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Pest Management: AGRI 2013

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The 'major' 'offending agents' in livestock production in Arkansas. An Introduction ... Sarcoptic is the oniy one in Arkansas (fig 25) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Pest Management: AGRI 2013


1
Pest ManagementAGRI 2013
2
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • An Introduction With animal and plant husbandry,
    we have selected desirable organisms from the
    natural world and placed them in unnatural
    environments designed to enhance their
    productivity and service to us. By selecting and
    producing these desirable organisms for our use
    (cows, sheep, chickens, dogs, horses, soybeans,
    apple trees, etc.), we have also established
    multitudinous populations of undesirables or
    offending agents. These latter organisms
    detract from optimal performance by our desired
    organisms, and therefore, we need to eliminate,
    extirpate or control them.

3
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Undesirables can be loosely categorized depending
    upon the type of detriment they inflict.
  • These categories are Pathogen, Parasite,
    Predator, Pest (kieptoparasite) and Disease
    Reservoir or Vector.

4
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Pathogens are agents of disease.
  • In this group we stick everything that is
    pathogenic, but generally, the smaller agents of
    disease such as the prions, viruses, rickettsia,
    bacteria and fungi.

5
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Parasites are large pathogens living at the
    expense of their hosts.
  • Parasites conduct parasitism, in that they gain
    their nutrition by consuming their live host.

6
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • The rule is that parasite populations do not
    kill the host, but rather lives off it long
    enough to grow, mature, and propagate.
  • Rules are meant to be broken!
  • We generally call the protozoa, the
    ectoparasites, the migrating insect larvae, and
    the worms, parasites.

7
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Predators gain their nutrition by killing and
    consuming our desirable animals in essence, they
    commit predation. This action is to be
    distinguished from depredation, wherein our
    targeted animals are killed and/or maimed not for
    nutritional needs, but due to instinctive needs
    of our pet dogs.

8
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Predators, parasites and pathogens partake in
    direct action upon our targeted animals.
  • They consume their targets.
  • Pests, and most organisms which serve as disease
    reservoirs or vectors, indirectly cause detriment
    in our schemes of husbandry.

9
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Pests are kleptoparasites.
  • They cause a forfeit in production by indirectly
    being injurious and/or a nuisance.
  • Unlike predators, parasites and pathogens, pests
    are not metabolically or biologically dependent
    upon our targeted organisms (unless they consume
    or spoil feedstuffs e.g. birds, rodents, etc.).

10
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • They choose to live within our artificial worlds
    of husbandry and maintain a niche therein.
  • Many offending species flourish on our farms,
    maintaining populations much greater than those
    seen in environments divorced of mankind.

11
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Unfortunately, our selected/desirable organisms
    will continue to suffer detriment from the
    undesirables for the foreseeable future.
  • In support of that conclusion, let me offer a few
    reasons

12
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Introduction of new species
  • In many instances, organisms have been placed
    into unnatural environments, either as selected
    organisms or as undesirables. The introduced
    organism might flourish (no natural checks and
    balances) or be subject to constant assault (ill
    equipped for the new environment).

13
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Genetic selection (manipulation)
  • In the majority (if not all) of instances where
    man has selected a targeted animal, the
    domestication and husbandry which followed was
    coupled with selective breeding a means by which
    a more desirable animal was developed. These
    modified animals are refined to better suit our
    needs, but they have been sacrificed means of
    survival evolved through thousands of years of
    natural selection. Examples of these
    debilitated commercial animals include turkeys,
    chickens and polled livestock. Cloning needs to
    be mentioned here as well.

14
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Management and husbandry practices
  • For the most part, commercial animal production
    involves a concentration of selected animals in
    small areas witness chickens, turkeys, swine,
    feedlots, dairies, etc. By concentrating our
    animals, we aid the transmission of parasites and
    other pathogens. Concentrating sheep also makes
    for less toil on the part of the coyote. We house
    our animals as a method of sheltering them from
    adverse ambient conditions. However, housing
    provides new and optimal harborage for many pests
    (starlings, sparrows, rats, mud daubers,
    swallows, mice, etc.).

15
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Resilience of the undesirables
  • In the majority of cases, the undesirables have
    been able to overcome the control measures we put
    in place. Rats and coyotes are innately adept at
    circumventing most physical barriers we put in
    their way. Squirrels, raccoons, deer, wrens,
    starlings and many other pests appear both
    motivated and thrilled to succeed in the face of
    our control measures.

16
  • Not only do the undesirables defeat our physical
    methods of control, they also have an excellent
    record of resisting our various attempts at
    chemical intervention. Resistance to chemicals is
    common in fecund pest and pathogen populations.
    Chemical resistance in pathogen populations is a
    major concern today.

17
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Undesirables omnipresence
  • Our offending agents are opportunists. They are
    always around, and looking for a chance to
    infect, consume, reproduce, etc. Most of our
    undesirables are capable of impressive levels of
    reproduction or propagation fulmination or
    fecundity. Not only do they reproduce well, they
    also gear their rates of reproduction to the
    current state of affairs (carrying capacity). If
    more offending organisms can be sustained in the
    environment, they will heed that signal in a
    number of ways.

18
  • Most of the true pests and predators can be
    segmented into offending and reservoir
    populations. The offending individuals are the
    ones currently inflicting losses to our
    agriculture. When we curb their numbers,
    surrounding (reservoir) undesirables of the same
    species sense the vacuum in the carrying
    capacity and respond by increased immigration,
    reduced competition and enhanced reproduction
    all elements of compensatory responsiveness.

19
  • A definite 7(h sense which is well developed in
    undesirables is the ability to measure and
    respond to carrying capacity in the ecosystem
    (i.e. the niche and the nidus). When more
    individuals are needed, the response is
    immediate. Likewise, when fewer individuals are
    dictated, change is equally as swift.

