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Title: Slajd 1


1
Sydney Opera House
2
Sydney
Sydneysiders always knew they lived in one of the
world's great cities, but it wasn't until the
2000 Olympics that the rest of the world started
to agree en masse. Since the Games, Sydney has
consolidated its position as one of the world's
most enchanting cities, and the pre-Olympics
building boom ensured Sydney can now hold its own
in the five-star stakes. The city's food and wine
scene is increasingly sophisticated, its arts
scene thriving, its clubs hedonistic - and its
prices very moderate in comparison to most
European or North American cities.
                                                  
                      But the capital of the
state of New South Wales isn't all about flashy
restaurants and gargantuan sports arenas. Indeed,
some of its best features won't cost you a cent.
The sun is (almost) always shining, the air is
clean, and the leafy streets are a joy to wander,
day or night. Sydney is blessed with a laidback
population of over four million - and though it's
Australia's biggest metropolis, its spectacular
waterfront location means it never feels grey or
grim. There's a Sydney suburb for all tastes and
inclinations. The backpacker enclave of Kings
Cross is as rough and ready as ever, while
suburbs such as Glebe and Newtown possess a
no-frills bohemian charm. Darlinghurst and
Paddington are loud, proud and increasingly
gentrified, while Bondi Beach is a haven for
people-watching and sun-worshipping. And history
buffs will love The Rocks's cobbled laneways and
sandstone buildings.
3
Architect Jorn UtzonLocation Sydney,
AustraliaDate 1957 to 1973Building Type opera
house Construction System tile-clad concrete
and precast concrete Climate temperate Context
urban waterfront Style Expressionist Modern
Notes Great stairway, family of forms in
spherical section roofs, pure curving shapes that
across the harbor in great heroic harmony
4
The Sydney Opera House is located at 3351'25?S,
15112'55?E in Sydney, New South Wales,
Australia. It is one of the most distinctive and
famous 20th century buildings, and one of the
most famous performing arts venues in the world.
Situated on Bennelong Point in Sydney Harbour,
with parkland to its south and close to the
enormous Sydney Harbour Bridge, the building and
its surroundings form an iconic Australian image.
To some the spherical-sectioned shells are
reminiscent of the flotilla of sailboats commonly
cruising there. Tourists - mostly with little or
no interest in opera - throng to the building in
the thousands every week purely to see it. As
well as many touring theatre, ballet, and musical
productions the Opera House is the home of Opera
Australia, the Sydney Theatre Company and the
Sydney Symphony Orchestra. It is administered by
the Opera House Trust, under the New South Wales
(NSW) Ministry of the Arts.
5
  • Description
  • History
  • Origins
  • Utzon and construction of the Opera House
  • Construction after Utzon
  • Opening
  • After the opening
  • In popular culture
  • Gallery
  • Further reading
  • See also
  • External links

