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China and Japan

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Title: China and Japan


1
China and Japan
Part 6, Sino-Japanese War to the 1949 Communist
Victory in China.
  • Gov/Hist 352
  • Campbell University

2
Sino-Japanese War (1894-95)
  • The war was over Korea. Japan believed that
    control of Korea was vital to its national
    interest.
  • Japan also sought to block Russias movement into
    the Far East and Manchuria.
  • The outcome of the war changed the worlds
    perception of both China and Japan. Popular
    opinion assumed China would easily overwhelm its
    little neighbor.
  • Japan emerged from the conflict as a world power,
    China as the sick man of Asia.

3
Pre War Public Opinion
  • The 1885 British musical, the Mikado illustrates
    popular opinion of the time. It opens with
  • If you want to know who we are, /We are gentlemen
    of Japan On many a vase and jar,/ On many a
    screen and fan,/ We figure in lively paint/ Our
    attitudes queer and quaint.
  • If you think we are worked by strings,/Like
    Japanese marionette,/You dont understand these
    things,/ It is simply court etiquette.
  • Following the war, the U.S. Secretary of the Navy
    wrote, Japan has leaped almost at one bound to a
    place among the great nations of the earth.

4
Events Leading to War
  • Japan opened Korea with a naval expedition, much
    as she had been opened by Perry. The result was
    the Treaty of Ganghwa (1876). It opened Korea to
    foreign trade (3 ports) and declared Korea
    independent from China.
  • The young king of Korea invited the Japanese to
    send advisors and military instructors. The
    result was a coup and counter-coup in 1884. The
    king and queen were seized by a Japanese
    supported group, then rescued by the Chinese.
  • War between Japan and China was temporarily
    prevented by the Convention of Tianjin of 1885.

5
Outbreak of War
  • The Donghak Rebellion of 1894 sparked the war.
    Korea asked Chinese assistance in suppressing the
    rebellion. Troops were sent. Japan did
    likewise.
  • Japanese ambitions led to the palace being seized
    and the old regent reinstalled. He then asked
    the Japanese to expel the Chinese.
  • The Chinese reacted by sending forces across the
    Yalu plus reinforcements by sea. The armada was
    commanded by Admiral Ting, a former cavalry
    officer. He suffered a disastrous defeat at the
    Battle of the Yalu and retreated to Wei Hai.

6
Battles
  • Japanese ground forces pushed the Chinese up the
    peninsula to Pyongyang and across the Yalu into
    Manchuria, eventually taking Port Arthur.
  • The Japanese forces pursued the Chinese Northern
    Fleet to Wei Hai. They took the port by land and
    destroyed the fleet.
  • The Japanese then occupied Taiwan without
    resistance.

7
Treaty of Shimonseki (1895)
  • The treaty was negotiated Li Hongzhang and Ito
    Hirobumi. China was forced to accept harsh
    conditions
  • Completely renounce suzerainty over Korea.
  • Pay an indemnity of 300 million taels (200
    million).
  • Open seven new ports for trade and extend most
    favored nation status to Japan.
  • Cede the Liaotung Peninsula, Formosa (Taiwan),
    and the Pescadores to Japan.

8
The Triple Intervention
  • Six days after the Treaty of Shimonoseki was
    signed, Russia (the instigator), France and
    Germany advised Japan that it would be wise to
    retrocede the Liaotung Peninsula. After a weeks
    delay, Japan agreed to do so.
  • Within three years, Russia had leased the
    peninsula, established a naval base at Port
    Arthur and obtained agreement to build a link to
    the Trans Siberian Railroad.

9
Kang Youwei
  • Kang Youwei and his protégé, Liang Qichao, were
    reformers who gained the attention of Emperor
    Guang Xu and initiated a massive reform program
    to redress Chinas humiliating defeat by Japan.
  • In the absence of Prince Gong, Guang Xu was
    inspired to launch a preemptive coup against the
    Empress Dowager, Ci Xi. He was betrayed by Yuan
    Shikai and caught in a counter coup. Kang Youwei
    and Liang Qichao fled to Hong Kong and Japan,
    respectively.

Kang Youwei (1858-1027)
10
The Hundred Days Reform
  • Prior to the coup, Kang Youwei had convinced
    Emperor Guang Xu that he could reform China in
    three years. Over the next 103 days (June
    11-September 20, 1898), he issued a string of
    edicts.
  • Completely restructuring of the educational
    system.
  • Modernizing of the armed forces.
  • Establishing freedom of the press.
  • Opening banks and chambers of commerce.
  • Establishing government departments to encourage
    agriculture and mining.
  • None of the edicts were ever enforced.