20
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Targeted animals will never become completely,
    protectively resistant or immune to the
    undesirables
  • Predator incisors will forever remain lethal.
    Woodchuck holes will always break legs and
    machinery. Parasites will always be able to
    parasitize their host species. Pathogens will
    always find susceptible organisms for their
    populations, as well as develop resistance to any
    medication.

21
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • We will not develop sufficient silver bullets,
    nor can we completely/economically remove our
    targeted animals from all populations of
    undesirables.
  • Our chickens, turkeys and hogs have for the most
    part been housed away from almost all of their
    respective undesirables, save for rodents,
    parasites and other pathoens. Our herbivores,
    however, must remain on arable land, well within
    the realm of all undesirables. Gnotobiotic
    rearing of animals for commercial production is a
    pipe dream. As for the silver bullets, we
    havent done very well. There have been some
    success stories, but for the most part,
    undesirables are doing just fine across this
    planet of ours.

22
The major offending agents in livestock
production in Arkansas
  • Our appetite for agricultural goods is
    insatiable, and getting worse
  • Things are moving in the wrong direction. Our
    usable land for production is diminishing. The
    human population is expanding at exponential
    rates. Generally speaking, the human population
    on this earth is getting more and more
    carnivorous. Our need for animal agriculture,
    therefore, is increasing. We get more and more
    offending organisms every year, not only in our
    animals, but in us as well. Resistance in the
    offending organisms is out of control. Its
    enough to lose sleep over ! I dont know how many
    horses of apocalypse there are, but one thing for
    sure, theyre being saddled!

23
Offending agents according to size, and for the
most part, complexity
  • The noncellular agents of disease

24
  • Prion protein
  • A naked, infectious, proteinaceous particle which
    is theorized to trigger disease.
  • Example diseases include BSE (bovine spongiform
    encephalopathy), Scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jacob
    Disease and Kuru.
  • These diseases are also said to be in a class of
    diseases called wasting diseases (WD) and
    transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE).
  • Exact mechanism of disease is still not
    documented (theres a lot about these diseases
    and agents that is not documented).
  • It appears that in the central nervous tissue,
    the abnormal prion protein (PrP) attaches to
    the normal prion protein in cell membranes, and
    induces a transformation of the normal protein
    structure a mechanism that continues until
    cells die thereby leaving holes in the brain
    (spongiform).

25
  • Viroid
  • A naked, RNA strand.
  • Causes plant diseases.
  • Virino
  • An RNA strand enveloped by protein.
  • Some maintain that the wasting diseases may be
    caused by virinos and not PrP.

26
  • Virus
  • Virion which is composed of DNA or RNA complement
    contained in a capsid. Many examples of disease
    (rabies, flu, cold, etc.).
  • Refer to figures 1 and 2.

27
(No Transcript)
28
  • These organisms are for the most part extremely
    cell specific having receptors on their capsid
    surface that are specific for structures on the
    surface of cells which they attack.
  • Generally speaking, after attachment, the virus
    eventually releases its nucleic acid into the
    cell, and the virus nucleic acid in turn
    controls the cell.

29
  • The result is cell dysfunction and/or cell death
    (cytocidal activity).
  • Examples of the disruptive actions of viruses on
    cells include -inhibition of cell nucleic acid
    action -damage to cell lysosomes causing the
    intracellular release of enzymes -alteration of
    plasma membrane components and correspondingly,
    cell integrity, function, antigenicity, etc
    (HIV, measles ,herpes) -inclusion body
    interference of cell function (Rabies and Negri
    bodies) -induction of neoplasm or malignancy
    -cell lysis due to virion production -disabling
    host cell and thereby allowing other damage (ex.
    Pasturella)

30
Offending agents according to size, and for the
most part, complexity
  • The cellular agents of disease

31
  • The prokarvotes
  • Rickettsias and Chlamydophilae
  • Same size as large viruses (pox), and also
    require a living cell in which to reproduce.
  • Unlike viruses, they have both RNA and DNA, a
    plasma membrane, ribosomes, etc.
  • Like viruses however, they are obligate,
    intracellular parasites.
  • The favorite cells for rickettsia invasion and
    destruction are erythrocytes, reticuloendothelial
    and vascular endothelial cells.
  • Rickettsial diseases include Rocky Mountain
    Spotted Fever (RMSF), typhus and ehrlichiosis.
  • Arthropod vectors are the norm for Rickettsiales
    (makes sense given their site of predilection
    i.e. nidus)
  • Chiamydophilae diseases are of epithelial cell
    membranes and include a wide array of sexually
    transmitted, urogenital maladies (urethritis,
    endometritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory
    disease (PID), etc).

32
  • Mycoplasma
  • A gram negative bacteria (like rickettsia and
    chlamydophilae), but they are the smallest
    bacteria capable of reproduction without the
    aid of a living cell.
  • They cause many pneumonias in animals and man
    (very fond of respiratory and urogenital mucous
    membranes).

33
  • Rest of the prokaryotes (gram negative the gram
    positive bacteria)
  • An extremely diverse group of organisms that are
    classified according to their unique
    characteristics.
  • Some of the groups are spirochetes (ex. Borrelia
    and Leptospira), rods (ex. Escherichia,
    Salmonella and Yersinia), cocci (ex.
    Staphylococcus and Streptococcus),
    endospore-forming (Bacillus and Clostridium),
    mycobacteria (ex. M. bovis and leprae) and the
    actinomycetes (ex. Streptomyces)

34
  • The methods by which the above prokaryotic
    microbes cause harm to the host cells and tissues
    are many.
  • Many methods are shared by most, and many methods
    are unique to one or a few.