6
The Sydney Opera House has about 1000 rooms,
including five theatres, five rehearsal studios,
two main halls, four restaurants, six bars and
numerous souvenir shops.
The roofs of the House are constructed of
1,056,000 glazed white granite tiles, imported
from Sweden. Despite their self-cleaning nature,
they are still subject to periodic maintenance
and replacement. The House interior is composed
of pink granite mined from Tarana, NSW and wood
and brush box plywood supplied from northern NSW.
7
The five constituent theatres of the Sydney Opera
House are the Concert Hall (with a seating
capacity of 2,679), the Opera Theatre (1,547
seats), the Drama Theatre (544 seats), the
Playhouse (398 seats) and the Studio Theatre (364
seats). The smallest building is home to the
Bennelong Restaurant. The Concert Hall contains
the Sydney Opera House Grand Organ, the largest
mechanical tracker action organ in the world with
over 10,000 pipes.
The theatres are housed in a series of large
shells, conceived by dissecting a hemisphere. The
Concert Hall and Opera Theatre are contained in
the largest shells, and the other theatres are
located on the sides of the shells. Large free
public performances have also often been staged
in front of the Monumental Steps that lead up to
the base of the main sets of shells. A much
smaller set of shells set to one side of the
Monumental steps houses one of the formal dining
restaurants. Inspiration for the opera house came
from a local architect kener shin who wanted it
to look like a native bird, because of his love
for bird watching. this is why many people
believe the opera house to resemble the cockatoo.
8
The Sydney Opera House can be said to have had
its beginning during the late 1940s in the
endeavours of Eugene Goossens, the Director of
the NSW State Conservatorium of Music at the
time, who lobbied to have a suitable venue for
large theatrical productions built. At the time,
the normal venue for such productions was the
Sydney Town Hall, but this venue was simply not
large enough. By 1954, Goossens succeeded in
gaining the support of NSW Premier Joseph Cahill,
who called for designs for a dedicated opera
house.
It was also Goossens who insisted that Bennelong
Point be the site for the Opera House. Cahill had
wanted it to be on or near the Wynyard Railway
Station, located in the north-western Sydney
CBD. The competition that Cahill organised
received 233 entries. The basic design that was
finally accepted in 1955 was submitted by Jørn
Utzon, a Danish architect. Utzon arrived in
Sydney in 1957 to help supervise the project.
9
The Fort Macquarie Tram Depot, occupying the site
at the time of these plans, was demolished in
1958, and formal construction of the Opera House
began in March, 1959. The project was built in
three stages. Stage I (19591963) consisted of
building the upper podium. Stage II (19631967)
saw the construction of the outer shells. Stage
III consisted of the interior design and
construction (196773). Stage I was started on
December 5, 1958, and work commenced on the
podium on May 5, 1959 by the firm of Civil
Civic. The government had pushed for work to
begin so early because they were afraid funding,
or public opinion, might turn against them.
However major structural issues still plagued the
design (most notably the sails, which were still
parabolic at the time).
By January 23, 1961, work was running 47 weeks
behind, mainly due to unexpected difficulties
(wet weather, unexpected difficulty diverting
stormwater, construction beginning before proper
engineering drawings had been prepared, changes
of original contract documents). Work on the
podium was finally completed on August 31, 1962.
10
Stage II, the shells were originally designed as
a series of parabolas, however engineers Ove Arup
and partners had not been able to find an
acceptable solution to constructing them. In mid
1961 Utzon handed the engineers his solution to
the problem, the shells all being created as ribs
from a sphere of the same radius. This not only
satisfied the engineers, and cut down the project
time drastically from what it could have been (it
also allowed the roof tiles to be prefabricated
in sheets on the ground, instead of being stuck
on individually in mid-air), but also created the
wonderful shapes so instantly recognisable today.
Ove Arup and partners supervised the construction
of the shells, estimating on April 6, 1962 that
it would be completed between August 1964 and
March 1965. By the end of 1965, the estimated
finish for stage II was July 1967.
11
Stage III, the interiors, started with Utzon
moving his entire office to Sydney in February
1963. However, there was a change of government
in 1965, and the new Askin government declared
that the project was now under the jurisdiction
of the Ministry of Public Works. In October 1965,
Utzon gave the Minister for Public Works, Davis
Hughes, a schedule setting out the completion
dates of parts of his work for stage III.
Significantly, Hughes withheld permission for the
construction of plywood prototypes for the
interiors (Utzon was at this time working closely
with Ralph Symonds, an inventive and progressive
manufacturer of plywood, based in Sydney). This
eventually forced Utzon to leave the project on
February 28, 1966. He said that Hughes' refusal
to pay Utzon any fees and the lack of
collaboration caused his resignation, and later
famously described the situation as "Malice in
Blunderland". In March 1966, Hughes offered him a
reduced role as 'design architect', under a panel
of executive architects, without any supervisory
powers over the House's construction but Utzon
rejected this. The cost of the project, even in
October of that year, was still only 22.9
million, less than a quarter of the final cost.
12
The second stage of construction was still in
process when Utzon was forced to resign. His
position was principally taken over by Peter
Hall, who became largely responsible for the
interior design. Other persons appointed that
same year to replace Utzon were E.H. Farmer as
government architect, D.S. Littlemore and Lionel
Todd. The four significant changes to the design
after Utzon left were The cladding to the podium
and the paving (the podium was originally not to
be clad down to the water, but left open. Also
the paving chosen was different from what Utzon
would have chosen) The construction of the glass
walls (Utzon was planning to use a system of
prefabricated plywood mullions, and although
eventually a quite inventive system was created
to deal with the glass, it is different from
Utzon's design) Use of the halls (The major hall
which was originally to be a multipurpose
opera/concert hall, became solely a concert hall.
The minor hall, originally for stage productions
only, had the added function of opera to deal
with. Two more theatres were also added. This
completely changed the layout of the interiors,
where the stage machinery, already designed and
fitted inside the major hall, was pulled out and
largely thrown away) The interior designs
Utzon's plywood corridor designs, and his
acoustic and seating designs for the interior of
both halls, were scrapped completely. More
importantly Utzon considered acoustics from the
start of design. These designs were subsequently
modelled and found to be acoustically perfect. As
such the current internal organization is
sub-optimal. The Opera House was formally
completed in 1973, at a cost of 102 million. The
original cost estimate in 1957 was 3,500,000 (7
million). The original completion date set by the
government was January 26, 1963.
13
The Opera House was formally opened by Queen
Elizabeth II on October 20, 1973. The opening was
televised and included fireworks and a
performance of Beethoven's Symphony No. 9. Prior
to the opening, two performances had already
taken place in the finished building. On
September 28, 1973, a performance of Sergei
Prokofiev's War and Peace was played at the Opera
Theatre. On September 29, the first public
concert in the Concert Hall took place. It was
performed by the Sydney Symphony Orchestra,
conducted by Charles Mackerras and with
accompanying singer Birgit Nilsson. During the
construction of the Opera House, a number of
lunchtime performances were arranged for the
workers, with Paul Robeson the first artist to
perform at the (unfinished) Opera House in 1960.
14
By 1975, the substantial construction bill for
the Opera House had been finally paid off,
largely through a public lottery system. The
House has been subject to some additions and
improvements since its opening in 1973. The pipe
organ in the Concert Hall was not completed until
1979. In 1988, a two-level walkway along the
western side of Bennelong Point was added as part
of Australia's bicentenary celebrations. In 1999,
a fifth theatre, the Playhouse, was added to the
Opera House. In 1997, French urban climber, Alain
"Spiderman" Robert, using only his bare hands and
feet and with no safety devices, scaled the
building's exterior wall all the way to the
top. It received attention during Sydney 2000
Olympics. It was included in the Olympic Torch
route to the Olympic stadium, and involved
Australian swimmer Samantha Riley standing on top
of the Opera House waving the Olympic torch. It
was the backdrop of some Olympic events,
including the triathlonwhich began at the Opera
Houseand the yachting events on Sydney Harbour.
15
Security at the Opera House has increased as the
result of the likelihood of it attracting
attention of terrorists because the Australian
Government's support of the invasion of Iraq.
This security did not prevent two anti-war
activists in March 2003 climbing to the top of
the highest sail and painting "NO WAR" in massive
red letters. The pair, David Burgess and Will
Saunders, were arrested and sentenced in January
2004 to nine months of periodic detention for
malicious damage and ordered to pay 151,000 in
clean-up costs to the Opera House Trust for
daubing their anti-war slogan. Following an
arrangement made in 1999, plans were made to
change Hall's internal design of the Opera House
to that of Utzon's. The redesign involves the
house's reception hall and opera theatre, and
will be supervised by Utzon. As Utzon is too old
to travel by plane, he undertakes the supervision
from his home in Majorca. Allowances will be made
for modern day technology and requirements. In
September 2004, the redesign of the Reception
Hall of the opera house was completed, but is now
only rarely available for public inspection.
16
  • The Sydney Opera House (along with the Harbour
    Bridge) have been used as icons for the city of
    Sydney, with the shape of the building featured
    in
  • The official Sydney Opera House logo
  • The official 2000 Olympic Games logo and medal
  • In the TV movie, Category 6 The Day of
    Destruction the Sydney Opera House and Sydney
    Tower are shown being destroied by a fire.
  • The logo of the Sydney Swans AFL team, with the
    sails of the building also representing the wings
    of the swan moniker
  • The logo of the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi
    Gras.
  • In Godzilla Final Wars, the Opera House was
    destroyed when Zilla got whipped by Godzilla and
    as well as later on, when an atomic beam was
    released onto the building.
  • In a 2005 episode of The Simpsons Lisa Simpson
    while going to the beach she pulls out a magazine
    with the Sydney Opera House being built out of
    sand.