11
The Open Door Policy
  • Chinas display of weakness in the Sino-Japanese
    War led to a scramble for concessions. These took
    the form of loans, railroad construction,
    long-term leases of territory and spheres of
    influence.
  • Germany leased territory in Shantung.
  • Russia leased Port Arthur.
  • France leased land around Guangzhou Bay.
  • Britain obtained Weihaiwei and the New
    Territories.
  • The U.S. issued notes in 1899 and 1900 demanding
    equality of commercial opportunity and
    preservation of territorial integrity.

12
The Boxer Rebellion
  • The Boxer Rebellion lasted from 1899 to 1901. It
    was an anti-foreign and anti-Christian rebellion
    supported by the Qing government. The legation
    compound in Peking was held under siege for 55
    days.

13
Impact of the Rebellion
  • The rebellion resulted in the death of 400
    foreigners, missionaries, priest and nuns plus
    10s of thousands of Chinese Christians.
  • The legation quarter was attacked on June 20. It
    held out against of 80,000 Boxers and 70,000
    Chinese troops with a 453-man combined force of
    guards until August 14.
  • The relief force arrived just in time to save the
    legations.

The Boxer Rebellion was the media event of 1900.
The siege of the legation and rumored massacre of
foreign diplomats sold newspapers.
14
International Boxer Settlement
  • The settlement was embodied in the Peace Protocol
    of September, 1901.
  • The Chinese court with Ci Xi as regent continued
    to exist. Some advisors were allowed to commit
    suicide.
  • Imposed an indemnity of 450 million taels (333
    million).
  • Required the fortifications at Taku and along
    the route to Peking to be destroyed. Permitted
    foreign troops to be stationed along the route.
  • Redefined the legation quarter and permitted
    foreign troops to be stationed in it.
  • The Civil Service examinations were suspended for
    five years. (They were never resumed.)

15
Anglo-Japanese Alliance (1902)
  • During the Boxer Rebellion, Russia occupied
    Manchuria and refused to withdraw its troops
    while pressing China for greater concessions.
  • Britain and Japan reacted with the Anglo-Japanese
    Alliance. With the British backing, Japan could
    act as needed to protect its interest in Korea
    and Manchuria.

Russias Occupation of Manchuria was a violation
of the Open Door and a source of alarm to Japan,
Britain and the U.S. Japan was seen as a
counterbalance to Russia.
16
Russo- Japanese War (1904-5)
  • Japan crippled and then bottled up the Russian
    Pacific Fleet in a surprise attack on Port
    Arthur on February 8, 1904.
  • Baltic Fleet sought to sail 18,000 miles to the
    rescue, but was destroyed in the Battle of the
    Tsushima Strait on May 27, 1905. The Russians
    lost 8 battleships and 5,000 men plus 6,000 taken
    prisoner.

Admiral Togo Heihachiro (a graduate of the
Britannic Naval College at Dartmouth) crossed the
T on the Baltic Fleet destroying the entire
line of battle in eight minutes.
17
Portsmouth Treaty, NH (1905)
  • President Theodore Roosevelt received a Nobel
    Peace Prize in 1906 for hosting and mediating the
    negotiations.
  • Russia agreed that Japans position in Korea was
    paramount. Five years later Japan annexed Korea.
  • Russia transferred all rights in Liaotung
    including its South Manchurian Railroad to Japan.
    Japan soon occupied the area with its Kwantung
    Army
  • Japan did not receive an indemnity. The U.S. was
    blamed and the treaty greeted with three-days of
    rioting.

Theodore Roosevelt
18
Sun Yat Sen and the Revolution
  • Sun Yat Sen was the father of the Chinese
    Republic and president of the provisional
    government.
  • Sun was born near Canton, sent to Hawaii with an
    older brother where he became interested in
    Christianity. He was baptized and studied
    medicine in Hong Kong. He practiced medicine
    briefly in Macao.
  • Despairing the Qings ability to reform, he
    became a revolutionary and plotted an uprising in
    Canton. It was discovered he fled to Japan in
    1895.

Sun Yat Sen (1866-1925)
19
Sun and the Revolution
  • Sun became world famous when Qing agents
    attempted arrest him in London in 1896.
  • Sun sought support for the revolution among the
    Chinese diasporas around the world.
  • In 1905, he formed the Tongminghui (Revolutionary
    Alliance) in Japan and promulgated his three
    principles nationalism, democracy and peoples
    livelihood.
  • The Republican Revolution occurred in 1911with a
    military uprising. Sun was in the U.S. at the
    time. He returned to become president of the
    revolutionary government on Nanjing.