35
  • A partial list of the pathogenic actions of these
    bugs follows
  • binding to cell membranes and negating attachment
    site functions
  • inhibition of cell protein synthesis, leading to
    cell dysfunction and death
  • secretion of LPS (lipopolysaccharide) endotoxin
    from gram negative bacteria thereby causing
    fever, etc
  • secretion of exotoxins of specific functions
    (leukocidin, hemolysin, fibrinolysin, etc)

36
  • The eukaryotes
  • . Fungi Multinucleated, eukaryote with many
    formations. Corn plex aggregations and
    non-motile.
  • Yeast form usually causes disease and mold form
    in the environment (YM Shift) action of the
    dimorphic fungi. These organisms are primarily
    saprophytes (absorbing nutrients from dead
    substrate) These pathogens primarily cause their
    detrimental effects through the secretion and
    action of a wide array of toxins (eg. aflatoxins)
    and hydrolytic enzymes, causing host protein and
    enzyme inhibition, cell degeneration, tumor
    induction, severe allergies, etc All pathogens
    are more virulent the less immunologically
    capable the invaded organism is. But seemingly,
    fungi do better than most in AIDS patients and
    those on corticosteroid therapy

37
  • The eukaryotes
  • Fungi
  • Multinucleated, eukaryote with many formations.
    Complex aggregations and non-motile.
  • Yeast form usually causes disease and mold form
    in the environment (YM Shift) action of the
    dimorphic fungi. These organisms are primarily
    saprophytes (absorbing nutrients from dead
    substrate)
  • These pathogens primarily cause their detrimental
    effects through the secretion and action of a
    wide array of toxins (eg. aflatoxins) and
    hydrolytic enzymes, causing host protein and
    enzyme inhibition, cell degeneration, tumor
    induction, severe allergies, etc
  • All pathogens are more virulent the less
    immunologically capable the invaded organism is,
    but seemingly, fungi do better than most in AIDS
    patients and those on corticosteroid therapy.

38
  • Protozoa
  • Eukaryote also with many forms and types.
    One-celled, motile animals. The diversity in
    this group is amazing, and correspondingly, the
    protozoa are subdivided according to major
    characteristics.
  • These subgroupings (simplified to the point of
    being wrong) include the amoeba, the flagellates
    (trypanosomes and Giardia), the ciliates and the
    most important when it comes to disease in our
    animals, the Apicomplexa (Plasmodium, Toxoplasma,
    Cryptosporidia and Elmeria).
  • Their means of being pathogenic are similar to
    those of the fungi and the bacteria (cell
    destruction, protein inhibition, toxin secretion,
    etc), but with the protozoa and the larger
    parasites, we seem to enter a new world of
    pathogenesis, and that is disease with direction
    and design.

39
  • These more advanced bugs have more genome to work
    with as they cause disease, and they do us it.
    Some of these actions include
  • sexual and asexual reproduction (fungi do this
    also)
  • immune response interaction and regulation
  • many changes in stage, activity, pathogenicity,
    etc
  • an apparent awareness of where they are and what
    is most appropriate to do next

40
  • Metazoans
  • Multicellular eukaryotes.
  • The traditional parasites (endo- and ecto-).
  • First, the endoparasites
  • Helminths Nematodes (roundworms) Cestodes
    (tapeworms) Trematodes (flukes or flatworms)
    Acanthacephala (thorny-heads) Insect larvae
    These, are the myiatic (myiasis) larvae
  • And now, the ectoparasites
  • The insects Lice Flies Fleas The arachnids
    Mites Ticks

41
  • The means by which these metazoan parasites are
    pathogenic are multiple.
  • Pathology / detriment is at the subcellular,
    cellular, tissue, organ and organismal level.
  • Different from the smaller pathogens, these
    giants of the pathogen world inflict physical
    damage as well as the other means of damage.
  • Insects and arthropods bite and suck blood.
  • Helminths bite as well, eating tissue
    (histophagic) and blood (haematophagic) at
    incredible rates.

42
  • Also due to their size, the metazoan pathogens
    carve access routes into their hosts for the
    smaller pathogens to follow.
  • Some metazoans also actually inject other
    pathogens into the host tissue.
  • In addition, these larger pathogens are very
    adept at negating or evading the immune response
    of the host, not only aiding themselves, but the
    little pathogens that are there as opportunists.
  • Its one big party of pathology this bug that
    bug, this tissue that tissue, this drug that
    doesnt work and that drug that doesnt work,
    etc. and to make it more interesting theres new
    bugs coming every year.

43
  • The pests Whatever indirectly gets in the way
    of the producer being efficient economically and
    timely of / from his animals.
  • The predators Whatever, without our permission,
    eats, or tries to eat (or destroy) the animals we
    are producing.

44
THE BEEF INDUSTRY IN THE USA
  • The segments
  • Purebred/ Seedstock Producers produce high
    quality bulls (and some cows) that are used for
    breeding at commercial operations. - some pens,
    but primarily pasture - very high quality
    control
  • Cow-calf producers produce the cattle that are
    destined for the table. - consists of mother
    cows that are either pregnant and/or nursing
    their calves. - fall or spring calving
    operations. - all on pasture.
  • Yearling or stocker operations get their calves
    from cow-calf producers, and grow the calves
    until they are ready for the feedlot. - all on
    pasture. - production phase of most disease
    potential due to the constant influx of
    new/stressed animals.
  • Feedlot or finishing phase getting the cattle
    ready for slaughter. - animals in feedlot
    usually for 120 -150 days. - basically, animals
    in confinement (high density with all feed in
    bunks). - very high quality control.

