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SPORT ETHICS

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The Bad News. Values and Ethics of Athletes in. High School Sports ... More Bad News. Whatever It Takes to Win ... in high school sports for both genders? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SPORT ETHICS


1
SPORT ETHICS
  • "To educate a person in the mind but not the
    morals is to educate a menace to society."
    Teddy Roosevelt

2
DEFINITIONS
  • Ethics is the study of morals or character a
    study of the principles of human duty or the
    study of all moral qualities that distinguish an
    individual relative to others.
  • Moral pertains to an individuals motives,
    intentions, and actions as right or wrong,
    virtuous or vicious, or good or bad.
  • Values are anything having relative worth.
  • Moral values are the relative worth that is
    placed on some virtuous behavior.
  • Principles are universal rules of conduct that
    identify what kinds of actions, intentions, and
    motives are valued.

3
MORAL REASONING PROCESS
  • Moral Reasoning is the systematic process of
    evaluating personal values and developing a
    consistent and impartial set of moral principles
    by which to live.
  • Moral Knowing is the cognitive phase of learning
    about moral issues and how to resolve them.
  • Moral Feeling is the basis of what we believe
    about ourselves, such as self-esteem, and
    society, such as empathy for others
  • Moral Acting is how we act based on what we know
    and value.

4
MORAL REASONING
  • Moral reasoning does not promise behavioral
    change, but it does promise individual soul
    searching and reflection on personal beliefs,
    values, and principles. Without this process,
    cognitive moral growth will not increase,
    behavior change will never occur, and the
    potential for consistent moral action become
    little more than a hit or miss proposition.

Stoll and Beller (1998), p. 24
5
KOHLBERGS STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Stage Six states that universal ethical
    principles and the individual conscience serve as
    the basis for all actions.
  • Stage Five expects people to fulfill the social
    contract and show genuine interest in the welfare
    of others.
  • Stage Four assumes that people act in conformity
    to the social system and social order.
  • Stage Three suggests that people react to the
    expectations of parents, peers, and authority
    figures to gain their approval.
  • Stage Two emphasizes following rules for
    self-interest.
  • Stage One focuses on obedient actions performed
    to avoid punishment.

6
SOCIETAL ATTITUDES TOWARD ETHICAL CONDUCT
  • Relativism this belief advocates that
    what is right or wrong is determined based on the
    situation (situation ethics)
  • Absolutism there is an absolute moral code
    that should be applied without partiality in
    every situation
  • Consequential (utilitarian) theory states that
    the ultimate standard of what is morally right is
    dependent on the greatest amount of good for the
    greatest number of people.
  • Non-consequential (Kantian) theory holds that
    there is an inherent rightness apart from all
    consequences.

7
FREQUENT RATIONALIZATIONS FOR UNETHICAL BEHAVIORS
IN SPORT
  • There is no rule against it.
  • Everyone else does it.
  • This action is not unethical because no one will
    ever know about it.
  • Circumstances require acting in this way.
  • Cheating is just a part of the game.
  • If you arent cheating, youre not trying hard
    enough.
  • It didnt really matter since they would have won
    anyway.
  • Its only cheating if you get caught.

8
MORAL JUSTIFICATION
  • The unethical action was really ethical that
    is, muddy the waters and make the wrong look
    right.
  • The unethical action was a non-issue in the sense
    that the action caused no harm to another
    individual or was unseen by an official that is,
    no foul, no harm.
  • A rule was violated but the amount of good
    accomplished overshadowed the small amount of
    harm that occurred that is, the end justifies
    the means.

Stoll Beller, 2006, p 79
9
ETHICS AND SPORTSMANSHIP
  • Ethics is a matter of being good (character) and
    doing right (action).
  • Sportsmanship is a matter of being good
    (character) and doing right (action) in sports.
  • The majority of acts that we consider bad in
    sports and call unsportsmanlike are bad
    precisely because they are unfair, dishonest,
    disrespectful, or against the rules.

Gough, 1997, Character is everything Promoting
ethical excellence in sports, pp. 21-22
10
WHAT DOES SPORTSMANSHIP LOOK LIKE?
  • Playing fair
  • Following the letter and spirit of the rules
  • Respecting the judgments of officials
  • Treating opponents with respect
  • Shaking hands at the end of the game
  • Never running up the score
  • Never cheating
  • Never taunting

11
TEACHING HOW TO REASON MORALLY
  • The systematic process of evaluating personal
    values and developing a consistent and impartial
    set of moral principles by which to live
  • Moral reasoning occurs when you decide that you
    will always strive to do what is right.
  • It takes moral courage to act upon what a person
    values.