20
Fall of the Qing
  • Military modernization led to regionalism. The
    main beneficiary was Yuan Shikai who became
    commander of the New Army in 1895 and
    Governor-General of Chihli from 1901-07. Yaun was
    allowed to retire in 1909 after his supporter,
    Ci Xi died.
  • Ci Xi and Guangxu both died in 1908. The new
    emperor was an infant, Pu Yi.
  • The Manchu began belated political reforms in
    1908. Provincial assemblies were elected in
    1909 and a central legislature in 1910. Both
    became antagonist of the Qing.
  • In 1911, the Qing decision to nationalize the
    railway system caused a furor when government
    compensation proved meager. The republican
    revolution followed.

21
Yuan Shikai First President
  • Yuan was the logical choice for president of the
    republic. He enjoyed foreign support, the
    loyalty of the New Army and the prestige of a
    reformer.
  • The child-emperor abdicated in 1912 and Yuan
    accepted the presidency. He agreed to move to
    Nanjing but never did so.
  • In 1916, Yuan had a Convention of Citizens
    declare China a monarchy with himself as emperor.
    The reaction was so negative that he abandoned
    his claim and died.

Yuan Shikai (1859-1916)
22
Twenty-One Demands
  • The Twenty-One Demands were an attempt in
    January, 1915 to grab concessions from China when
    the western powers were preoccupied with WWI.
  • Japan sought to keep the demands secret but China
    leaked them in the hope of obtaining western
    support. The U.S. was the only power to react,
    citing the Open Door policy.
  • By May, the demands had been reduced to thirteen
    which were transmitted to China in the form of an
    ultimatum with a two day suspense.

23
Twenty-One Demands (Contd)
  • The demands were divided into five groups
  • 1. Recognition of Japanese rights in Shandong.
  • 2. Extension of Japanese rights in Mongolia and
    Manchuria.
  • 3. Sino-Japanese joint operation of Chinas
    largest steel company, the Han-Yeh-Ping..
  • 4. Agreement that China was not to cede or lease
    any coastal area to any power other than Japan.
  • 5. Obligated the Chinese to employ Japanese
    political, financial and military advisors
    permitted partial Japanese control of the Chinese
    police and required purchase of Japanese arms.

24
The Comintern Connection
  • After Yuan Shikais failed attempt at monarchy,
    the provisional government moved to Canton. Sun
    Yat Sen was selected to be president, again.
  • The western powers denied recognition and
    assistance to the provisional government.
  • In 1923, Sun entered into an agreement with
    Comintern agent, Adolf Joffe, to receive
    Communist assistance in unifying China.
  • Mikhail Borodin became his advisor to reorganize
    the Guomindang.
  • Galen Blucher served as advisor for the
    nationalist army.

25
Chiang Kai-shek
  • The Whampoa Military Academy was established in
    1924. Chiang Kai-shek was its commander. His
    position gave him a power base through the
    loyalty of its graduates.
  • Chiang met Sun Yat Sen while studying in Japan
    and became a member of his Revolutionary
    Alliance.
  • Chiang married Mayling Soong in 1927. Chiang
    would have been Sun Yat Sens brother-in-law had
    Sun not died two years earlier. He became a
    Christian in 1929 as a condition of his marriage
    to Mayling.

Chiang Kai-shek
26
The Northern Expedition (1926-7)
  • In March 1926, Chiang declared martial law to
    reduce the influence of the CCP in the GMD. A
    split followed between Chiang and the GMD under
    president Wang Jingwei.
  • The Northern Expedition was launched by Chiang in
    July 1926. The capital was moved from Canton to
    Wuhan, then Nanjing and finally Beijing.

27
Shanghai Massacre
  • The success of Communist labor elements in
    seizing Shanghai as part of the Northern
    Expedition led to alarm among business interests.
    The Green Gang decided to directly back
    Chiang, freeing him from the need for Communist
    support.
  • The Shanghai Massacre of April 12, 1927 was the
    beginning of the Chinese civil war. Chiangs
    forces executed between 5, 000 and 6, 000 in
    Shanghai and other cities in the suppression of
    the Communist labor movement.

28
Nationalist Government
  • The nationalist government moved to Nanjing in
    1927 and remained there until 1937. Wang Jingwei
    and the GMD made peace with Chiang.
  • A number of warlords joined forces with Chiang in
    the second phase of the Northern Expedition. The
    campaign only lasted two months before Beijing
    fell.
  • China had been united superficially, but had yet
    to incorporate its many warlord factions.