45
  • The major offenders (plus, some which bear
    mentioning)
  • Prions - Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (B
    SE) - Mad cow disease - One of several chronic
    wasting diseases (CWD) - Surveillance, testing,
    quarantine, eradication, major economic losses. A
    country buster. - Englandgt Canadagt USA. - No
    cure or medical intervention
  • Viruses - Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
    (IBR) - Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) -
    Parainfluenza Three (P13) - Bovine Respiratory
    Syncytial Virus (BRSV) - The above viruses
    controlled by proper management and vaccination
    - FMD. Foot and Mouth Disease.
    Surveillance/monitoring, testing, quarantine,
    eradication. Not in the USA, but close.

46
  • Bacteria - Leptospira (leptospirosis)
    abortion - Campylobacter fetus abortion -
    Moraxella bovis pinkeye (with flies) -
    Pasture/la and Mannheimia shipping fever -
    Brucella abortus (brucellosis, undulant fever) -
    Control by vaccination, antibiotics, culling,
    quarantine, proper husbandry, etc.
  • Fungus - Trichophyton (ringworm figure 3) -
    Controlled by topicals and proper husbandry
  • Protozoa - Eimeria causes diarrhea (figure 4)
    - Giardia as a zoonotic potential (figure 5) -
    Cryptosporidia as a zoonotic potential (figure 6)
    - Toxoplasma as a zoonotic potential (figure 7)
    - Controlled by anti-protozoals and husbandry
  • Helminths
  • Nematodes (roundworms) - Ostertagia (brown
    stomach worm figure 8) - Cooperia (figure 9) -
    Haemonchus (barber-poled worm figure 10)

47
  • Trematodes(flukes) - Fasciola and Fascioloides
    (figure 11)
  • Cestodes (tapeworms) - none that are really
    important, but figure 12 anyway. Helminths
    controlled with anthelmintics (nematocides,
    flukacides, endectocides, etc.), and to some
    degree, by management.

48
  • Arthropods
  • Insecta
  • Adult Diptera (flies) - Stomoxys calcitrans
    (stable fly figure 13) - Haematobia irritans
    (horn fly figure 14) - Aedes,Anopheles Culex
    (mosquito figure 15) - Tabunus Chrysops
    (horse fly, deer fly figure 16) - Musca
    autumnalis (face fly figure 17) - Controlled by
    insecticides on premises or the animals
    (pyrethroids, organophosphates, etc)
  • Fly larvae (myiasis)- Hypoderma (warble or
    cattle grub figure 18) - Controlled by
    endectocides usually - Cochliomyia horn inovorax
    (primary screwworm figure 19) - Eradicated from
    the US
  • Filth flies - Musca dornestica (house fly) and
    S calcitrans (stable fly) - Controlled by
    insecticides on premise or animals and. sanitary
    practices - Some biological control available
    (parasitic wasps)
  • Lice - Mallophaga (Chewing lice) - Bovicola
    bovis (cattle biting louse figure 20)) -
    Anoplura (Sucking lice figure 21)) -
    Linognathus vitulli (long nose sucking louse) -
    Solenoptes cap illatus (little blue sucking
    louse) - Controlled by insecticides
    endectocides

49
  • Arachinda
  • Ticks - Argasidae (soft ticks) - Otobius
    megnini (spinose ear tick) Gotch ear(fig 22)
    - Ixodidae (hard ticks) - Amblyomma americanum
    (lone star tick fig 23)) - Dermacentor
    variabilis (dog tick fig 24)) - Controlled by
    pasture / brush management and insecticides.
  • Mites - Sarcoptic is the oniy one in Arkansas
    (fig 25) - Controlled by husbandry,
    endectocides, topical insecticides, etc.
  • Pests - A touch of gopher, woodchuck, mole and
    beaver (figure 26) - Controlled by lethal
    extraction
  • Predators (figure 27) a. Vulture b. Coyote c.
    Dog - controlled by oversight (management /
    husbandry), dogs, bullets, trapping etc

50
THE DAIRY COW INDUSTRY IN THE USA
  • A characterization of the industry -
    historically, family-owned and operated. - very,
    very, very labor intensive. - 24 by 7, every
    week of the year! - Tendency for fewer farms,
    and many more animals per farm 42 decrease
    in of farms in last 20 years. Only 10
    decrease in animal s in last 20 years. Cows
    are walking, cud-chewing milk factories.
    Average cows now produce about 20,000 Lbs/305
    days. - Housing is a major element Huts or
    lots for calves. Restricted pasture for
    replacements and dry cattle. Free-stall and
    parlor for milkers

51
  • The Major Offenders of dairy animals (and some of
    note)
  • Prions - BSE of major concern here because all
    cull cows are old enough for presentation
  • Viruses - IBR and BVD - Rotavirus and
    coronavirus for scours - control via husbandry
    and vaccination
  • Bacteria - Leptospira for leptospirosis
    abortions - Esherichia coil for diarrhea, etc.
    - Streptococcus and Staphylococcus for mastitis
    - Bruce/ia (brucellosis) - Myco bacterium (TB)
    - control by husbandry, antibiotics,
    vaccinations, etc.

52
  • Fungi - Trichophyton (ringworm or
    dermatophytosis) - control by husbandry and
    topicals
  • Protozoa - Eimeria for intestinal coccidiosis
    - Ciyptosporidia of zoonotic potential -
    Giardia of zoonotic potential
  • Helminths Nematodes
  • - Ostertagia - Cooperia - Nematodirus
  • Trematodes - Fasciola and Fasciolo ides -
    Cestodes - none of real importance
  • Arthropods (relative to disease) - Basically,
    same as with beef cattle

53
  • Pests (on the premises)
  • Birds - Starlings - Swallows - Pigeons -
    English sparrows - Figure 28
  • Rodents - House mice - Brown rats - Figure 29
    Anthropods - House flies, stable flies - Mud
    daubers - Brown wasps

54
  • Predators - Not really a problem due to
    confinement nature of most dairy animals.

