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High Middle Ages 1000 1300

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Richard I Lion-Hearted (r. 1189 1199) Serious warrior ... Great Schism - Leo X broke with the Eastern Orthodox Church in 1054 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: High Middle Ages 1000 1300


1
High Middle Ages 1000 - 1300
2
Europe 1000 AD
3
Norman Conquest of England
  • Invasion of the Kingdom of England by William the
    Conqueror
  • Battle of Hastings - 1066
  • Bayeux Tapestry
  • 3 Claimants to the Crown
  • Harold Godwineson
  • King Harald of Norway
  • William (Duke of Normandy)
  • Watershed in English history
  • Created one of the most powerful monarchies in
    Europe
  • Linked England with Continental Europe
  • Set the stage for English-French conflict
  • Changed the English language and culture
  • Near total loss for Anglo-Saxon aristocracy
  • Last successful military conquest of England

4
England 1066 - 1307
  • Establishment of Norman Monarchy
  • Great Council replaces Witan
  • Wars in France
  • Henry II (r. 1154 1189) expands territory
  • Eleanor of Aquitaine vast lands in France
  • Richard I Lion-Hearted (r. 1189 1199)
  • Serious warrior
  • John (r. 1199 1216) incompetent king
  • Magna Carta 1215
  • Kings are not above the law
  • King Could Not Collect Any New Tax Without
    the Consent of the Great
    Council
  • King could not violate due process of law
  • An accused Person Was Entitled to a Trial by a
    Jury of Peers
  • Parliament institution able to restrict power
    of the king
  • Knights burgesses elected
  • Becomes House of Commons House of Lords

5
Population of Europe Expands
  • In the 11th cen., people began to move outward
    into the wilderness, in what is known as the
    "great clearances"
  • During the High Middle Ages, forests and marshes
    were cleared and cultivated
  • Settlements moved beyond the traditional
    boundaries of the Frankish Empire to new
    frontiers in eastern Europe, beyond the Elbe
    River, tripling the size of Germany in the
    process
  • Reasons for this expansion and colonization
    include
  • An improving climate known as the Medieval warm
    period allowing longer more productive growing
    seasons
  • End of raids by Vikings Magyars resulting in
    greater political stability
  • Advancements in medieval technology allowing more
    land to be farmed
  • Reforms of the Church in the 11th century further
    increasing social stability
  • The rise of Feudalism, which also brought
    increased social stability and more mobility

6
Emergence of Cities
7
Emergence of Cities
  • Between 1150 and 1200 the number of chartered
    cities in the Holy Roman Empire tripled from 200
    to 600
  • New Cities vitality and squalor
  • Serfs flocked to the cities looking for
    opportunities
  • Serfs who lived within a city for a year and a
    day were no longer bound to the land
  • Town air makes men free
  • Tried to maintain independence of local lords and
    clergy
  • Independent charters from king
  • Developed their own municipal administration
  • Communes revolutions to gain independence of
    cities

8
Trade and Commerce
  • Trade drove the urban explosion
  • Cities grew on the trade routes
  • Italy, Flanders, France, Germany
  • New class of long-distance merchants
  • Traders began to create their own communities
  • Traders formed partnerships to share the rewards
    and the risks
  • Venture capitalists
  • Merchant Fairs
  • Champagne region of France
  • Hanseatic League was founded in the 12th century
    in northern Europe
  • United political economic power
  • 79 to 80 cities
  • Marco Polo - Venetian traveled to Silk Road to
    China
  • Led to new trade with East

9
Medieval Guilds
  • Chief mechanism for organizing, regulating and
    restricting trade
  • Fixed career path for skilled workers
  • Lengthy period of apprenticeship 4 to 12 years
  • Craftsmen would acquire independent professional
    status by producing a masterpiece
  • Developed into trade associations designed to
    supervise business activity and protect the
    interests of its members
  • Regulated working day
  • Ensured that work was done to an acceptable
    standard
  • Laid down rates of pay
  • Negative restricted entry into a profession,
    forbade price cutting or advertising, and
    discouraged competition and innovation

10
Expansion of Education
  • Merchant class spurred need to create more
    secular education system
  • Need for clerks and government officials who
    could read and write and understand accounts
  • Cathedral and monastic schools restricted
    admission to the Church
  • Most new universities were founded from
    pre-existing Catholic schools
  • University of Salerno (9th century)
  • University of Bologna (1088)
  • University of Paris (c. 1100
  • Students flocked to study under famed teachers
  • At first, anyone could teach
  • First universities were corporations of students
    teachers modeled on guilds
  • Guilds duties included hiring faculty
  • Students could dock faculty wages

