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Classification of Living Things

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All 3 organisms belong to the same genus, but different species. Scientific Names ... of organisms and chose a characteristic that divides them 'dichotomously' ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Living Things


1
Classification of Living Things
  • Aristotle separated living things into 2 groups
  • 1. Plant
  • Herbs (soft stem)
  • Shrubs (several woody stems)
  • Trees (one large woody stem)
  • 2. Animal
  • Air-dwellers
  • Land-dwellers
  • Water-dwellers

2
Taxonomy
  • Is the science of classifying organisms.
  • Our modern classification system was developed by
    a Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus. His system
    was based on 2 things
  • 1. An organisms physical features.
  • 2. An organisms structural features.
  • He developed a system of assigning names to
    organisms called Binomial nomenclature.

3
Binomial nomenclature
4
Genus and Species
  • Organisms in the same Genus are structurally
    similar
  • The genus name always begins in Upper case
  • Organisms in the same species are so similar that
    they can interbreed under normal circumstance to
    produce fertile offspring.
  • The species name always begins in lower case

5
Scientific Names
  • Linnaeus chose latin for his naming system
  • The scientific name must be underlined or written
    in italics
  • Ex Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens
  • The name can be abbreviated to H.sapiens or
    H.sapiens

6
Scientific Names
  • Each word chosen by Linnaeus had something to do
    with the organism
  • Ex. Ursus horribilis
  • Castor canadensis

7
Scientific Names
  • Canis familiaris domestic dog
  • Canis lupus gray wolf
  • Canis latrans eastern coyote
  • All 3 organisms belong to the same genus, but
    different species.

8
Scientific Names
  • Equus Caballus - horse
  • Equus asinus donkey
  • When a donkey and a horse reproduce, their
    offspring is a mule, which is sterile.

9
The 7 Taxa
  • Taxa are categories used to further
  • classify organisms.
  • Each category by itself is called a Taxon.
  • Kingdom King Kindly
  • Phylum Phillip Professors
  • Class Came Can not
  • Order Over Often
  • Family For Fail
  • Genus Ginger Good
  • Species Snaps Students

10
K-P-C-O-F-G-S
11
(No Transcript)
12
Classifying Humans
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Primates
  • Family Hominidae
  • Genus Homo
  • Species sapiens
  • The Genus Species name gives us our
  • scientific name Homo sapiens

13
6 Kingdoms
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protista
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

14
Evolution of the 6 Kingdom System
15
Kingdom Animalia
  • Multicellular (many specialized cells)
  • Eukaryotic
  • Motile (one exception)
  • Heterotrophs
  • Reproduce sexually

16
Kingdom Plantae
  • Multicelluar
  • Eukaryotic
  • Sessile
  • Autotrophic
  • Reproduce sexually

17
Kingdom Fungi
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • Sessile
  • Heterotrophs (either decomposers or parasites)
  • Reproduce sexually and asexually

18
Kingdom Protista
  • Unicellular or Colonial (many identical cells)
  • Eukaryotic
  • Motile and sessile
  • Autotrophic and Heterotrophic
  • Reproduce asexually

19
(Monera) Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Unicellular
  • Prokaryotic
  • Motile
  • Autotrophs and Heterotroph
  • Asexual
  • Can live in extreme environments (anaerobic)
  • Thought to be most like the organisms that
    existed 3.5 billion years ago. (Ancient bacteria)

20
(Monera) Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Unicellular
  • Prokaryotic
  • Motile
  • Autotrophic and Heterotrophic
  • Asexual
  • New bacteria E.coli

21
DOMAINS
  • Domain Archaea Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Domain Bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Domain Eukarya All of the other Kingdoms
    (AnimaliaPlantaeProtistaFungi)

22
Classification Keys
  • Device created by taxonomists to help name a
    discovered organism.
  • Consists of several statements, each with 2 parts
    (dichotomous2)
  • Only one part in each statement can be true for
    an organism.
  • The key directs you to another step until you can
    identify the organism by scientific name.

23
Creating a Classification Key
  • Take a collection of organisms and chose a
    characteristic that divides them dichotomously
  • Indicate where each part of the key will take you
    next.
  • When you are down to one organism, you name it!
  • Lets use our class as an example.