12
PROBLEMS WITH MORAL REASONING
  • The longer athletes participate in sport, the
    lower their moral reasoning.
  • Males have lower levels of moral reasoning than
    do females.
  • Team sport athletes show lower levels of moral
    reasoning than do individual sport athletes.
  • The moral reasoning of interscholastic athletes
    is less consistent, impartial, and reflective
    than is that of non-athletes.

13
Values and Ethics of Athletes in High School
Sports
The Mostly Good News
  • The vast majority of high school athletes (90)
    say their coaches consistently set a good
    example of ethics and character, and 91
    reported that their current coach wants them to
    do the ethically right thing, no matter what the
    cost.

http//www.josephsoninstitute.org/pdf/sports_surve
y_report_022107.pdf
14
Values and Ethics of Athletes in High School
Sports
The Bad News
  • Girls are more committed to honesty and fair play
    than are boys.
  • Boys who play baseball, football, and basketball
    cheat more (injure intimidate break rules) than
    do boys playing other sports.
  • Athletes cheat more in school than do
    non-athletes.
  • Athletes in football, softball, (girls)
    basketball, cheerleading, ice hockey, and
    baseball cheat more than athletes in other
    sports girls and boys in cross country and
    swimming are the least likely athletes to cheat
    in school.

15
Values and Ethics of Athletes in High School
Sports
More Bad News
  • 43 of boys (51 in football 49 in baseball
    47 in basketball) and 22 of girls agree when
    coaches teach basketball players how to foul in
    ways difficult to detect
  • 28 of boys and 11 of girls approve of a soccer
    goalie advancing past the line on a penalty kick
  • 25 of boys (48 in baseball) agree it is an
    acceptable part of baseball to throw an opposing
    batter who hit a home run in his last at bat
  • 42 of boys (54 in football 49 in basketball)
    and 18 of girls approve of verbally demeaning
    opponents
  • 34 of boys (40 in baseball 39 in football)
    and 12 of girls approve of coaches trying to
    pump up their team by swearing at officials and
    getting ejected

16
Whatever It Takes to Win
  • How is Peter a victim of moral callousness
    brought on by the game itself!
  • What did his acceptance of and participation in
    violent behaviors indicate about his moral
    reasoning?
  • What are the ethical ramifications of pushing the
    rules to the limit and even attempting to get
    away with breaking them?
  • Given the cultural imperative of winning, how
    does ethical behavior apply?
  • How could or should have Peter behaved in order
    to act as a morally responsible person?

17
The Baseball Brawl
  • Assuming that the collision at home plate was
    within the rules, is this within the spirit of
    the rules?
  • Why did the benches clear and a brawl ensue?
  • How would the penalty for participating in this
    fight affect the possible recurrence of a fight
    or players participation in one?
  • Should "taking out" a player covering a base to
    tag a runner ever be considered violent behavior?
  • If an advantage is gained and the practice is
    permitted, should the action be questioned based
    on moral principle?

18
Aggression in Ice Hockey
  • Why was Mario allowed to fight and display
    aggressive behavior as a youth hockey player?
    Were any of Mario's actions unethical?
  • What values may the coaches who attempted to get
    Mario to play for their youth hockey team been
    displaying?
  • What values were being shown by Mario's flagrant
    action against Stefan?
  • How could this unfortunate incident have been
    avoided?
  • In an aggressive sport in which bodily contact is
    part of the game, should aggression be tempered,
    and, if so, how? Can athletes play aggressively
    in a contact sport and behave in an ethical
    manner?

19
Pushing and Shoving in Basketball
  • How is psychological intimidation associated with
    physical retaliation in sport?
  • When and how were Ramona and LaShonda guilty of
    inappropriate behavior?
  • How did the coaches and officials contribute to
    this violence in sport?

20
Making Weight in Wrestling
  • Is Coach Miller violating any ethical principles
    by instructing Jerry to wrestle at a weight below
    that at which he would naturally compete? If so,
    what principles?
  • Is the motivation to succeed influencing Jerry to
    violate any ethical principles? If so, what
    principles?
  • Is Jerry cheating by wrestling at an unnatural
    weight (that is, a more mature athlete taking
    advantage of a less mature athlete)? Why or why
    not?
  • How are Coach Miller and Jerry treating the
    eligibility rule governing weight classifications
    to equalize competition?
  • What moral lesson is Coach Miller teaching Jerry?

21
Cheating to Stay Eligible
  • In this situation, considering the opportunity
    for a grant-in-aid and a college education, would
    it be acceptable for James to take the exam?
  • What should Lynn do? (Lynn knows that James must
    pass this test to go to college. There is no way
    that James could afford to go to college any
    other way than on an athletic grant-in-aid. This
    may be James's only chance.)
  • If Lynn says nothing, is Lynn being dishonest?
  • Does a friendship take precedence over a moral
    principle? Does Lynn's loyalty to James come
    before the rule about honesty?
  • Should Lynn ask James to return the exam?