Logo of the GMD Flag and national emblem of the
Republic of China
29
Mao Zedong
  • In 1927, Mao Zedong wrote his now famous report
    from Hunan on the potential of rural revolution.
    It was a product of his successful Autumn Harvest
    Uprising.
  • As a native of Hunan and a peasant, he knew the
    potential of the rural masses was being ignored
    by the CCP. From the Shanghai uprisings, he also
    concluded that the labor proletariat was too
    small in number to be effective.

Mao Zedong (1893-1976)
30
Back to Japan
  • The folding fan is a Japanese invention.

31
Late Meiji Era Politics
  • Success in the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese
    Wars allowed the military to take advantage of
    constitutional loopholes to manipulate the
    cabinet and bypass the Diet.
  • The Chief of Staff of the General Staff reported
    directly to the Emperor in Command matters.
  • As of 1900, only active duty officers could serve
    as Ministers of the Army and the Navy. The
    services could break the cabinet by recalling
    their minister.
  • The cabinet accepted the idea of transcendental
    responsibility to the Emperor and, in turn, all
    of Japan. Its responsibilities therefore
    transcended the Diet.

32
Meiji Era Political Parties
  • Two of the oligarchs, Ito Hirobumi and Yamagata
    Aritomo, continued to exercise power through
    protégés.
  • Ito Hirobumi established Seiyukai to gain
    political power in the Diet. It became the ruling
    party with Katsura Taro (Yamagatas protégée)
    and Saionji Kimmochi (Itos protégée) serving
    alternately as prime ministers.
  • Hara Kei became the organizational force behind
    Seiyukai. He built the party through pork
    politics and patronage in the provinces and
    bureaucracy.

33
Late Meiji Economic Power
  • The Sino Russo-Japanese wars stimulated the
    Japanese economy, especially heavy industry.
  • By 1906, Japan could produce ships comparable in
    size and quality to any in the world. The
    Japanese were advancing in other areas as well
    such as Electrical Engineering. Light industry
    continued to flourish.
  • The ills of early industrialization led to labor
    unrest.
  • The Ashio Copper Mines strike of 1909 involved
    violent outbreaks. Military force was used to
    quell them.
  • The Tokyo Streetcar strike of 1911-12 caused
    great public inconvenience during the New Years
    season and led to many of the strike leaders
    being arrested..
  • The Zaibatsu was the major beneficiary of
    economic growth.

34
Emperor Taisho
  • The death of Emperor Meiji deeply affected the
    Japanese. He was succeeded by Yoshihito (reign
    name Taisho).
  • Taisho suffered from meningitis which he
    contracted within three weeks of birth. It left
    him both physically and mentally impaired.
  • Taisho was succeeded by Hirohito, the Showa
    Emperor, in 1926. His reign was the longest of
    all Japanese emperors, 1926 to 1989.

Emperor Taisho (r.1912-26)
35
Taisho Democracy
  • When a reduction in government spending in 1912
    forced a choice between Seiyukais domestic
    program and two new army divisions, the army
    withdrew its minister, forcing the resignation of
    the Prime Minister Saionji.
  • Public outrage was expressed in mass
    demonstrations by the protect constitutional
    government movement.
  • Katsura Taros attempt to organize a cabinet
    apart from Seiyukai support led to a no
    confidence vote. A majority in the Diet had for
    the first time overthrown a cabinet.

36
The Taisho Imperialism
  • Through its 1902 alliance with Britain, Japan was
    drawn into WWI on the side of the Allies against
    Germany. In that capacity, Japan seized German
    holdings on the Shandong Peninsula plus the
    Mariana (except Guam), Caroline and Marshall
    Islands.
  • Emboldened by its victories in the Sino Russo-
    Japanese Wars, Japan took the opportunity of WWI
    to consolidate its position in China through the
    Twenty-One Demands in 1915.

37
Open Door Policy
  • The Open Door policy was annunciated by U.S.
    Secretary of State John Hay in 1899. The key
    provisions were maintenance of Chinese
    territorial integrity and freedom of trade.
  • The Open Door policy came into play for the first
    time during negotiation of the Twenty-One
    Demands. The U.S. took the position that should
    the Open Door be violated by any agreement forced
    upon China, it would simply fail to recognize
    that agreement. This was the first time the U.S.
    employed the threat of non-recognition.