24
Classification Key for Bio 112
  • 1.a) go to 2
  • b) go to 3
  • 2.a) go to 4
  • b) go to 5
  • 3.a) go to 6
  • b) go to 7

25
Try this one.
26
Another key
27
Classification Key for the Creatures
  • 1. a) Antennae go to 2
  • b) No Antennae go to 3
  • 2. a) Spots …… Creaturius spotius
  • b) No spots.. Creaturius plainius
  • 3. a) Ears go to 4
  • b) No ears Creaturius noearius
  • 4. a) Spots Creaturius druntius
  • b) No spots Creaturius rutuius

28
Criteria used by Modern Taxonomists to show
connections
  • Structural similarities and differences
  • Similarities in Biochemistry (protein
    structure/DNA structure)
  • Comparison of Embryological development

29
Homologous vs Analogous
  • Homologous structures structures that have
    composition, but different function.

30
Homologous vs Analogous
  • Analogous structures two structures that have
    the same function, but not the same composition.

31
Which show more evolutionary connection?
  • Homologous??
  • Analogous??
  • Taxonomists believe that homologous structure
    show more evolutionary connection

32
Embryological Development
33
Phylogeny
  • - evolutionary history of an organism
  • A) Phylogenic trees

34
Phylogeny
  • B) Cladogram

35
So who are we closely related to?
36
What are characteristics of Life??
  • Made of cells
  • Able to reproduce
  • Can move
  • Require food
  • Eliminate waste
  • Show signs of metabolism

37
Viruses Living or non-living?
  • Viruses show no signs of being alive
  • They are a collection of protein and nucleic
    acids.
  • Viruses

38
T4 Virus Bacteriophage
  • T4 virus is a virus that attacks a bacteria cell
  • The tail fibers of the virus must match the cell
    receptors of the bacteria cell.
  • The virus injects its viral DNA into the host
    cell
  • The viral DNA takes the cell hostage and demands
    that the host cell does 2 things
  • 1. Replicate viral DNA
  • 2. Produce Viral protein
  • The viral particles assemble in the host cell
  • The host cell bursts (Lysis) and releases the new
    viruses
  • Viral Infection
  • Lytic Virus

39
Lytic Viruses
  • Infect and Affect quickly
  • Ex cold virus/flu virus
  • Herpes Virus

40
Lysogenic Virus
  • Infects but doesnt Affect quickly.
  • Viral DNA attaches to the host cells DNA.
  • When the infected cell divides, each daughter
    cell is infected as well.
  • Eventually the virus kicks into the Lytic cycle
    and the host is destroyed.
  • Incubation Period time between the virus
    infecting and the host cell being affected
  • Ex HIV incubation period 6 mo. to 10yrs

41
Lysogenic Virus
42
How small are viruses?
  • How big are viruses?
  • Prions mutant strands of protein that can cause
    infections
  • Ex. Mad cow disease
  • Viroids mutant chunks of DNA (RNA) that can
    cause infections
  • Ex. some plant infections

43
Bacteria
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria simplest
  • Kingdom Eubacteria more complex
  • Characteristics
  • Unicellular/Colonial
  • Prokaryotic
  • Anaerobic(-O2)/Aerobic (O2)
  • Some are Pathogenic disease causing)
  • Some are very helpful
  • Ex. E.Coli in our intestines help us digest our
    food
  • Bacteria is used to make dairy products like
    yogurt and cheese

44
Bacteria
45
Shapes of Bacteria
  • There are 3 shapes
  • 1. Coccus spherical
  • 2. Bacillus rod shaped
  • 3. Spirillum spiral shaped

46
Bacterial colonies
  • Diplo 2 bacteria connected
  • Strepto a string or filament of bacteria
  • Staphylo a cluster of bacteria
  • What would Streptococcus bacteria look like?

47
Streptococcus
48
What would these look like?
  • Staphylobacillus
  • Diplospirillum
  • Stapylococcus

49
How do antibiotics work?
  • Some interfere with the protein production in the
    bacteria
  • Some break holes in the cell wall
  • Bacteriologists test the cell wall of bacteria to
    determine what antibiaotic will work best
  • Gram positive stain purple
  • Gram negative stain pink
  • Antibiotic Resistance
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