11
Universities
  • Three Types of Universities
  • students hired and paid for the teachers -
    Bologna
  • teachers were paid by the church - Paris
  • supported by the crown and the state Oxford
  • Universities became more organized
  • Set regulations for dress
  • Provided living accommodations
  • By 13th cen. rules introduced for teachers
  • Six years of study to be a lecturer
  • Eight years 35 years old to teach theology
  • Students entered the University at fourteen to
    fifteen years of age

12
Universities
  • University studies took six years for a Bachelor
    degree and up to twelve additional years for a
    master's degree and doctorate
  • Specialties at universities
  • Bologna for legal studies
  • Salerno for medicine
  • Paris known as the queen of theology
  • Subjects of higher education
  • Trivium grammar, rhetoric and logic
  • Quadrivium arithmetic, geometry, astronomy and
    music
  • everyone had to take the same courses
  • Town and gown relations often stormy
  • Civil authorities regularly censor students for
    riotous behavior
  • Students were afforded the legal protection of
    the clergy

13
Scholasticism
  • Dominant philosophical, scientific and
    theological movement of the Middle Ages
  • Efforts of European intellectuals to reconcile
    reason and faith
  • Reaction to contact with Muslim and
    reintroduction of Classical literature
  • Depended much on the work of Aristotle
  • Peter Abelard French priest 1079 1142
  • Lectures at cathedral school of Notre Dame in
    Paris
  • Disastrous love affair with Heloise
  • Sic et Non Yes and No
  • collected statements from the Bible and Church
    leaders which contradicted each other
  • Believed that reason could resolve the
    contractions
  • Church under Bernard of Clairvaux charged Abelard
    with heresy

14
Scholasticism
  • St. Anselm Benedictine monk 1079 1142
  • Belief - no conflict separating mans spiritual
    rational
    natures
  • Joined reason and faith in credo I believe
    in order to
    understand
  • Thomas Aquinas, Dominican, 1225 1274
  • Made every effort to prove that faith and reason
    could be reconciled
  • Believed in two orders of truth
  • Reason could demonstrate propositions such as
    the existence of God
  • Faith things like the nature of the Trinity
    must be accepted
  • Universe as a great chain of being
  • Omnipotent God called everything into being, with
    everything had its place
  • Man occupied a place midway between the material
    and the spiritual
  • Reason gave human beings the power to understand
    some things
  • Two great works Summa contra Gentiles Summa
    Theologica
  • Canonized after death in 1274

15
Scholasticism and Science
  • Scientific Method Europeans started to
    systematically observe and investigate the
    physical universe
  • Spurred by newly translated Greek and Arabic
    sources
  • Robert Grosseteste - English bishop and scholar
  • Aristotelian
  • Developed an early system of experimental
    methodology with an emphasis on observation,
    hypothesis and verification
  • Tried to demonstrate that the world was round
  • Experiments on the refraction of light
  • Roger Bacon 1214 1294
  • Looked for practical applications - telescope
  • Argued that observation should guide reason

16
Castles
17
Chivalry
  • Ideals associated with knighthood
  • French word chevalier which means knight
  • Honor is the foundational and guiding principle
  • Three basic areas
  • 1. Relation to countrymen and fellow Christians
  • mercy, courage, valor, fairness, protection of
    the weak and poor, servant-hood to lord
  • warrior chivalry - chief duty is to his lord
  • 2. Relation to God
  • being faithful to the church, being the champion
    of good against evil, being generous and obeying
    God above all
  • 3. Relation to women
  • idea that the knight is to serve a lady
  • general gentleness and graciousness to all women
  • Courtly love

18
Chivalric Codes
  • Thou shalt believe all that the Church teaches,
    and shalt observe all its directions.
  • Thou shalt defend the Church.
  • Thou shalt respect all weaknesses, and shalt
    constitute thyself the defender of them.
  • Thou shalt love the country in which thou wast
    born.
  • Thou shalt not recoil before thine enemy.
  • Thou shalt make war against the Infidel without
    cessation, and without mercy.
  • Thou shalt perform scrupulously thy feudal
    duties, if they be not contrary to the laws of
    God.
  • Thou shalt never lie, and shall remain faithful
    to thy pledged word.
  • Thou shalt be generous, and give largess to
    everyone.
  • Thou shalt be everywhere and always the champion
    of the Right and the Good against Injustice and
    Evil.