38
Harbingers of Future Conflict
  • The interests and sentiments of the Open Door
    ultimately put the U.S. and Japan on a collision
    course. This situation was aggravated by
  • Failure of the the U.S., Canada and Australia to
    affirm racial equality at the Paris Peace
    Conference for fear it would lead to Japanese
    emigration.
  • Yellow Peril propaganda, the San Francisco School
    Board decision to segregate Japanese (1906), the
    California Alien Land Law (1913), the Ozawa Case
    (1922) and the Oriental Exclusion Act of 1924.

1899 Political Cartoon
39
Shidehara Diplomacy
  • Shidehara Kijuro was Japans representative at
    the Washington Conference and Foreign Minister,
    1924-27 and 1929-31.
  • He believed that Japans future lay in peaceful
    economic expansion. His approach was supported by
    Japanese business interest.
  • Thru his efforts Japan became a member of the
    League of Nations and returned sovereignty over
    Shandong to China while retaining its economic
    interests there.

Shidehara Kijuro (1872-1951)
40
Washington Disarmament Conference
  • This nine-power conference (1921-22) had several
    significant results
  • The Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty
    established an equilibrium in the Pacific through
    a fixed ration of capital ships U.S. Britain
    5 Japan 3 France and Italy 1.75.
  • The Four- Power Pact replaced Japans alliance
    with Britain.
  • The Nine-Power Treaty which acceded to the Open
    Door.
  • Japan agreed to withdraw its forces from Siberia.

41
The Showa Restoration
  • The Showa restoration was promoted by
    ultra-nationalist to restore imperial power and
    Japans proper place among world powers.
  • Domestically, the Japanese population was
    dissatisfied with economic conditions due to the
    affects of the depression of 1929.
  • Ultra-nationalist believed that the
    semi-democratic government of the Taisho era had
    capitulated to the west in agreeing to arms
    limitations.
  • The treatment of Japanese in the west was a
    highly emotional issue

Hirohito, the Emperor Showa (r.1926-1989)
42
Super Nationalism
  • The super nationalist believed that party
    government obtruded on the imperial will,
    advocated direct imperial rule and violent action
    to achieve it.
  • The Cherry Society planned an unsuccessful
    military coup in 1931.
  • In 1932, the head of Mitsui was assassinated.
  • The May 15 (1932) a raid was staged in Tokyo,
    killing the prime minister.
  • In 1936, the Imperial Way faction seized the
    center of Tokyo and killed a number of prominent
    leaders.

43
Manchukuo (1932-45)
  • In 1931, the Japanese Kwantung army seized
    Mukden. By the end of 1932, the Japanese had
    invaded all of Manchuria.
  • In 1932, Henry Puyi (the last Qing Emperor) was
    declared regent of the independent state of
    Manchukuo.
  • The adjoining Chinese province of Jehol was
    invaded in 1933.

The dark red area was Manchuria in 1931.
44
Early Events
  • A long string of events led to the Japanese
    invasion of Manchuria.
  • Acquisition of Russian railway, port and
    territorial rights thru the Treaty of Portsmouth
    (1905).
  • Annexation of Korea (1910).
  • Increased rail and territorial privileges thru
    the Twenty-One Demands (1915).
  • Japanese investment in Manchuria and China.
  • The rise of extreme militarism.
  • The assassination of Zhang Zuolin (1928).
  • The Mukden Incident (1931) in defense of the
    South Manchurian Railroad.

45
Economic Interests
  • Japan coveted the resources of Manchuria to
    achieve the level of economic independence
    necessary to wage total war.
  • In 1928, Manchurias total agricultural
    production was valued at 650,000,000.
  • By 1931, 63 of Japans investment in China was
    in Manchuria. After the conquest of Manchuria,
    the Japanese turned it into an industrial
    powerhouse.
  • Shanghai was the other area of major Japanese
    investment, accounting for 25.

46
Zhang Zuolin
  • The rail car carrying Zhang Zuolin back to Mukden
    from Beijing was blown up by the Japanese on June
    3, 1928.
  • Zhang Zuolin was the warlord who controlled
    Manchuria plus four provinces in northern China
    from 1911 to 1928 as an essentially independent
    state. The Japanese were concerned that he had
    allied himself with Chang Kai-shek and the
    nationalist.
  • He was succeeded by Zang Xueliang, his oldest son
    who came to be known as the Young Marshall.

Zhang Zuolin (1873-1928)
47
Emperor PuYi
  • PuYi was invited to become chief executive of the
    Great Manchu Nation in 1932. Changchun was
    designated as the new capital.
  • PuYi was declared emperor of Manchukuo in 1934
    with the era name of Kang De. He held that title
    until 1945.
  • Sadly PuYi was nothing more than a puppet ruler
    of a puppet state. The U.S., Britain and
    Nationalist China never recognized the government
    of Manchukuo.

