As the Earth revolves around the sun, differen - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – As the Earth revolves around the sun, differen PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 240fc-MDc0Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

As the Earth revolves around the sun, differen

Description:

As the Earth revolves around the sun, different constellations are visible ... As viewed from Earth, the sun is passing through Leo (even though you can't see ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:335
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 99
Provided by: villa3
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: As the Earth revolves around the sun, differen


1
(No Transcript)
2
Observations
  • Sun rises sets every day
  • Sun rises in East sets in West
  • Suns path in the sky is an arc
  • Sun is at different angular altitudes in the sky
    at different times.
  • The sun is never directly above (at zenith) in NY.

3
Astronomy
4
  • The Geocentric theory explains all of these
    phenomena. Since movement of the Earth cannot be
    felt early scientists thought that the Earth was
    stationary and everything else moved around us.
  • The geocentric theory says that the Earth is at
    the center of the solar system/ universe.
  • Lets draw a little...

5
The Geocentric Theory does not explain this
  • Foucault Pendulum The first good evidence of the
    Earth's rotation was provided by a swinging
    pendulum. The pendulum would continue to swing in
    the same direction while the Earth rotated
    beneath it. A more recent source of evidence of
    rotation is the swirling pattern of weather
    systems seen by satellites.
  • The Coriolis Effect makes the Foucault Pendulum
    work. The rotation of the Earth puts a "spin" on
    the air movement which causes a curve in the
    travel direction. In the Northern Hemisphere the
    turn is towards the objects right.

6
  • Galileo disproved the geocentric theory. He was
    the first to turn the telescope to the sky (he
    did not invent the telescope) for the purposes of
    Scientific observations.
  • The moons of Jupiter orbit an object other than
    Earth. Galileo noticed that the four visible
    moons of Jupiter appeared to orbit around Jupiter
    and therefore did not revolve around the Earth.

Jupiters Moons
7
  • Galileo also observed the "phases of Venus" which
    demonstrated that Venus orbited around the sun.
  • Lets draw some more.

8
  • The Heliocentric Theory explains all observations
    made from Earth.
  • Heliocentric makes the sun the center of
    attention rather than the earth.
  • And more drawing.

9
  • Here's an article written by Benjamin Franklin
    about how much sense the Heliocentric Theory
    makes
  • The Whimsical Cook

10
  • The Columbia

11
The value of the space program
  • Personal Computers
  • Colorization of black and white movies
  • Solar powered calculators
  • Aluminized bags for snack food
  • Weather satellites
  • Halogen lights for cars
  • Sports domes
  • Microwave Ovens
  • Pocket calculators
  • Phone calls by satellite
  • Laser guided missiles
  • "Mylar" balloons
  • "Blue Blocker" sunglasses
  • Digital watches and thermometers
  • "DirecTV", "Dish Network", etc
  • "Kevlar" for bullet proof vests
  • "Mini Mag" flashlights
  • Fishing line
  • Fiber optics for phone calls
  • Medical scanners
  • Electronic ignition in automobiles
  • Laser scanners in stores
  • "Bulb Miser" devices for long life light bulbs
  • Weather Maps on television
  • Juice boxes for "Hawaiian Punch", etc
  • "The Patch" medical device
  • Breathing systems for Mt. Everest climbers, Scuba
    divers and firefighters
  • Flexon" eyeglasses and dental braces
  • Cellular phones and beepers
  • Cable Television, H B O, Showtime, etc
  • Pens that write upside down and under water
  • Anti corrosive paint for bridges, boats Statue
    of Liberty



  • Scratch resistant coatings on sunglasses
  • Football helmets for the NFL
  • Pacemaker batteries that last 20 years and can be
    recharged through the skin.
  • Compact Disks
  • GPS Navigation Systems

12
  • Rotation - to spin around an axis.
  • How long does it take the Earth to spin once?
  • How many degrees is a full spin?
  • 36024hours 15/hr
  • Earth spins at 15 degrees per hr

13
Time zones
  • How to figure out what the time difference is and
    are you E or W.

14
The Earths Rotation does not have the same speed
all over
At the equator, rotation is 40,074 km/day
or 1670 km/hr
At NY
31,200 km/day or 1300 km/hr

At the poles
0 km/day or 0 km/hr
15
  • Revolution- to orbit around an object
  • The Earth revolves around the sun in 365 ¼ days.
  • Sidereal Day vs solar day

16
As the Earth revolves around the sun, different
constellations are visible in the night sky. As
viewed from Earth, the sun is passing through Leo
(even though you cant see the stars during the
day.
17
  • The Axis of Rotation is the imaginary line that
    the Earth turns about.
  • The axis always points to the North Star. This is
    called Parallelism of the Earth's axis.
  • The imaginary surface of the Earth's yearly trip
    around the sun is the Plane of Earth's Orbit.

18
Warning! The following statement sounds crazy
but you'll understand it if you read it slowly!
"The axis is tilted by 23.5 from the
perpendicular to the plane of its orbit."
Demonstration
19
Seasons
Not drawn to scale. The orbit is not shaped like
this.
20
Lets make a chart of the 4 key dates and what
they each mean.

Date
Name
Key points
21
Summer Solstice
  • June 21
  • N. Pole is tilted towards the sun
  • Sun is highest in the sky in NY
  • Longest day, shortest night
  • Sun is directly over the Tropic of Cancer.