22
The Star Running Back
  • What moral principles, if any, did Coach Allen
    violate in getting Nathan to attend NHS?
  • What moral principles, if any, did Coach Allen
    violate in negotiating a package deal of a
    college coaching position for him in exchange for
    ensuring that Nathan attends the same
    institution?
  • What moral principles, if any, did Coach Allen
    violate in "taking care of" Nathan while in high
    school and potentially in college relative to
    extra benefits or academic assistance?

23
The Young Gymnast
  • What are the ethical issues, if any, associated
    with starting a highly competitive sport at a
    young age?
  • Did Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell pressure Jane unduly? If
    so, why?
  • What are the pros and cons of the sport skills
    development program operated by Coach Symanski?
  • What types of pressures contributed to Jane's
    burnout?
  • What ethical dilemmas do this case present for
    Jane, Mr. and Mrs. Maxwell, and Coach Symanski?
  • If you were Jane's parents would you support her
    wanting to quit, considering the money invested
    and the opportunities Jane had to become the best
    gymnast in the world?

24
Expectations for Winning
  • Did Virginia Sanborn learn any unethical coaching
    practices from Coach Turner?
  • Did it take the combination of all of Coach
    Turner's coaching methods, both ethical and
    unethical, to build a winning team at Midwestern
    State University?
  • How and why did Coach Sanborn earn the respect of
    her players?
  • Were Mr. Ethridge and Mr. Farmer violating any
    ethical principles in issuing the ultimatum to
    Coach Sanborn?
  • Would you sacrifice your principles and adopt a
    different coaching style? Why or why not?

25
The Coach as Role Model
  • Can a coach stress winning and simultaneously
    teach moral values? If so, how?
  • Why was cutting a boy who wanted to play baseball
    not an option for Coach Young?
  • To what, do you think, did these boys attribute
    their continued love of sports?
  • How do you think Coach Young would have handled a
    "star athlete" who was disgruntled when he was
    replaced by a lesser skilled teammate?
  • How do you think Coach Young would have handled
    an athlete who cheated, violated a team rule, or
    displayed unsportsmanlike conduct?
  • How do you think Coach Young would have handled
    an athlete who did not achieve academically?
  • What if this athlete was the best player on the
    team?

26
Too Successful, Too Young
  • What are the ethical issues, if any, associated
    with Shirley's early tennis career?
  • What values did Mr. Foster appear to emphasize
    during his daughter's tennis career?
  • What factors seem to have been contributors to
    the changes in priorities when Shirley turned 18?
  • What was Shirley valuing when she made the
    allegation against her father?
  • How might sport burnout have contributed to the
    changes in Shirley's approach to tennis?

27
The Super Star
  • What ethical values, if any, did Danny violate in
    summer league play?
  • What ethical values, if any, did Danny violate
    while in high school?
  • What ethical values, if any, did Danny violate as
    a collegiate athlete?
  • What ethical values, if any, did Danny violate as
    a professional athlete?
  • Are the moral principles applicable to sport
    always the same, or should they vary by level of
    competition?
  • How did the economic values learned in his
    earlier years affect Danny's behaviors as a
    professional athlete?

28
The Un-level Tennis Court
  • What principles or moral values are in jeopardy?
  • Is this a moral issue, and why?
  • What questionably moral actions are occurring,
    and why?
  • How had Billy been treated during his early years
    of playing tennis? What does this tell you about
    the values of the individuals he played at his
    club?
  • What were the conflicts Billy experienced in
    competitions outside his club?
  • On what values did Coach Vines base his
    recruiting and team selection decisions?
  • What legal and moral values, if any, were
    violated by Coach Vines in not selecting Billy
    for the tennis team?

29
Limited Opportunities
  • What, if any, moral values or principles are
    involved in this case?
  • What morally questionable actions are occurring,
    and why?
  • Did the Miller boys experience any discriminatory
    treatment while playing in youth football
    leagues? If so, what was it?
  • Were the beliefs expressed by Coach Dobbins based
    on fact or myth, and was he behaving morally by
    espousing them?
  • Did the position shifting of Jeremy by his
    Caucasian coaches violate any moral principles?

30
All I Want to Do Is Run
  • What moral principles, if any, are being
    violated?
  • What moral values, if any, were displayed by
    Coach Jonas?
  • What were the moral values of the people of
    Stegall that placed females in supportive, rather
    than participative, roles in sport?
  • What were the ethical issues, if any, why Coach
    Hudson initially resisted and subsequently
    allowed Sally to train with the boys' track team?
  • Why did the School Board allow Sally to compete?
    Was this decision a morally reasoned one?
  • What were Sally's moral and legal rights in this
    situation?