55
PIG PRODUCTION IN THE USA
  • Segments of the industry
  • Feeder pig production Pigs weaned at an early
    age (about 3 wks), or a bit older (6 wks), and
    then sold/moved to feeder pig operations. Same as
    (c) below, minus the growing pigs.
  • Feeder pig finishing operations Pigs acquired
    from (a) above and grown to slaughter weight of
    approx. 260 lbs.
  • Farrow-to-finish operation On-farm segregation
    of breeding animals (sows plus boars or Al),
    farrowing animals, nursery, resting females in
    some phase of gestation, and growing pigs.
  • Purebred breeders and breeding stock providers
    Operations where boars and gilts of superior and
    / or defined genetics are developed, evaluated,
    and supplied to the industry. Hybrid or
    crossbred animals developed as well.
    Crossbreeding is jg in all animal productions.
  • The integrated, multi-site, all phase pig
    operations These operations have all phases
    purebred herds, gestating/farrowing herds with
    nursery, feeder pig growing facility and
    finishing facility. Total control of animals at
    all times lends to greater coordination and less
    animal stress.

56
  • Common to all swine operations (above) are
  • Total or near total confinement on concrete and
    within metal.
  • Completely processed feed that is fed with
    automation.
  • Waste containment.
  • Quality control (genetics, waste, feed,
    environment, health, pests, etc).
  • An animal of unique personality.
  • Pecking orders, high anxiety, easily stressed,
    escape artists, etc.

57
  • Some of the more important swine diseases
  • Viral
  • Porcine Reproductive Respiratory Syndrome
    (PRRS) - the most costly disease currently -
    depopulate - didnt even exist before 1991
  • Pseudorabies - Mad itch or Aujeskys disease -
    reportable disease - Arkansas is free, so no
    vaccinations are permitted
  • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) - USA is free -
    Quarantine, slaughter, carcass burning -
    Vesicular exanthema and stomatitis consideration
  • Transmissible Gastroenteritis (TGE) - High
    mortality in young pigs - Controlled through
    sow immunization and passive immunity in the pigs

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  • Bacterial
  • Mycoplasma Pneumonia
  • Colibacillosis (E coil) - baby pig scours
  • Atrophic rhinitis
  • Brucellosis (B suis) - test and remove reactors
  • Erysipelas (Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae) -
    extensive reservoirs (rats, birds, etc) -
    vaccination
  • Greasy Pig Syndrome (Staphylococcus hyicus) -
    antibiotics and needle teeth clipping

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  • Protozoa
  • Coccidiosis (enteric)
  • Toxoplasmosis (somatic)

60
POULTRY INDUSTRIES IN THE USA
  • Introduction
  • Poultry means chickens, turkeys, geese, ducks,
    pigeons, peafowl, guineas, etc.
  • In the USA, chickens and turkeys are our major
    poultry.
  • In the course of a years time in the USA, we
    produce approximately 330 million turkeys, 330
    million laying hens (for eating eggs), 8
    billion broilers and 80 billion eggs (here again,
    for eating).
  • Needless to say, the size of the industry is
    immense, and getting bigger all the time.
  • Poultry consumption is increasing worldwide
    whereas most other animal productions have
    plateaued.

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  • As to housing, all commercial chickens and
    turkeys are produced in confinement, with an
    environment that is almost totally sealed and
    controlled.
  • Recently, a trend for organic and natural
    production has taken hold foremost in poultry
    but to a lesser extent with the other forms of
    animal production.
  • Foremost also in Europe, but being driven to some
    degree in the USA This is probably because
    commercial poultry production is most removed
    from the natural and hence has captured the
    attention of those who focus on such things (food
    wholesomeness and humane animal production).

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  • Segments of the industries
  • The chicken side a. Egg production - breeding
    hens and roosters on litter (with nests) for eggs
    - eggs collected, and incubated as well as
    hatched at the hatchery b. Meat production -
    breeding hens and roosters on litter (with nests)
    for eggs - eggs collected, and incubated as well
    as hatched at the hatchery - all chicks to the
    broiler house (on litter) - chickens to
    processing plant

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  • The turkey side a. Egg production. Males (on
    litter) collected - Females (on litter)
    artificially inseminated (Al) - Eggs collected,
    and removed to hatchery for incubation and
    hatching - Poults are sexed b. Meat
    production. - Birds placed in grower barns -
    Birds processed

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  • Some of the diseases of most concern to the
    chicken and turkey industries in the USA
  • Viral and Bacterial Diseases of Chickens
  • Respiratory diseases a. Avian influenza
    Bird flu ! High and low pathogen
    Quarantine and depopulation b. The other,
    everyday, pathogens Myco plasma gallisepticum
    and M synoviae (MGandMS) Laryngotracheitis
    virus (LT) Newcastle virus

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  • Gastrointestinal diseases
  • multiple organism / factor etiology
  • poor feed efficiency
  • flushing/malabsorption syndrome
  • Generalized disease
  • Ecoli
  • Chicken anaemia and Infectious bursal disease
    (IBD)
  • Gangrenous dermatitis

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  • Viral and Bacterial Diseases of Turkeys
  • Septicemias Ecoli
  • Respiratory Bacterial and viral
  • Gastrointestinal Spiking mortality Viral
    and bacterial

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  • Protozoan
  • Coccidiosis (Eimeria spp) One of the most
    expensive disease of chickens and turkeys on
    litter. Controlled with anticoccidials mostly,
    but some vaccination, management, etc.
  • Histomoniasis (Hisiomonas meleagridis)
    Blackhead disease. Cecal worm (Heterakis
    gallinarum) as biological vector. Control at
    many levels.

