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Chronology: Founding of the American Colonies

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Prominent Religious Philosophies in Early Colonial America. Puritanism ... They had both fled from oppression and had suffered from their religious beliefs. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chronology: Founding of the American Colonies


1
Chronology Founding of the American Colonies
2
Founding of American Colonies
  • 1607 Virginia
  • 1620 Plymouth
  • 1623 NH
  • 1626 New Netherlands (NJ)
  • 1664-1685 NY
  • 1639 Mass. Bay Colony
  • 1643 Maryland
  • London Company
  • Wm. Bradford Pilgrims
  • Puritans
  • Dutch West India Co.
  • John Winthrop Puritans
  • George Calvert

3
Founding of American Colonies
  • 1636 Rhode Island
  • 1636 Connecticut
  • 1638 New Sweden (part of Penn. until 1776
    Delaware)
  • 1650 NC
  • 1670 SC
  • 1682 Pennsylvania
  • 1733 Georgia
  • Roger Williams
  • Thomas Hooker Puritans
  • Swedes
  • 8 proprietors
  • 8 proprietors
  • William Penn
  • James Oglethorpe

4
Puritanism Other Prominent Religious
Philosophies in Early Colonial America
5
Puritanism
  • Began in England in the 16th century.
  • King Henry VII formed the Church of England in
    1534.
  • controlled by Englishmen
  • free of the pope and Roman Catholicism
  • Henry sought to create religious independence
  • religious unity

6
Puritanism
  • There were some radical reformers whose disputes
    marked the Reformation.
  • Puritans Pilgrims who settled in New England
    were extreme reformers.
  • They believed that the English church break away
    from Rome had not gone far enough.
  • They wanted to purify the English church even
    more.

7
Puritanism
  • Influenced by
  • John Calvin and his concept of predestination
  • Martin Luther and his attacks on the hierarchic
    structure and power of Roman Catholicism.
  • They believed that the Bible was revealed by God
    therefore, the Word of God, not kings, popes or
    bishops, should rule the lives of people.

8
Puritanism
  • Hoped to restore the worship to pure and
    unspotted
  • Hoped to recover what William Bradford described
    as Christianity in its primitive order,
    libertie, and bewtie.
  • Zeal to purify their religion caused them to
    reject Queen Elizabeths religious settlements of
    1560.

9
Puritanism
  • They were opposed not only to the doctrines and
    practices, but also to the organization.
  • English churches were controlled by
  • English monarchs
  • Hierarchy of bishops and archbishops (episcopacy)
  • They felt that the organization robbed people of
    their right to practice true religion.

10
Puritans opposed
  • the pageantry of the church of England
  • the rituals that remained similar to those of
    Roman Catholicism
  • the required forms of prayer
  • the choir bells and the organ music
  • the robes
  • the veneration of images and relics
  • decorated vestments
  • the stained glass windows

11
Calvinism
  • The Puritans adhered to Calvinism, a doctrine
    originated by John Calvin in 1536
  • Made popular in Institutes of the Christian
    Religion

12
Puritan Religious Beliefs/Calvinism
  • Covenant Theology
  • Covenant of Works
  • Covenant God made with Adam
  • In return for Adams good works and obedience
    Eternal Paradise
  • Once Adam broke the covenant of works, all his
    descendants were to live in a world of labor and
    misery and then die and suffer damnation in Hell.
  • Original Sin
  • Men inherit a fallen nature from Adam but also
    incur the legal penalty for his failure as their
    agent.

13
Puritan Religious Beliefs/Calvinism
  • Covenant Theology
  • Covenant of Grace
  • After Adam broke the Covenant of Works, God made
    a new covenant with Abraham.
  • In this agreement, a special few are saved and
    allowed to go to Heaven. These special few were
    the Puritans.
  • Certainty of this covenant lead to the great
    unity of the Puritans and Separatists.

14
Puritan Religious Beliefs/Calvinism
  • Covenant Theology
  • Covenant of Grace
  • Not only is man in relation with God as
  • Creator/creature
  • Lord/subject
  • Father/children
  • But also in agreement or contract
  • between two partners in a business enterprise

15
Puritan Religious Beliefs/Calvinism
  • Predestination
  • Individuals are either saved (saints or elect) or
    damned.
  • Neither faith nor good works insure salvation.
  • All features of salvation are determined by Gods
    sovereignty, including who will be saved and
    those who will receive Gods irresistible grace.

16
Puritan Religious Beliefs/Calvinism
  • Only those who were saved could be admitted to
    full church membership and receive Holy
    Communion.
  • Those who were saved would confess to the
    congregation their mystical experience through
    which God informed them of their salvation.

17
Calvinism
  • Calvinism
  • Total depravity
  • (Original Sin)
  • Unconditional election
  • (Predestination)
  • Limited atonement
  • Irresistible grace
  • Perseverance of the saints

18
Puritanism
  • Puritans were Biblical scholars fully aware of
    Biblical typology.
  • Puritans believed they were a chosen people as
    were the Israelites.
  • Like the OT Jews, they were sure they worshipped
    the one true God.
  • They had both fled from oppression and had
    suffered from their religious beliefs.
  • The migration to the New World was seen and
    compared to Moses leading the Israelites from
    slavery into Egypt.