31
Lack of Equal Opportunity
  • What, if any, ethical issues led to Lisa's forced
    exit from baseball?
  • What are the moral bases for equity in high
    school sports for both genders?
  • What ethical principles, if any, were violated by
    SCCs refusal to treat female athletes equitably?
  • What values or principles did Mr. Riddick violate
    by eliminating the softball team?
  • What underlying values were used by each person
    in making his or her decisions in this situation?

32
Athletics and Masculine Hegemony
  • What are the moral and ethical issues in this
    case?
  • Is it ethical to treat female athletes
    inequitably in program support because they do
    not play revenue-producing sports? If not, what
    are the unethical practices?
  • What moral principles, if any, could have been
    used by Hugh Knowles in his decision to hire men
    to coach the four women's teams?
  • Is it ethical for women's athletic programs to be
    administered exclusively by men? Why or why not?

33
THE MORAL ETHOS OF SPORT
  • Is an intentional rule violation congruent with
    the moral ethos of sport?
  • Is a tactical rule violation, or the breaking of
    the rules on purpose to gain a benefit even
    though there is an associated penalty, ethical?
    Is this an ethical way to attempt to secure a
    victory?
  • Is cheating, which is an intentional deception or
    circumvention of the rules that were established
    to maintain fairness, ethical? Is the intent of
    sport to get away with things to gain an
    advantage?
  • Are rule violations ethical if they are not
    caught and penalized? If rule violations are
    attempted and penalized, then are these rule
    violations deemed to be acceptable?

34
ARE THERE ETHICAL ISSUES IN YOUTH SPORTS ABOUT
THESE?
  • Cutting a child trying out for a sports team
  • Playing the best players (some do not play)
  • Keeping the best players in the key positions
  • Competing for championships and trophies
  • Requiring a child to play a sport
  • Specializing in one sport
  • Offering teams for one gender only

35
ARE THESE ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERSCHOLASTIC
SPORTS?
  • Requiring athletes to pass all subjects
  • Specializing in one sport
  • Treating male athletes preferentially
  • Requiring athletes to play while injured
  • Using drugs to enhance performance
  • Teaching athletes (by coaches) how to break sport
    rules to gain an advantage
  • Giving athletes money or other benefits
  • Taunting and gamesmanship

36
ARE THESE ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETICS?
  • Requiring athletes to maintain academic
    eligibility and progress toward a degree
  • Giving money or tangible gifts to prospective
    college athletes during their recruitment or
    while playing
  • Treating male athletes preferentially
  • Teaching athletes (by coaches) how to break sport
    rules to gain an advantage
  • Making money from the performances of athletes
    while they receive only grants-in-aid

37
ARE THESE ETHICAL ISSUES IN INTERCOLLEGIATE
ATHLETICS?
  • Using drugs to enhance performance
  • Requiring college students to pay fees to support
    athletics
  • Allowing students and other fans to shout
    obscenities at or harass visiting athletes
  • Using psychological ploy, such as taunting and
    gamesmanship to gain an advantage
  • Allowing a television network to dictate the date
    and time of a college competition

38
Agree Slightly Agree Slightly
Disagree Disagree 1
2 3
4
  • Teamwork is important for winning.
  • I would taunt my opponent.
  • A team must have a good coach to win.
  • I would spit on my opponent.
  • Luck is a part of winning.
  • It is important to shake hands with my
    opponent after a game.
  • I have never been in a game where any rules
    were violated.
  • Referees decisions will affect a games
    result.
  • Intramurals are a waste of time.
  • I would deliberately injure my opponent to
    help me win.
  • A team must have a star player to be a
    winning team.
  • Respecting my opponent gives me a better chance
    of winning.
  • The team that prepares the best should win
    the game.
  • Winning isnt everything, it is the only
    thing.
  • I have never seen or heard someone taunt or
    trash-talk an opponent.
  • Respect is an important attribute for a winning
    team.
  • Football is a more violent sport than ice
    hockey.
  • I must respect my opponent to play my best.
  • Basketball is a non-contact sport.
  • I would trash-talk my opponent.
  • Soccer is a non-contact sport.
  • I compliment an opponent for a good play.
  • It is OK to run up the score against an
    inferior opponent.
  • Basketball players are better athletes than
    baseball players.
  • I would "bend the rules" to win.
  • It is not whether you win or lose, but how you
    play the game.
  • It is not up to players to enforce rules (its
    the referees job).
  • Integrity is an important attribute for a winning
    team.
  • Intercollegiate athletics are bad for a
    university.
  • I would retaliate if I was given a cheap shot
    by my opponent.
  • Skill in a sport is more important than hard
    work.
  • I play fair.
  • Being a good sport (showing sportsmanship) is
    important to winning.
  • Every student an athlete, every student
    challenged.
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