Henry PuYi (1906-1967)
48
The Red Army
  • Zhu De joined Mao Zedong in 1928 on the
    Hunan-Jiangxi border. Together they developed
    the prototype Red Army. Zhu De was the military
    commander Mao was the political commissar.
  • By 1931, they proclaimed the Chinese Soviet
    Republic with the agrarian policy of land to the
    tiller.
  • Jiangxi became the Communist power center,
    replacing Shanghai and reflecting a major shift
    in doctrine.

Zhu De (1886-1976)
49
The Long March
  • To crush the growing CCP strongholds, Chiang
    Kai-shek conducted five annihilation campaigns.
    The first four failed. However, the fifth in 1933
    created an untenable situation for the CCP.
  • Communist forces broke out in 1934 and began an
    8,000 mile march to Shaanxi.
  • One hundred thousand persons started the Long
    March. Only 10 reached the new base of Yanan in
    1935.

The red-hatched areas are Communist enclaves.
Those marked with Xs were overrun by GMD
forces. The dotted lines show retreat routes.
50
Expansion South of the Wall
  • Conflict with Japan extended south of the Great
    Wall in 1932.
  • A Japanese Buddhist Priest was killed in a brawl
    in Shanghai. Apologies, promises of indemnities,
    etc., were to no avail. The Japanese bombarded
    both Shanghai and Nanjing in reprisal.
  • In Manchuria, the Young Marshalls forces lost
    Harbin and were forced to retreat to south of the
    wall. Significant numbers changed allegiance and
    stayed behind.

51
The United Front
  • As part of the GMDs anti-Communist campaign,
    Zhang Xueliang (the Young Marshall) and his
    forces were directed to abandon Manchuria for
    Xian in the south. Zhang had little enthusiasm
    for the campaign.
  • When Chiang Kai Shek flew to Xian in 1936 to
    demand action, he was seized by Zhang and held
    for 2 weeks until he agreed to a united front
    with the Communist against the Japanese invaders.

Zhang Xueliang (1901-2001)
52
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident
  • The Marco Polo Bridge Incident of 1937 began WWII
    in China, when shots were fired between Japanese
    and Chinese forces who accidentally encountered
    each other while on maneuvers.
  • Chiang Kai-shek saw the incident as an attempt by
    Japan to completely separate northern provinces
    from Chinese control and incorporate them into
    the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. Chiang
    was left no alternative but to fight a full scale
    war.
  • Beijing, Shanghai and Nanjing fell to the
    Japanese despite the heroic efforts of Chinese
    forces.

53
Battle of Shanghai
  • Chinese resistance sought to stall the Japanese
    advance, allowing time to move vital industries
    to the interior and gain the support of Western
    Powers.
  • The battle lasted from Aug.13 to Nov 26, 1937.
    Although victorious, the Japanese troops were
    demoralized by the staunch Chinese resistance.
    The myth of Japanese superiority had been
    exploded.

Following the bombing of the Shanghai South
Station, a terrified baby was found alive in the
wreckage
54
The Rape of Nanjing
  • Japanese troops entered Nanjing on December 13,
    1937 after two days of bombardment.
  • A total of 300,000 persons were executed and/or
    murdered in the next six weeks.
  • 20 thousand women were raped and mutilated.
  • Approximately 12,000 were killed in mass
    executions at the Ten-Thousand Corps Ditch.

General Iwani Matsui entering Nanjing. The
general was given an art collection that had
belonged to a Shanghai banker worth two million
dollars.
55
Sources Conflict with U.S.
  • Japans continued expansion became a source alarm
    to the U.S.
  • Citing the creation of the Greater Asian
    Co-Prosperity Sphere, Japan moved troops into
    Vietnam in 1942. Japans real objective was
    control of vital oil and mineral resources in
    SEA.
  • The U.S., Britain and Holland imposed an embargo
    on scrap iron and oil.
  • The U.S. was determined that Japan would withdraw
    from China and Indochina. The Japanese had to
    fight or retreat.

56
WWII In the Pacific
  • The red areas are those occupied by Japan in
    1942. Hawaii is located to the east of the
    mapped area.

57
Attack on Pearl Harbor
  • The Japanese attacked the U.S. Pacific Fleet at
    Pearl Harbor on Sunday morning at 753 a.m. on
    December 7, 1941 with 350 aircraft launched from
    six aircraft carriers. U.S. battleships were the
    most valued targets
  • The strike was intended to protect Imperial
    Japan's advance into Malaya and the Dutch East
    Indies by neutralizing the U.S. Fleet.

