signatories must stop production and deployment
    of anti-personnel mines
  • They must destroy all anti-personnel mines in its
    possession within 4 years
  • (A small number of mines may remain for purposes
    of training mine detection and clearance)
  • Within 10 years, the country should have cleared
    all of its mined areas
  • Mine affected countries are eligible for
    international assistance for mine clearance and
    victim assistance once they sign the Mine Ban
    Treaty

33
Signatories to the Treaty
  • As of August 2007, 155 State Parties had signed
  • Only 40 states remain outside the treaty
  • Notable exclusions
  • China, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Libya, Pakistan,
    Russia, Syria, and United States

34
US Refusal to Sign
  • The US refuses to sign the treaty because it does
    not offer a Korean exception
  • Argues landmines are crucial to its strategy in
    South Korea
  • One million mines along the DMZ between North and
    South Korea
  • Believes it maintains a delicate peace by
    deterring a North Korean attack

35
US Contribution to the Problem
  • U.S. used antipersonnel mines in Vietnam, Korea,
    and first Gulf War
  • From 1969-1992, U.S. exported over 5 million
    antipersonnel mines to over 30 countries
  • Those include Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia,
    Iraq, Laos, Lebanon, Mozambique, Nicaragua,
    Rwanda, Somalia, and Vietnam
  • U.S. made mines have been found in at least 28 of
    these mine affected countries or regions

36
Worldwide Recognition
  • The coordinator of the International Campaign to
    Ban Landmines, Jody Williams, won the 1997 Nobel
    Peace Prize for her work

37
Current Status
  • Landmines continue to pose a threat to citizens
  • The most landmine affected countries are
    Afghanistan, Angola, and Cambodia
  • The middle east has been called the landmine
    heartland, with tens of millions of buried
    landmines

38
Current Status
  • Every 28 minutes, someone steps on a landmine
  • Landmines are estimated to kill or injure
    approximately 18,000 people every year

39
Continued Mine Use
  • Only 2 states continue to deploy new mines
  • Myanmars military forces continue to use
    antipersonnel mines extensively
  • Russia continues to use mines, primarily in
    Chechnya, but also in Dagestan and on the borders
    of Tajikistan and Georgia

40
Continued Mine Use
  • Israel may have laid antipersonnel mines in the
    2006 conflict with South Lebanon
  • Russian peacekeepers claim Georgian military
    forces laid new landmines, despite its moratorium
    on landmine use

41
Cessation of Use
  • Nepal, with its cease-fire in 2006
  • Angola, since the April 2002 peace agreement
  • Sri Lanka, since the cease-fire in 2001
  • Rebel use has stopped in Angola, Sri Lanka,
    Macedonia, Senegal, and Uganda

42
The Bad News
  • 13 countries still produce or retain the right to
    produce antipersonnel mines
  • Forty countries outside the Mine Ban Treaty
    together possess 160 million antipersonnel mines

43
New Production
  • The ICBL identified the following countries as
    manufacturing landmines as of August 2004
  • Singapore
  • Vietnam
  • Burma
  • Nepal
  • India
  • Pakistan
  • Russia
  • Cuba
  • Iran
  • North Korea
  • United States

44
US Production
  • US has failed to adopt sign the Mine Ban Treaty,
    or adopt an official moratorium
  • Since US stockpiles are at capacity, there had
    not been any US based production of antipersonnel
    mines since 1997

45
Bush Administration Policy
  • February 2004, President Bush announced his
    landmine policy
  • No intention of joining the Mine Ban Treaty
  • Continued development and production of
    antipersonnel mines
  • (although self-destructing/deactivating)

46
Companies Producing Mines
  • In the US, no company produces mines from
    beginning to end
  • Companies only produce component parts, which are
    assembled in government-owned, contractor
    operated army ammunition plants

47
Companies Producing Mines
  • Seventeen US companies, formerly involved in
    producing antipersonnel mines, declined to
    renounce future production
  • AAI Corp
  • Allen-Bradley
  • Alliant Techsystems, Inc.
  • Accudyne Corp
  • Ferrulmatic, Inc.
  • CAPCO, Inc.
  • Dale Electronics, Inc.
  • Ensign-Bickford Industries, Inc.
  • General Electric
  • Lockheed Martin Corp.
  • Mohawk Electrical Systems, Inc.
  • Nomura Enterprise, Inc.
  • Parlex Corp.
  • Quantic Industries, Inc.
  • Raytheon
  • Thiokol Corp.
  • Vishay Sprague