19
Courtly Love
  • System of attitudes, myths and etiquette
  • Governed the real and idealized behavior of
    knights and their ladies
  • System of admiration and courtship
  • Idea that a noble man would dedicate his life to
    the love of a lady
  • Such a love could not exist within marriage
  • Standards of etiquette and custom varied
  • Chaste or Platonic admiration
  • Intention of consummation expressed
  • Non-Christian tradition
  • Alternative to the love of God and the Church
  • Condemed by Church as heretical
  • Spawned Romance literary genre
  • Courtly love most commonly expressed in the
    compositions of the troubadours, and poets

20
Courtly Love
  • Andreas Capellanus 12th century author
  • The Art of Courtly Love
  • Stages of Courtly Love
  • Attraction to the lady, usually via eyes/glance
  • Worship of the lady from afar
  • Declaration of passionate devotion
  • Virtuous rejection by the lady
  • Renewed wooing with oaths of virtue eternal
    fealty
  • Moans of approaching death from unsatisfied
    desire (and other physical manifestations of
    lovesickness)
  • Heroic deeds of valor which win the lady's heart
  • Consummation of the secret love
  • Endless adventures and subterfuges avoiding
    detection

21
Arthurian Romance
  • Gained great popularity in the 12th century
  • Appears as the ideal of kingship both in war and
    peace
  • Cultural icon of a idealized British past
  • Arthur gathered the Knights of the Round Table
    (Lancelot, Gawain, Galahad) at his court at
    Camelot
  • Arthur's knights engaged in fabulous quests ad
    advnetures, such as the quest for the Holy Grail
  • Geoffrey of Monmouth - first major popularization
    of Arthurian legend in History of the Kings of
    Britain
  • Also wrote The Prophecies of Merlin Life of
    Merlin
  • Chrétien de Troyes, French poet -12th century
  • love story of Lancelot for Guinevere
  • Historical Arthur
  • Romano-British leader fighting against the
    invading Anglo-Saxons - 5th century and early 6th
    century
  • Celtic sagas and poetry tell of a warrior named
    Arthur
  • In 1191, monks of Glastonbury Abbey announced
    that they had found the burial site of Arthur and
    Guinevere

22
The Holy Grail
  • Dish, plate or cup used by Jesus at the Last
    Supper, said to possess miraculous powers
  • May combine Christian lore with Celtic myth
  • Important segment of the Arthurian cycle
  • Grail literature divides into two classes
  • King Arthurs knights visiting the Grail castle
    or questing after the object
  • Must be pure of heart
  • Grails history in the time of Joseph of
    Arimathea
  • Grail romances started in France
  • Appeared first in works by Chrétien de Troyes
  • Related to crusading spirit of time
  • Early Grail romances centered on Percival
    Galahad
  • Hero must prove himself worthy to be in its
    presence
  • Robert de Boron (1191 - 1202)
  • Story of Joseph of Arimathea acquiring the
    chalice of the Last Supper
  • Two schools of thought concerning Grail's origin
  • Derived from early Celtic myth and folklore
  • Began as a purely Christian symbol
  • Other interpretation
  • Jesus Bloodline in modern Europe Mary Magdalene

23
Reform in the Church
  • The Churchs spiritual and secular authority
    influenced every facet of life
  • Beginning of the 11th cen.- the Church largest
    landowner in Europe Up to a third of all land
  • Controlled kings and emperors
  • Church reformers scrutinized Churchs involvement
    in temporal affairs
  • Called for ending simony accepting bribes in
    order to receive Church offices
  • Establishment of celibacy for the clergy
  • Power of the papacy continued to grow
  • Leo X proclaimed the absolute primacy of St.
    Peter in 1050
  • Great Schism - Leo X broke with the Eastern
    Orthodox Church in 1054
  • Pope supreme over the patriarchs