19
Puritanism
  • The Geneva Bible
  • Written by English scholars who lived in Geneva,
    Switzerland, the center of protestant learning
    and theology in Europe.
  • Published in 1560
  • Most widely read
  • Less ornate style than the King James version of
    1611.
  • Came to America with the Pilgrims in 1620

20
Puritanism
  • The Bible was Gods direct communication to
    humans, should be read daily and its guidance
    followed by individuals.
  • religion, civil govt., business and commerce
  • rules for courtship, marriage, and warfare
  • how to dress and table etiquette

21
Contributions of Puritanism
  • The key contribution was faith a faith so strong
    it withstood all types of persecution.
  • laid the groundwork for the establishment of
    independence and freedom
  • also contributed to the concept of preaching
  • Preaching is a tradition whose force is
    undeniable in America today.

22
Puritanism
  • Sermons were the foundation of two artistic
    achievements.
  • Sermons were the most popular literary form of
    the time.
  • The written expression of the sermon became New
    Englands greatest contribution to American
    literature.
  • The dominating interest in sermons is also
    visible in the design of the New England
    churches, known as meetinghouses.

23
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24
Puritanism
  • Devout Puritans believed that a sermon was
  • the chariot on which salvation came riding into
    the hearts of men.

25
Puritanism
  • Wrote in what is called plain style
  • Against ornateness
  • Straightforward, unadorned style is also
    reflected in other arts, furniture, architecture,
    dress, etc.
  • Frivolity and excess were detested
  • Reflected the character and scope of the reading
    public
  • Literate and well-grounded in religion
  • Only literary forms found in the Bible were
    acceptable
  • All forms of fiction were despised

26
Puritanism
  • Function of Puritan Writers
  • To transform a mysterious God
  • To make God more relevant to the universe
  • To glorify God

27
Puritanism
  • The individual Puritan wrote a lot.
  • A diary was regarded as a tool helpful for
    self-examination.
  • Emphasized education.
  • Was a literate culture which regarded illiteracy
    as a kind of sin.

28
Puritanism
  • Contrary to popular belief, the early Puritans
    were not generally long-faced reformers.
  • They were intelligent, self-controlled,
    plainly-dressed citizens who advocated simplicity
    and democracy.
  • Only after they were harassed by rulers in
    England did they develop more extremely rigid
    views of behavior.

29
Position of Women
  • The Pilgrims and Puritans emphasis upon the
    sinfulness of all humankind and upon spiritual
    election being totally in the hands of a
    sovereign God made women spiritually equal to
    men.
  • Although women did not share the pulpit, they
    were felt to have a right to express themselves
    on religious matters and they did so.

30
Forces Undermining Puritanism
  • A persons natural desire to do good
  • Works against predestination
  • Dislike of a closed life
  • Resentment of the power of a few over many
  • Change in economic conditions
  • Presence of leaders of dissent
  • Anne Hutchinson
  • Roger Williams

31
Antinomianism
  • Free grace
  • idea of inner light which allowed a direct
    access to God for anyone who believed
  • Threatened the foundation of the Puritans social
    order
  • Anne Hutchinson was excommunicated
  • called upon them to live by grace alone
  • Quakers

32
Antinomianism
  • Doctrine of the Covenant
  • Activity is the essence of a Christian life,
    deeds are the beginning of faith
  • Congregational church formed from this ideology.
  • The mutual consent involved in a covenant is the
    cement which solders together all societies,
    political or ecclesiastical (Hooker)
  • Holy Confederacy to serve God in family, Church
    and Commonwealth. (John Cotton)

33
Congregational church
  • The saints come together to formally agree to
    carry out in ecclesiastical life the obligations
    to which they stand individually bound by their
    covenant w/God.
  • The duties and requirements are same as those
    determined in the covenant of Grace.
  • The church compact is the agreement of the people
    in a body to constitute an institution which will
    facilitate the achievement of these ends.
  • The church makes possible the machinery of the
    means (sermons and sacraments)
  • God would generally dispense grace through the
    ordinances of the church. Consequently, the
    children of the saints should be baptized as a
    means toward their conversion, and should be
    taken into the church covenant.
  • Thus, the sign of true faith is not only a desire
    on the part of the regenerate individual to
    fulfill the moral law, but it is also a
    determination to join in the setting up of the
    one and only polity which Christ has outlined in
    Scripture (the church). For this reason NE was
    settled.

34
Deism
  • Man is by nature good.
  • Society has corrupted him.
  • There is a supreme power which is benevolent
  • A sovereign power must be worshipped.
  • The good disposition of man constitutes the
    principal part of his worship to that power.
  • All crimes/vices must be punished by that power
  • There are rewards punishments after death.
  • God is the great clock-winder of the universe.
  • He sets the world in motion, then stepped back
    and will not interfere in the affairs of man.

35
Humanism
  • Mans best service to God is to serve man.
  • Believed that the importance of this present life
    is sharply contrasted with the Puritans and
    Calvinists view that man must struggle
    continually to live a good life in order to be
    happy in the next life.

36
Humanism
  • Ben Franklin
  • Practiced humanism
  • Believed that church attendance was hypocritical
    and detrimental to the spiritual growth of man.
  • His debt to God was paid through his advice given
    to his fellow man in an effort to better society.

37
The Pilgrims
  • Cultural Identity/Communal Identity
  • Native Americans
  • French
  • Spanish
  • Virginia colonists
  • Morton and his community at Merry Mount
  • posed a threat to the communal integrity and
    identity of the group at Plymouth
  • All became the others in contrast to how the
    Pilgrims defined themselves.

38
  • Pilgrims, led by Miles Standish, began the
    assault on Mortons colony,
  • Puritans from the Bay Colony, led by John
    Endicott, finally destroyed Merry Mount.

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