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  • Helminthiasis A worm, or set of worms, for
    every poultry type (fig 37) Chickens
    Young birds get roundworms. Older birds
    get wireworms, cecal worms and tapeworms.
    Turkeys All turkeys get roundworms(figure
    36)
  • Infestations (1) A touch of mites with laying
    chickens (moving pictures)

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  • Arthropod pests (1) Litter beetles (fig 38)
    (2) Carpenter bees (3) Wasps (figure 33) - Mud
    dauber - Yellow Jacket - Bald-faced hornet -
    Paper wasp (4) Bees (fig 34) - Honey -Bee -
    African (killer)and Africanized (5) Spiders
    - web problems - poisonous (figure 34) (6)
    Flies - House - Stable - Filth

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  • Chordate pests (1) Avian - House sparrow -
    Swallow (2) Mammalian - House mouse (fig 29)
    - Norway rat
  • Predators (1) Norway rat (fig 29) (2) Skunk
    (fig 30) (3) Raccoon (fig 32) (4) Cats (5)
    Mink (fig 30)

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PARASITES
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PARASITES
  • Parasites may be insects (wasps, flies, and
    beetles), mites, or nematodes.
  • Parasites are usually free-living adults which
    lay eggs on or within a living host which is
    larger and/or stronger than themselves.
  • The immature(s) gradually feed on host tissues
    until the host is killed.

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PARASITES
  • Parasitic immatures can complete development in
    one host.
  • Because they are extremely specialized, they
    often only attack one or a few closely related
    species of insect.
  • They DO NOT harm humans or their pets.

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PARASITES
  • Some parasites have extremely complex and
    wondrous life cycles.
  • For example, a eucharitid wasp that is a parasite
    of ants lays her eggs on the leaves of trees.
  • The eggs hatch into a mobile immature that is
    able to crawl about on the leaf surface.

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PARASITES
  • In the spring, worker ants climb into the trees
    in search of aphids and other insects for food.
  • The parasite larva attaches itself to any worker
    ant that comes close and, when the worker ant
    returns to its nest, it carries along the
    parasite.

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PARASITES
  • Once in the nest, the parasite drops off and
    attaches itself to a larval ant.
  • The wasp larva feeds on the ant larva, eventually
    killing the ant.
  • After emergence from the pupa, the adult wasp
    flies out of the ant nest to lay her eggs on
    leaves once more.

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PARASITES
  • Other types of parasitic wasps control aphids.
    The female lays an egg inside an aphid.
  • The activity of the immature wasp within the
    aphid causes it to form a stiff, immobile form
    called a "mummy."
  • Homeowners should leave mummies alone, and not
    wash them off the plant, because the new adult
    wasp will emerge and attack more aphids.

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                                 Aphid Mummies
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PARASITES
  • Gardeners may encounter caterpillars, such as
    hornworms, suddenly decorated with white egg-like
    structures.
  • These are actually wasp pupae within silken
    cocoons.
  • The caterpillar should be left alone, because it
    will soon die, and the wasps will emerge and
    attack more caterpillars.

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PARASITES
  • Sometimes homeowners may find wasps with long
    projections or what they may call "stingers" at
    the end to their abdomen.
  • These are members of another group of parasitic
    wasps called "ichneumonids."

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PARASITES
  • The tail is a long tube used for laying eggs, or
    "ovipositor."
  • They use the ovipositor to lay eggs in insect
    larvae found feeding deep within plants, or even
    wood.
  • They are completely harmless to humans.

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PARASITES
  • Bee flies are examples of flies that are
    parasites of other insects as larvae.
  • The adult flies mimic bees and may be mistaken
    for the predatory flower flies discussed in the
    previous section.
  • The larvae attack the eggs or immatures of
    grasshoppers, beetles, moths, bees, and wasps.

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                              Parasitic Fly
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PARASITES
  • Nematodes are hair-like worms found naturally in
    the soil. Many are microscopic in size and vary
    in life-style.
  • The parasitic forms generally feed on insects
    that are found in the soil during one or more
    stages of their life cycle, such as white grubs,
    root maggots or weevils.
  • Some forms are available commercially for insect
    control.

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PARASITES
  • The advantages of using a parasite to control an
    insect is that they tend to be very specific, and
    attack only one or a few closely related species.
  • Some have short life spans, and can build up to
    high numbers quickly.
  • An example of a successful use of parasites is to
    control flies in dairy barns.

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PARASITES
  • The parasitic wasp lays an egg in the pupa of the
    fly, and thus prevents emergence of the adult.
  • Dairy farmers must change their management
    practices in order to maintain the wasps,
    however.
  • Because the wasps emerge from the fly pupae, the
    farmer must be aware of where flies pupate and
    reduce insecticide use in those areas.
  • Fly predators may be found in those areas as well.

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DISEASES
  • All the different disease organisms, including
    viruses, rickettsia, bacteria, protozoa and
    fungi, attack insects.
  • Some disease organisms have been grown
    commercially, and sold over-the-counter for
    insect control.
  • A classic example is the bacteria, Bacillus
    thuringiensis (also called Bt).

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DISEASES
  • This bacteria produces a toxin which disrupts the
    gut of the insect that eats it.
  • Commercial preparations are available from
    several nurseries and garden supply companies for
    the control of various pests with chewing
    mouthparts, especially Lepidoptera.

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DISEASES
  • A related bacteria, Bacillus popillae causes
    milky spore disease of Japanese beetle larvae and
    other white grubs.
  • Although they have yet to be used commercially,
    insect viruses can control pest insects
    successfully.

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DISEASES
  • They are passed from insect to insect in much the
    same way as between humans, but are specific to
    insects.
  • Fungal pathogens are also known to attack
    insects, but are often more difficult to grow
    commercially than bacteria.
  • Fungi generally require high relative humidity to
    germinate and to infect the target insect, but do
    not need to be consumed to be effective.

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CONCLUSION
  • Indirect evidence suggests biological control
    agents may be extremely important for keeping
    pest insects in check.
  • When an insect is introduced into a new area and
    leaves its natural enemies behind, it often will
    become a serious pest.