The attackers came in two waves. The first wave
was detected by U.S. Army radar at 136 nautical
miles (252 km), but was misidentified as USAAF
bombers from the mainland.
58
Attack on Philippines
  • On December 8, nine hours after the attack on
    Pearl Harbor, the Japanese struck Clark AFB and
    Iba Field on Luzon, destroying half the aircraft
    assigned to the Far East Air Force.
  • General Douglas McArthur had been informed of the
    attack on Peal Harbor, but refused to authorize
    offensive action against the Japanese forces
    based on Formosa.

The FEAF possessed 35 B-17 D Heavy Bombers and
107 P-40 fighters. Almost all were destroyed on
the ground within a few days of the initiation of
hostilities.
59
Battle of the Philippines
  • The first Japanese landing was on Luzon on
    December 8. The main force of 43, 110 landed on
    the beaches of Lingayen Gulf on December 22.
  • On December 26, U.S and Filipino forces withdrew
    onto Bataan and Corregidor.
  • Mac Arthur left for Australia on March 11, 1942,
    leaving General Jonathan Wainwright in command.
  • Bataan surrendered on April 9, Corregidor on May
    6.

60
Bataan Death March
  • Major General Edward P. King, Jr., surrendered
    more than 75,000 (66,000 Filipinos, 1,000 Chinese
    Filipinos, and 11,796 Americans) starving and
    disease-ridden men on April 9. It was the largest
    American force to surrender in history.
  • The POWs were forced to march 90 miles to Camp
    ODonnell in 6 days. 54,000 lived to reach the
    camp.
  • Many American POWs were later shipped to forced
    labor camps in Japan and Manchuria.

61
Flying Tigers
  • The American Volunteer Group operated three
    squadrons of P-40, Warhawks, in China from
    December 20, 1941 to July 14, 1942 under contract
    to the Nationalist Chinese. The founder of the
    group was Claire Chennault, who had retired
    from the U.S. Army.
  • The group was replaced by the 23 Fighter Group
    after the U.S. entered the war.

The Flying Tigers were credited with destroying
300 enemy fighters while only suffering the loss
of 14 of their own.
62
The Doolittle Raid
  • Sixteen B-25 Mitchell bombers under the command
    of LTC James Doolittle were launched from the
    Hornet on April 18, 1942 to bomb Japan.
  • The flew 650 miles to strike Tokyo (10) and other
    cities. Their intended recovery bases were in
    China. They never reached them. They ran short
    of fuel and had to crash land or bailout along
    the coast.

This was the first and only time that bombers
have taken off from a carrier. The take off run
was 467 ft. The B-25s were loaded with 4 500-lb
bombs and extra fuel.
63
Turning the Tide
  • The Japanese occupied most of SEA including
    northern New Guinea and were threatening
    Australia.
  • The battles of Midway (June 4-7, 1942) and
    Guadalcanal (Aug. 7, 1942 Feb. 7, 1942) were
    major turning points in the Pacific War.
  • Island-hopping and submarine warfare further
    depleted Japanese forces.
  • Japanese policy sacrificed human resources for
    little gain.

Sunk Japanese transport at Guadalcanal. Midway
and Guadacanal were major turning points in the
Pacific War.
64
Liberation of the Philippines
  • He did return. The battle to regain control of
    the Philippines lasted from October 20, 1944 to
    September, 1945.
  • The landing at Leyte was accompanied by the Naval
    Battle of Leyte Gulf, October 23-26. It was the
    largest naval battle of the Pacific War, involved
    the first Kamikaze attack and the amazing valor
    of Taffy 3.

General Douglas Mac Arthur and his staff landed
at Palo Beach, Leyte, on October 20, 1944.
65
The China Theater
  • The war in China stagnated. The Nationalist
    government had retreated to Chongqing.
  • To conserve its forces for the inevitable
    conflict with the Communist, the Nationalist
    refused to conduct offensive operations against
    the Japanese.
  • The Communist in Yanan proved far more
    effective.

General Chiang Kai-shek, Madame Chiang and
General Joseph Stilwell.
66
Flying the Hump
  • Lend-Lease supplies were the key to keeping
    Nationalist China in the war.
  • When the Japanese cut the Burma Road in March
    1946, the last land route into China was closed.
    The U.S. then resorted to flying supplies over
    the Hump into China from India with C-47s and
    C-46s. The distance was 500 miles over the
    15,000 ft. hi foothills of the Himalayas.