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23
  • Hubble, Ava, The Strange Case of Eugene Goossens
    and Other Tales from The Opera House, Collins
    Publishers, Australia, 1988.
  • (Ava Hubble was Press Officer for the SOH for
    fifteen years).
  • John, Alan and Watkins, Dennis, The Story of the
    Opera House is told in an opera called The Eighth
    Wonder
  • Duek-Cohen, Elias, Utzon and the Sydney Opera
    House, Morgan Publications, Sydney, 1967-1998.
  • (a small publication originally intended to
    gather public opinion to bring Utzon back to the
    project)
  • "Opera House an architectural 'tragedy"', ABC
    News Online, 28th April 2005
  • Flyvbjerg, Bent, "Design by Deception The
    Politics of Megaproject Approval", Harvard Design
    Magazine, Volume 22, 2005
  • On the children's series Little Einsteins, an
    episode has a kangaroo wanting to go to the
    Sydney Opera House for the anmal talent show.

24
  • Sydney Opera House Grand Organ

The Sydney Opera House Grand Organ is a large
pipe organ by Ronald Sharp, located in the
concert hall of Sydney Opera House in Sydney,
Australia. It is in six divisions, five manuals
plus pedals, and is the largest tracker action
organ ever built, with 131 speaking stops served
by 200 ranks of pipes consisting of 10,154 pipes.
It is a baroque organ in style. The contract for
the construction of the organ was awarded in
1969, during the construction of the Opera House,
and the organ was completed in 1979, six years
after the opening of the building. Since then the
electronics have been updated, including a major
refit in 2002, but the musical specification is
unchanged from that developed by Sharp starting
in 1967.
  • List of major concert halls

A Concert hall is a cultural building, which
serves as performance venue, chiefly for
classical instrumental music. Many concert halls
exist as one of several halls or performance
spaces within a larger performing arts
center. Many larger cities have both public and
private concert halls. The three finest concert
halls in the world are generally considered to be
Amsterdam's Concertgebouw, Boston's Symphony
Hall, and Vienna's Musikverein.
25
  • The Sydney Opera House official website.
  • Virtual Tour of the Sydney Opera House an
    excellent Flash-based tour of the House.
  • Jackie Craven, on-line at About.com, an article
    about the house's design.
  • Sydney Virtual Tour Information, Animations,
    Photos and Videos.
  • Satellite view from Google Maps (at the center).
  • Image 95 on the Voyager Interstellar Record,
    shown during its construction. Two copies of the
    image and records were launched into space in
    1977. They are estimated to last 1 billion years
    in deep space.

26
The End
Thank you
  • Przygotowali
  • Dominik Janyst
  • Roman Kolodziej
  • Mateusz Bednarski
  • Kl. I d LO
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