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CONCLUSION
  • There are many examples of insects that are of
    little or no importance in their native land,
    that devastate our crops when introduced here.
  • One such example is the Russian wheat aphid.
  • In Eastern Europe, where it is native, the
    Russian wheat aphid is of little concern.
  • But once it was accidentally introduced to North
    America, populations exploded and it became a
    major pest in the mid-west and western wheat
    producing areas.

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CONCLUSION
  • In order to control the outbreak, scientists
    visited areas where the pest was native in search
    of predators and parasites that fed on the aphid.
  • These insects were gathered and shipped back to
    the United States where, after a period of
    quarantine, they have been released.
  • There are disadvantages of using solely
    biological control, however.

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CONCLUSION
  • First of all, the insect pests do not necessarily
    disappear quickly.
  • We have begun to expect instant results in our
    world of microwave ovens and one-hour-photo
    shops, but often biological control agents
    require weeks, months or sometimes even years to
    bring populations of pests under control.

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CONCLUSION
  • And a "good" predator or parasite never
    completely wipes out its host or prey because it
    would go out of business.
  • The idea is to hold pest numbers below the level
    of damage that can be tolerated by the consumer
    or gardener.
  • Biological control agents are often successful at
    that level.

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  • http//www.pestworld.org/
  • http//cals.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/entomology/
    biological.htmlpredators

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NATURE AND EVOLUTION OF WEEDS
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The problem - weeds and humans
  • Why study weeds? Practically - because weeds are
    a nuisance by being aggressive, troublesome, and
    undesirable

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The problem - weeds and humans Why study weeds?
  • Need to know the role of weeds as we manipulate
    plants to our advantage
  • Man produces crops under conditions of a
    controlled environment - pure culture and in rows
    which is contrary to natures ways, no one
    species can fully exploit the resources of a
    habitat
  • There is no single operation under the control of
    the producer that can influence the final returns
    so greatly
  • The universal occurrence of weeds as constant
    components of agricultural environments as
    opposed to the epidemic nature of other pests has
    delayed recognition of the importance of weed
    control in crop production

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The problem - weeds and humans History of the
term weed
  • History of the term weed
  • Not a lot of evidence for the origin of the word
  • Biblical word tare (freely translated as weed)
  • Weed - may have been an accident of usage
  • Jethro Tull (1731) - was among the first to use
    the word weed as present spelling and meaning

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The problem - weeds and humans History of the
term weed
  • Definition
  • Many have been offered
  • Weed - Any plant that is objectionable or
    interferes with the activities or welfare of man
    (WSSA)
  • More often, a particular weed species is not at
    the wrong place at the wrong time, but rather
    very highly specialized to fit in a particular
    created niche

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Evolution of weeds
  • Plant succession - is a natural, orderly,
    continuous process resulting from a modification
    of the physical environment by the plant
    community
  • Types (2) a. Primary succession - the
    establishment of plants on land that has never
    been vegetated b. Secondary succession - the
    pattern of change in a community after a radical
    disturbance has occurred

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Evolution of weeds
  • Phases (3) a. Pioneer b. Intermediate serial
    stage c. Climax - last stage

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Evolution of weeds
  • Plant succession scheme - weeds are pioneers of
    secondary plant succession - man continues to
    force curve towards higher food value crops

107
Evolution of weeds Why do we have weeds?
  • Agriculture favors invasion by weeds since weeds
    are a highly successful and biologically
    important component of their environment
  • Unfortunately, almost all human activity results
    in unstable or disturbed environments
  • Plant succession typically proceeds from a
    condition of instability to a condition of
    stability which is in direct contradiction to
    agriculture

108
Evolution of weeds Why do we have weeds?
  • Crops are in pure culture and in rows which is
    contrary to nature
  • Plants (we call weeds) have always been a feature
    of disturbed sites
  • The weed flora is in a continual state of flux

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Evolution of weeds Why do we have weeds?
  • The bottom line is that regardless of how
    producers change production systems or what
    habitats they create, undesirable plants will
    adapt to the production system or habitat and
    will be recognized as weeds
  • Thus, unnoticed weeds today will likely be a
    problem tomorrow
  • Also, remember approximately 53 of weeds in U.S.
    are aliens

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Evolution of weeds Weeds in the U.S.
  • Before the land was settled
  • Central part largely grasslands and forest
  • Stable vegetation
  • Few weeds were present along streams, animal
    paths, and early native human settlements

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Evolution of weeds Weeds in the U.S.
  • With development of agriculture
  • Weeds came from other parts of the world - Europe
  • Moved with migration of humans to U.S.
    (predominately east to west)

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Evolution of weeds Weeds in the U.S.
  • Examples (1) Johnsongrass - from Turkey to South
    Carolina, about 1830 (2) Large crabgrass - U.S.
    Patent Office introduced as forage grass in 1849
    - one of the first cultivated grains (China, 2700
    B.C.) (3) Barnyardgrass - from Europe and India
    - a principal weed in rice and noted in China
    around 1590 - introduction into U.S. not
    documented

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Characteristics and habits of weeds
  • From many definitions, these characteristics
    emerge 1. Unsightly 2. High reproductive
    capacity 3. Large populations, rank and
    extensive growth 4. Growing in undesired
    location 5. Wild and rank growth 6. Competitive
    and aggressive habits 7. Spontaneous growth 8.
    Useless, unwanted, and undesirable 9.
    Persistence and resistance to control 10.
    Harmfull to humans, animals, and crops

114
Characteristics and habits of weeds
  • Not all weeds qualify in all these
    characteristics 1. Major characteristics a.
    Number of individuals produced b. Range of
    habits c. Ability to continue

115
Characteristics and habits of weeds
  • Habits of growth 1. Thrive under all conditions
    2. Can regenerate lost parts 3. Perennials can
    spread vegetatively 4. Inconspicuous flowers 5.
    Protective devices (spines, thorns, etc.)