48
New US Production
  • In July 2006, Pentagon announced it had awarded
    contracts to two companies or the development of
    a new landmine system
  • (Alliant Techsystems, and Textron Systems)
  • Called the Spider
  • Deploys triplines, that can be activated remotely
    by a monitoring soldier
  • May also be activated by the victim (as in a
    conventional mine)

49
New US Production
  • Congress stalled the production by requiring the
    Pentagon to first study the possible
    indiscriminate consequences of deploying this
    weapon.
  • The issue is only delayed until the study is
    submitted to Congress

50
Removing Mines
  • Even after production is halted, mines must be
    removed from the ground

51
Removing Mines
  • Mechanical Devices
  • Mine flails may only be 80 effective (good
    enough for military use)

52
Removing Mines
  • For Humanitarian De-mining, UN sets a standard
    of 99.6 removal
  • Communities must feel safe returning to their
    lives
  • Most mines must be detected and
    removed/deactivated by hand

53
Removing Mines
  • Humanitarian De-miners first try to restore
    access to productive land and vital
    infrastructure
  • For example clearing a path to a water source,
    or a village school

54
Removing Mines
  • De-mining by hand is time consuming, labor
    intensive, and dangerous
  • Mines are rarely placed in flat, open fields
  • Terrain is often rocky and steep

55
Removing Mines
  • Proper protective equipment is expensive

56
Removing Mines
  • Some countries can not afford such protective
    equipment

57
Possible New Methods
  • Gambian Giant Pouched Rat
  • Can be trained with food rewards to find certain
    odors
  • Too small to set off the mines

58
Possible New Methods
  • Honey bees
  • May be trained to detect chemical odors from mines

59
Possible New Methods
  • The mustard Arabidopsis thaliana normally turns
    red under harsh conditions
  • Scientists have bred a strain that turns red in
    response to the nitrous oxide that leaks from
    landmines and other explosives

60
Possible New Methods
  • A bacterium has been genetically engineered that
    will fluoresce under UV light in the presence of
    TNT
  • Could be sprayed over an entire field to detect
    mines

61
Some Good News
  • Since the Mine Ban Treaty
  • World-wide production has fallen considerably
  • Trade has almost come to a halt

62
Some Good News
  • In 2006, over 450 square km of mined land was
    cleared and put back into productive use

63
Some Good News
  • Mine risk education reached 7.3 million people,
    to protect them from the danger of mines

64
Some Good News
  • Since the treaty, there has been widespread
    destruction of stockpiled mines

65
What You Can Do
  • Support organizations that aid countries in
    clearing mined fields, providing assistance to
    victims, and lobby for continued government
    action against landmines
  • Volunteer time and money

66
What You Can Do
  • HALO (Hazardous Area Life-Support Organization)
  • A British and American NPO whose purpose is to
    remove landmines and unexploded ordinance left
    behind after a war
  • Operates in 9 countries, and has over 7000
    mine-clearers
  • Largest operation is in Afghanistan
  • Has removed 30,000 mines in Angola since the end
    of their war in 1994

67
What You Can Do
  • Clear Path International
  • Assists the civilian victims of landmines and
    other explosive remnants of war
  • Supports prosthetic clinics
  • Delivers prostheses to remote areas far from
    medical care

68
What You Can Do
  • Adopt-A-Minefield Campaign
  • Works primarily through the UN to clear mine
    fields in some of the most heavily mined
    countries in the world
  • Works with a number of organizations to provide
    relief to landmine survivors
  • Cleared over 21 million square meters of land in
    Afghanistan, Angola, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
    Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam
  • Provided over 1.5 million for survivor
    assistance projects

69
What You Can Do
  • Marshall Legacy Institute
  • Contributors can sponsor a mine-detection dog

70
What you can do
  • Support the International Campaign to Ban
    Landmines
  • Challenge elected officials (and candidates) to
    sign the Mine Ban Treaty

71
Cluster Bombs
72
Cluster Bomb Design
  • Air dropped or ground launched munitions that
    eject a number of smaller munitions (bomblets)
  • Variety of designs
  • Variety of types of bomblets
  • Anti-personnel
  • Incendiary
  • Anti-tank
  • Anti-runway
  • Anti-electrical