The airlift started in July, 1942. In December
800 tons were moved. In July, 1945, 71,000 tons
were moved.
67
Battle of Okinawa
  • The battle was the largest amphibious assault of
    the Pacific War. It involved 183,000 allied
    troops and 1,300 ships it lasted from April 1 to
    June 21, 1945, 87 days.

68
Battle of Okinawa (Contd)
  • The Battle of Okinawa was a dress rehearsal for
    the invasion of Japan. Okinawa was to be the
    staging point.
  • The Japanese defense consisted of 130,000 troops
    and was headquartered at Shuri Castle in the
    south near Naha.
  • 1,900 kamikaze attacks occurred against Allied
    ships, sinking 21 U.S. ships and damaging 66
    others. The Yamato was sunk by allied air
    attacks.

U.S. Marines met little initial resistance on the
beaches only to encounter artillery fire from
caves and dug in positions.
69
Kamikaze
(Upper Left) The Ohka was a rocket powered human
guided missile produced late in the war. (Lower
Left) Zeroes selected for use as Kamikazes.
(Right) Ensign Kiyoshi Ogawa who hit the USS
Bunker Hill.
70
Firebombing of Tokyo
  • On March 9, 1945, 334 B-29s bombed Tokyo with one
    incendiary bomb every 50 feet. The strike took 2
    hours creating a firestorm that destroyed 16 sq.
    miles and killed 100,000 /- persons.
  • If continued, some theorist believe that fire
    bombing alone would have forced the
    unconditional surrender of Japan. .

B-29s dropping incendiary bombs on Tokyo
71
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • On August 6, 1945, a single B-29 dropped the
    first atomic bomb on Hiroshima. 80 of the city
    vanished. Sixty to 70,000 persons were killed
    140,000 injured.
  • Three days later, an atomic bomb was dropped on
    Nagasaki killing 42,000 persons and injuring
    40,000.
  • On August 15, the emperor announced over the
    radio in a recording that the war was lost.

72
Japanese Surrender
  • In signing the Instrument of Surrender Japan
    agreed to the conditions of the Potsdam
    Declaration of July 26, 1945.
  • The atomic bombing of Japan and the Soviet
    Unions entry into the war were the factors that
    finally forced the decision to surrender.
  • The preservation of the imperial institution was
    a major Japanese concern.

General Umezu signed the surrender, September 2,
1945, on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay.
73
Japanese Constitution
  • The current Japanese Constitution was enacted in
    1947 as an amendment to the Meiji Constitution.
  • It established a parliamentary system similar to
    Englands with extensive written guarantees of
    freedom. It contained a renunciation of war as an
    instrument of national policy. The emperor was
    recognized as a symbol of the nation but stripped
    of all political power.

Meiji Constitution of 1889 (above). The 1947
constitution is frequently called the MacArthur
constitution but did reflect Japanese opinion.
74
Chinese Civil War
  • By 1949, the entire map of China was Red.

75
Chiang Vs. Mao
  • Chiang Kai-shek faced two problems the Communist
    and warlords, many of whom had been allied with
    the Japanese.
  • Chiangs problems were compounded by his own past
    inaction against the Japanese, monumental
    governmental graft and corruption and low morale
    among Nationalist troops.

Mao and Chiang met in Chongqing in Aug-Oct, 1945
during the peace negotiations, but the alliance
was short lived.
76
The Conflict
  • Chiangs defensive posture during WW II led to
    his being blamed for the Japanese conquest. It
    also left him out of position to receive the
    surrender of Japanese forces in Manchuria.
  • George C. Marshall was sent to China in December,
    1945 to broker peace between the GMD and
    Communist, but neither would compromise. By
    mid-1946, full scale conflict erupted and
    Marshall withdrew his mission.
  • Chiang disbanded 1.5 million soldiers from the
    armies of warlords who had cooperated with the
    Japanese, only to see them defected in mass to
    the Communist. They brought large quantities of
    Japanese munitions with them.

77
The Conflict (Contd)
  • Chiang held the cities, while Mao controlled the
    countryside.
  • In spite of considerable economic aid from the
    U.S. the Nationalist regime became increasingly
    ineffective. Internal rivalries and conflicts
    plus massive inflation led to a loss of public
    confidence.
  • Attempts to achieve reform were resisted even to
    the point of assassinations.
  • In January 1949, the PLA captured Beijing. In
    December 1949, Chiang declared Taipei, Taiwan the
    temporary capital of China.

78
The End
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