116
Characteristics and habits of weeds
  • Habits of seed production 1. Tremendous seed
    production - 1,000,000 (mullein), 200,000
    (pigweeds), and 7,000 (barnyardgrass) 2.
    Longevity of buried seed 3. Can mature seed
    early 4. Seeds ripen at same time as crops 5.
    Seed often same size and shape as crop seed 6.
    Special structure for dissemination

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Weed Science as a discipline
  • Turning point was WWII with discovery of phenoxy
    acids (2,4-D)
  • Before that, control through mechanical and
    cultural practices
  • After, rapid development of chemical practices

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Weed Science as a discipline
  • Now, weed science is a full-fledged discipline
  • Formation of Weed Science Society of America
    (WSSA) 1956
  • Presently approximately 30 companies of which 8
    are major
  • 140 herbicides listed in 1994 WSSA handbook
  • Remember, for a pesticide such as a herbicide to
    be sold, it takes 8 to 12 years of testing and
    approximately 90 M invested in research
  • Future still looks bright

119
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
  • Weed identification - most important aspect of
    weed science because, in general, weeds must be
    identified at seedling growth stage
  • Means of identification - by sight start at the
    base and work towards top Stages of plant
    development

120
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification
  • Seed- a mature ripened ovule (1) Characteristics
    used in seed identification (a) Shape (b)
    Color (c) Nature and arrangement of markings on
    surface

121
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification
  • Seedling
  • Types of cotyledons
  • Monocots
  • One cotyledon
  • Leaves parallel veined with entire margins
  • Flower parts are arranged in 3s or multiples of
    3

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification
  • Dicots
  • Two cotyledons
  • Net veination of leaves
  • Flower parts are arranged in multiples of 2 or 5
  • Size and shape
  • Extremely critical stage due to ease of control

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification
  • Size and Shape
  • Extremely critical stage due to ease of control
  • Juvenile plant - other factors come into play
    such as leaf arrangement and stem shape
  • Mature plant - taxonomically required for
    accurate identification

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification
  • Reproductive parts - essential
  • Flower - a stem or branch bearing highly modified
    leaves concerned with sexual reproduction

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification
  • Receptacle - modified stem tip to which floral
    parts are attached
  • Perianth - calyx and corolla collectively
  • Calyx - outermost circle of floral parts - each
    called sepal
  • Corolla - next inner rank - each unit called
    petal and arranged alternately to sepals
  • Ordinarily calyx is present but numerous families
    do not have corolla

130
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification Parts of Flowers
  • The stamen has two parts anthers and filaments.
  • The anthers carry the pollen.
  • These are generally yellow in color.
  • Anthers are held up by a thread-like part called
    a filament.

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification Parts of Flowers
  • The pistil has three parts stigma, style, and
    ovary.
  • The stigma is the sticky surface at the top of
    the pistil it traps and holds the pollen.
  • The style is the tube-like structure that holds
    up the stigma.
  • The style leads down to the ovary that contains
    the ovules.

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification Types of Flowers
  • If a flower has a stamen, pistils, petals, and
    sepals, it is called a complete flower.
  • If one of these parts is missing, the flower is
    designated incomplete.
  • If a flower contains functional stamens and
    pistils, it is called a perfect flower. (Stamen
    and pistils are considered the essential parts of
    a flower.)
  • If either of the essential parts is lacking, the
    flower is imperfect.

135
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification Types of Flowers
  • Pistillate (female) flowers are those which
    possess a functional pistil(s) but lack stamens.
  • Staminate (male) flowers contain stamens but no
    pistils.
  • Because cross-fertilization combines different
    genetic material and produces stronger seed,
    cross-pollinated plants are usually more
    successful than self-pollinated plants.
  • Consequently, more plants reproduce by
    cross-pollination than self-pollination.

136
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification Types of Flowers
  • As previously mentioned, there are plants which
    bear only male flowers (staminate plants) or bear
    only female flowers (pistillate plants).
  • Species in which the sexes are separated into
    staminate and pistillate plants are called
    dioecious.
  • Most holly trees and pistachio trees are
    dioecious therefore, to obtain berries, it is
    necessary to have female and male trees.

137
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification Types of Flowers
  • Monoecious plants are those which have separate
    male and female flowers on the same plant. Corn
    plants and pecan trees are examples.
  • Some plants bear only male flowers at the
    beginning of the growing season, but later
    develop flowers of both sexes examples are
    cucumbers and squash.

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification How Seeds Form
  • Pollination is the transfer of pollen from an
    anther to a stigma. This may occur by wind or by
    pollinators.
  • Wind-pollinated flowers lack showy floral parts
    and nectar since they don't need to attract a
    pollinator.
  • Flowers are brightly colored or patterned and
    contain a fragrance or nectar when they must
    attract insects, animals, or birds.

140
WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification How Seeds Form
  • In the process of searching for nectar these
    pollinators will transfer pollen from flower to
    flower.
  • The stigma contains a chemical which stimulates
    the pollen, causing it to grow a long tube down
    the inside of the style to the ovules inside the
    ovary.
  • The sperm is released by the pollen grain and
    fertilization typically occurs.

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification How Seeds Form
  • Fertilization is the union of the male sperm
    nucleus (from the pollen grain) and the female
    egg (in the ovule).
  • If fertilization is successful, the ovule will
    develop into a seed.

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WEED IDENTIFICATION AND LOSSES CAUSED BY WEEDS
Means of identification Types of Inflorescences
  • Some plants bear only one flower per stem and are
    called solitary flowers.
  • Other plants produce an inflorescence, a term
    which refers to a
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