73
Cluster Bomb Design
  • Depending on the type and size of cluster bomb, a
    single munition may contain over 2000 bomblets

74
Large Strike Area
  • Bomblets are scattered over a very wide area
  • The area hit by a single cluster munition can be
    as large as 2 or 3 football fields.
  • With such a wide area, civilians are frequently
    hit inadvertently

75
Unexploded Ordinance
  • Not all bomblets detonate on impact
  • They remain live, and can explode if handled
  • Essentially act as landmines

76
Intrinsic Failure Rate
  • For example
  • U.S. made M26 warheads with M77 submunitions are
    designed to have a 5 dud rate
  • In reality, they have a dud rate closer to 16
  • M483A1 DPICM artillery delivered cluster bombs
    have a reported dud rate of 14

77
Small Failures Add Up
  • Given that each cluster bomb contains hundreds of
    bomblets, and are fired in volleys
  • even a small failure rate can lead to hundreds
    or thousands of unexploded ordinances scattered
    about

78
Continue to be a Danger
  • Like landmines, they may still be live and deadly
    even many years after deployed

79
Unintended Deadliness
  • Some cluster bomblets are brightly colored to
    increase their visibility and warn off civilians
  • However, the color, combined with their small and
    non-threatening appearance, cause children to
    interpret them as toys

80
Tragic Oversight
  • In the War in Afghanistan, humanitarian rations
    dropped from airplanes were in similar yellow
    colored packaging as undetonated BLU-97B bomblets
  • After several deaths, the humanitarian packages
    were changed to blue, then to transparent, to try
    to avoid such confusion

81
Ongoing Deaths
  • In Vietnam, people are still being killed from
    cluster bombs dropped by U.S. and Vietnamese
    forces up to 300 every year
  • Unexploded cluster bombs kill more civilians in
    post-war Kosovo than landmines
  • Citizens in Lebanon are being injured and killed
    by unxploded bomblets left from the 2006 conflict
    with Irseal
  • Cluster bomblets kill and maim civilians in Iraq
    and Afghanistan as we try to gain local support

82
CCW
  • Protocol V of the UN Convention on Certain
    Conventional Weapons covers explosive remnants
    of war
  • Sometimes applied to the topic of cluster
    munitions
  • Has little power to enforce, and the primary
    users of cluster weapons are not signatories

83
Cluster Munitions Coalition
  • Following failure of the CCW review in 2006 to
    effectively address the humanitarian crisis of
    cluster munitions, CMC begun
  • A network of more than 200 NGOs, faith-based
    groups, and professional organizations
  • Includes global organizations, such as Handicap
    International, International Campaign to Ban
    Landmines, and Human Rights Watch

84
The Oslo Process
  • Through the CMC, the Norwegian Government, along
    with Austria, Ireland, Mexico, New Zealand, and
    Peru, announced its intention to establish a new
    international process to establish a treaty
    banning cluster bombs
  • Will also increase clearance of contaminated
    land, and provide assistance to victims
  • In Feb 2007, 46 nations met in Oslo, committed
    themselves to completing this treaty by 2008, and
    began to shape the document
  • As of November 2007, 84 states were participating
    in the Oslo Process

85
Taking an Example from the Mine Ban Treaty
  • CMC is calling on governments to make a strong
    and comprehensive treaty, that will make a real
    difference in peoples lives, without exceptions,
    delays, or loopholes
  • Government must publicly endorse the previous
    draft in order to participate in the next
    conference
  • Despite not being a superpower, smaller countries
    are taking decisive steps, and not waiting for
    larger countries to come around

86
Global Day of Action
  • The Global Day of Action to Ban Cluster Bombs
  • April 19, 2008
  • Occurs one month before the Dublin Diplomatic
    Conference on Cluster Munitions (May 19-30, 2008)

87
What You Can Do
  • Get involved!
  • CMC gives advice on organizing events to
    demonstrate public support, raise awareness, and
    pressure governments to ban cluster munitions

88
What You Can Do
  • Question candidates about their position on
    cluster munitions
  • A September 6, 2006, the Senate amendment to ban
    the use of cluster bombs in civilian areas was
    voted on
  • Senator Clinton voted no
  • Senator Obama voted yes

89
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