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The Great Depression 19301941


The Great Depression 1930-1941. Chapter 17, pages 360-376. Texas History. I. Introduction ... bankruptcies increase- 1933- Great Depression is felt all across ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Great Depression 19301941

The Great Depression 1930-1941
  • Chapter 17, pages 360-376
  • Texas History

I. Introduction
  • Fall 1929- stock market prices plunge
  • October 29- Black Thursday- stock market crashes-
    nation plunged into depression
  • As years pass- prices fall dramatically, business
    volume declines, unemployment rises, bankruptcies
    increase- 1933- Great Depression is felt all
    across country
  • Hoover- local agencies should help people
  • 1933- Roosevelt- New Deal- 3 Rs- relief,
    recovery, reform
  • Full Recovery not felt until World War

II. Hard Times in Texas
  • 1933- 7.1 of families on relief
  • 1934- 13 of families on relief
  • Depression hits business and farms equally hard-
    oil- 60 cents to 5 cents a barrel, cotton- 18
    cents a pound to 5 cents a pound
  • Prices were low, but few could afford to buy
  • Families tried to take care of families
  • Hitchhiking common- young people leave People
    sought shelter in abandoned buildings and boxes-

  • Minorities hit hardest- last hired, first fired
  • Schools cut off teachers, increased class size,
    and cut use of electricity
  • Some demonstrations and some violence
  • Outlaws caught headlines, Bonnie and Clyde

III. Depression Politics- Ross Sterling
  • Sterling attempts at controlling effects of
    depression did not work
  • East Texas oil crisis- Sterling attempts to
    control situation in favor of major oil firms-
    loses support from people
  • Decline in agricultural prices- cut number of
    acres planted- law declared unconstitutional
  • AAA- federal Agricultural Adjustment Act- farmers
    paid not to plant

IV. Fergusonism Returns- Ma Ferguson 1933-1935
  • Ma wins a close election over Sterling
  • Federal prohibition ends, but state prohibition
    begins- by county or local option
  • Supports many New Deal reforms
  • Legislature still mistrusted the Fergusons
  • Ma does not run in 1934- Allred becomes governor

V. Welfare, Economic Planning, and Reform- The
New Deal in Texas
  • Welfare for states- Federal Emergency Relief
    Fund- Billions for welfare and job programs
  • Reconstruction Finance Corporations- make work
  • Civilian Conservation Corp- built state parks and
    city parks
  • PWA- Public Work Administration- public
    buildings- libraries, highways
  • Social Security Act- federal taxes for retirement

VI. Industry, Transportation, Labor
  • Most profitable plants- chemical, petrochemical
    and oil
  • By 1939- 80 of Texas oil refined in state
  • Railroad will decline in 1930s
  • Automobile usage grows slowly during depression-
    road mileage tripled during 30s
  • Labor union membership grows during time- CIO-
    organizes oil industry

VII. Agriculture in Depression
  • Hard times for farmers
  • Decline in prices cost many farmers their land
  • Agriculture relief- AAA- limit production to
    raise prices, credit to farmers
  • Farm population moves to cities to find work
  • Programs hurt tenant farmers and sharecroppers

VIII. Conservation and Environmental Concerns
  • Protection of environment a concern
  • Conservation programs set up for soil, timber,
    water, and petroleum
  • Soil erosion- state organizes soil conservation
    districts to help farmers learn about techniques
  • Timber- plant a tree programs, state and federal
    govt. buys timber land, reforestation programs
  • Water- River authorities created to help with
    saving water, flood control

IX. Literature and the Arts in the Depression
  • J. Frank Dobie- cowboys and cattle, folklore-
    Coronados Children
  • Roy Bedichek- naturalist- Karankawa Country
  • Walter Prescott Webb- historian- The Great Plains
    and The Texas Rangers
  • Movies and Music- Tom Mix, Joan Crawford, Ginger
    Rogers, Gene Autry, Howard Hughes, Roy Rogers,
    Bob Wills

X. The Politics of Recovery- James Allred
  • Old-age pensions- states had to provide matching
    funds for aged, and those qualified
  • Legislature approves program, but not funds
  • Share the wealth advocates influenced voters
  • Teacher retirement fund approved,
  • Betting on horse racing stopped
  • Centennial celebration- major- state fair in
  • 3 million for monuments, battle markers

X. W. Lee ODaniel 1939-1941
  • Pappy ODaniel and the Light Crust Dough Boys
    flooded radio with advertisements
  • Controversial figure- shrewd businessman,
    dedicated enemy of organized labor
  • Performance left much to be desired- could not
    deliver campaign promises
  • Legislature still does not raise taxes to meet
    needs of state

  • Influential Texans during depression
  • John Nance Garner-VP-1932-1940
  • Jesse Jones- chairman of RFC
  • Sam Rayburn- Dem. Majority leader