24
Reform in the Church
  • Investiture Controversy - between 1073 and 1085
  • Monarchs choose high church officials in their
    realm
  • Pope Nicholas II 1059 Establishes selection
    by College of Cardinals
  • Struggle between Henry IV Gregory VII
  • Gregory VII, brought an end to lay investiture
  • 1077 Henry comes to Canossa
  • Pax Dei (Peace of God)
  • In 1040 pope tried to curtail continuous state of
    warfare by declaring a placed women, children
    travelers and priests under papal protection
  • Banned fighting between Wednesday night and
    Monday morning and on holy days
  • Left only 90 days a year for warfare
  • Did not stop warfare
  • Cult of the Virgin Mary eclipsed the veneration
    of individual saints
  • Given mediator role between sinful humanity and
    Jesus
  • Many cathedrals dedicated to Notre Dame or Our
    Lady

25
Gothic Architecture
  • Style originated at the abbey church of
    Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis, near Paris
  • Theological message
  • Great glory of God versus the smallness and
    insignificance of the mortal being
  • Elements
  • Flying buttresses
  • Pointed arch
  • Larges stained-glass windows
  • Inventive sculpture saints gargoyles

26
Gothic Architecture
27
New Monastic Orders
  • Dedicated to living simple, austere existences
  • Obedient to Pope
  • Rejected life in the monasteries
  • Work directly with people
  • Fought against heretics
  • Mendicant orders - 13th century
  • Dedicated to life of poverty
  • Sought to assist the poor
  • Cistercians c. 1100 Founded by St. Bernard of
    Clairaux
  • By 1153 at least 343 chapter houses
  • Franciscans
  • Founded by St. Francis of Assisi
  • known as the Grey Friars founded 1209
  • Carmelites - Hermits of the Blessed Virgin Mary
    of Carmel
  • known as the White Friars, founded 12061214
  • Dominicans - Order of Preachers, founded 1217
  • Emphasized preaching rather than poverty
  • Trained in rhetoric to combat heretics with
    arguments
  • Augustinians- Hermits of St. Augustine, founded
    1256

28
Jews in Western Europe
  • Jews very persecuted during Middle Ages
  • The Church prohibited Christians from lending
    money at interest usury
  • Jews became the Empires financial agents
  • Urban IIs call for crusade in 1095 opened a
    period of persecution
  • The first pogram against the Jews took place
    during this period
  • 1096 1215 numerous persecutions of Jews
  • 1103 Henry IV denied Jews the right to bear
    arms
  • Only freemen could bear arms co Jews were
    considered as unfree
  • 1215 Fourth Lateran Council prohibited Jews
    from holding office
  • Designated certain clothes to wear as well as
    areas in which Jews were allowed to live
    ghettos
  • 1306 Jews were expelled from France

29
Heretical Movements
  • Mass movements that questioned church doctrines
  • Beginning in the 11th century
  • Originated in the newly urbanized areas such as
    southern France and northern Italy
  • Church reaction was to eliminate some and
    integrate others
  • Catharism - movement with Gnostic elements
  • Also called Albigensians
  • Dualists believed that historical events were the
    result of struggle between a good evil
  • The Albigensian Crusade launched by Pope Innocent
    III in 1209
  • Brutal massacres Kill them all God will
    know his own
  • Waldensians
  • Valdes of Lyons
  • Opposed to corruption of the Church
  • Inquisition established in 13th century
  • Persecution and torture to identify heresy

30
Europe on the Eve of the Crusades
31
The Crusades
  • Series of military campaigns conducted in the
    name of Christendom
  • Primary goal to recapture Jerusalem the Holy
    Land from Muslims
  • Combined pilgrimage with holy war
  • Franks vs. Saracens
  • 9 primary crusades - 1095 to 1291
  • Usually sanctioned by the Pope
  • Unleashed wave of impassioned, personally felt
    pious Christian fury
  • Mostly unsuccessful expeditions
  • Different cultural interpretations
  • Western - heroism, faith and honour
  • Islamic invasion, barbarian savagery
    and brutality
  • Living memory in Muslim world of today

32
Causes of the Crusades
  • In 1009, the Fatimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah
    sacked the pilgrimage hospice in Jerusalem and
    destroyed the Church of the Holy Sepulchre
  • Reports began to circulate in the West about
    cruelty of Muslims toward Christian pilgrims
  • Pleas from the Byzantine Emperors
    threatened under by the Seljuk Turks
  • Emperor wants to resore land to empire
  • Outlet for intense religious piety of the
    late 11th century among public
  • Dying for the cause led to salvation.
  • Investiture Controversy awakened public
    interest in religious affairs
  • Opportunity to increase power of papacy by
    reuniting Christian world and bringing East under
    control

33
Palestine before the Crusades
  • Muslim presence in the Holy Land
  • Arab conquest of Palestine in the 7th century
  • Many independent city-states
  • Many Christians in Syria, Lebanon, Palestine,
    and Egypt
  • Pilgrimes allowed to travel to Christian holy
    sites
  • Previous territory ruled by Byzantine Empire
  • Want to recapture the lost lands
  • Seljuq Turks
  • Recent converts to Islam from Central Asia

34
First Crusade
  • Byzantine emperor Alexius I calls for help
  • 1095 - Council of Clermont
  • Pope Urban II
  • Call for Christians to join a war against the
    Turks Just war
  • Return the Holy Lands to Christian control
  • The frenzy of the barbarians has devastated the
    churches in the east, and has even shame to say
    seized into slavery the holy city of Christ,
    Jerusalem.
  • Unite European Christians in a common cause
  • Crusaders guaranteed ticket to heaven
  • Remission of sins
  • Subject the Eastern orthodox churches to Rome
  • 1096 Armies from France, Germany Italy set
    out led by Norman nobles
  • 1099 - take Jerusalem by assault and massacred
    population
  • Four small Crusader states created
  • Edessa, Tripoli, Antioch and Jerusalem

35
Sacking of Jerusalem
36
Knights Templar
  • Poor Knights of Jesus Christ
  • Took vows of poverty, chastity obedience
  • Devoted to war guarded pilgrim routes
  • Camped on Temple Mount
  • Gained support of Bernard of Clairvaux
  • By 1196 string of Templar castles in Holy Land
  • Fearless warriors 20,000 died during crusades
  • Mistrusted by other crusaders
  • Many rumors about secret religious rites
  • Became enormously wealthy and powerful
  • 900 Templar castles across medieval world
  • Answered to no one except the pope
  • Became prominent bankers of age
  • Ambitions to create their own nation in Europe?
  • King Phillip IV of France
  • Destroys all power on Friday April 13, 1307

37
Second Crusade,11451149
  • Muslims conquered the town of Edessa
  • New crusade was called for by pope and various
    preachers
  • Bernard of Clairvaux
  • French and German armies, under the Kings Louis
    VII and Conrad III
  • Wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine
  • Returned home without major successes
  • Strategically foolish attack on Damascus
  • Encouraged resolve of Muslims

38
Saladin
  • Known as greatest Muslim warrior
  • Reputation for nobility
  • Greatly respected in West Chivalrous
  • Kurdish from Tikrit, in present day Iraq
  • Founded the Ayyubid dynasty
  • Powerbase in Egypt and Syria
  • Eliminates all rivals through war intrigue
  • Unites Muslim forces to confront Crusader
    kingdoms
  • Portays himself as champion of Islam against
    Western invaders
  • 1187 defeats crusaders at Battle of Hattin
  • Captures Jerusalem without fight
  • Spares inhabitants

39
Third Crusade
  • Known as the Kings' Crusade
  • Pope Gregory VIII called for a crusade
  • Philip II of France, Richard I of England and
    Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor - Barbarosa
  • 1189 100,00 soldiers depart
  • Frederick drowned in Cilicia in 1190
  • Philip left in 1191 capture of Acre
  • Richard the Lion-Hearted
  • Courageous soldier
  • Defeated the Muslims near Arsuf
  • In sight of Jerusalem
  • 1192 - Established a truce with Saladin
  • Jerusalem left in Muslim hands

40
Fourth Crusade
  • Initiated in 1202 by Pope Innocent III
  • Intention of invading the Holy Land through Egypt
  • The Venetians gained control of this crusade and
    to Constantinople
  • Attempted to place a Byzantine exile on the
    throne
  • Crusaders sacked the city in 1204
  • Short-lived Latin emperor

41
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42
Legacy of the Crusades
  • The need to raise, transport and supply large
    armies led to a flourishing of trade throughout
    Europe
  • Opened Europe to Islamic culture, learning, ideas
    and products
  • Helped bring on the Renaissance
  • Islamic world has cultural memory of cruel and
    savage onslaughts by European Christians
  • Strengthened Kings or Central Powers
  • Instituted anti-Semitism toward Jews and
    persecution of heretics
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