22
Fall (autumnal) Equinox
  • September 23
  • Equal day and night
  • Sun is directly over the equator

23
Winter Solstice
  • December 21
  • N. Pole is tilted away from the sun
  • Shortest day, longest night
  • Sun is directly over the Tropic of Capricorn

24
Spring (vernal) Equinox
  • March 21
  • Sun is directly over the Equator
  • Equal day and night

25
Zenith
Summer Solstice June 21
Equinoxen March 21/Sept 23
Winter Solstice Dec 21
26
HW on Seasons Day/Night
27
  • Discussion of a more or less tilted world

28
An Encarta Animation
OK, Girls Boys, time for an activity on seasons
and the tilt of the Earth!
29
(No Transcript)
30
Note
  • The seasons are NOT caused by the distance from
    the sun.

31
See what the Earth looks like RIGHT NOW
32
Lets see how the suns position changes
throughout the year
33
Time for a lab
  • Take out lab 8-3 Ellipses

34
Lets see some ellipses
35
Perihelion Jan 3 93,000,000 miles
Aphelion July 4 95,000,000 miles
Not drawn to scale! The shape is more like a
circle
36
Keplers Laws
  • 1) All planets travel in elliptical orbits with
    the sun at one focus.
  • Note The Earth's orbit is so close to a perfect
    circle that it can't be distinguished with the
    human eye.

See for yourself
37
  • 2) Each planet travels in such a way that a line
    joining the planet and the sun sweeps equal areas
    in equal times.

Kepplers Second Law
38
March
April
February
May
June
January
July
August
September
December
October
November
39
  • 3) Relationship between distance and period
  • P2 D3
  • Where P is the Period in Earth Years
  • And D is the distance in AUs

40
  • An AU is an astronomical unit, which is the
    average distance from the sun to the Earth.

41
(No Transcript)
42
Two videos
  • The Powers of Ten
  • Bill Nye The Moon

43
The Moon
  • The moon revolves around the Earth once a month
    (moonth).
  • Moon rises 50 minutes later every day.
  • It can be seen during the day just about as much
    as the night.

44
Phases of the moon handout
Sun way the heck to the left
45
(No Transcript)
46
(No Transcript)
47
Last Half/ Last Quarter
Waning Crescent
Waning Gibbous
New
Full
Waxing Crescent
Waxing Gibbous
First Half/ First Quarter
48
(No Transcript)
49
Notice the changing diameter of the Moon during
the 'moonth'. As the Moon's orbit brings it
closer to earth (perigee) at the New Moon, it
appears larger to us. Also notice how the Moon
'rocks' up and down and back and forth. That
happens because the Moon's orbit takes it above
the Earth's equator (allowing us to see more of
the south polar region) and below the equator
revealing more of the north polar region of the
Moon. The back and forth (east-west) rocking is
due to the changing orbital velocity of the moon.
50
The Names of the Full Moons
Here are the traditional names given to each
month's full moon from the "Old Farmer's Almanac"
January Wolf Moon February Snow Moon March Worm
Moon April Pink Moon May Flower
Moon June Strawberry Moon
July Buck Moon August Sturgeon
Moon September Harvest Moon October Hunter's
Moon November Beaver Moon December Cold Moon
51
Eclipses
  • A lunar eclipse occurs when the Earth blocks out
    the Moon's sunlight. The moon goes into the
    Earth's shadow.
  • Lunar eclipses happen during a Full Moon.

penumbra
Earth
umbra
moon
sun
52
(No Transcript)
53
  • A solar eclipse is when the moon blocks sunlight
    from reaching the Earth.
  • Solar Eclipses happen during a New Moon.
  • Eclipses do not occur every time there is a full
    or new moon because the moon's orbit around the
    Earth is inclined.

moon
sun
penumbra
umbra
Earth
54
A view of a Solar Eclipse as Seen from Space
  • http//www.stormcenter.com/media/060331/

55
  • Angular size of the moon activity

56
Tides
  • The strength of gravity depends on how close two
    objects are and their masses.

m1 and m2 are masses of the objects d is the
distance
57
Lets draw a diagram of how the moon causes
tides! Lets draw a diagram of what the tides
look like.
58
  • A Spring Tide is caused by a full moon and a new
    moon. The water springs from its highest level
    to its lowest for the month.
  • A Neap Tide is caused by the half moon phases.
    The high tide is not so high and the low is not
    so low.

59
The Planets
  • Take out Lab 8-5 The Planets

The Solar System
60
Time for a sing-a-long
61
Comets
  • Chunk of ice and dirt following an elongated
    elliptical orbit.
  • DVD Weather- Wind Chp 9 (Solar Wind)
  • Has a tail only when it comes close to the sun.
  • The heat melts it and the solar wind sweeps the
    tail away.
  • The tail always points away from the sun.

Encarta Solar System Great Comets!
62
Meteors
  • Meteor Showers result mainly from debris from the
    orbit of the comet.
  • If the Earth crosses the path, the debris will
    fall to Earth as a visible meteor or shooting
    star.
  • If the rock is big enough it will survive the
    fiery entry into the atmosphere and hit the
    surface as a meteorite.

63
Video on what causes a meteor shower
64
(No Transcript)
65
(No Transcript)
66
(No Transcript)
67
(No Transcript)
68
(No Transcript)
69
Stars
  • Circumpolar and star trails

Circumpolar Constallations
70
Stellar Fusion
71
Hydrogen nucleus (Proton)
Helium
72
2.016
Mass1.008
Mass4.0026
Mass1.008
1.008 x 4 4.032
4.032 4.0026 .0294
73
Emc2
E energy
m mass
c2 speed of light squared
.0294 x 186,000 x 186,000 a lot from a little
74
Lab Stellar Classification
75
(No Transcript)
76
(No Transcript)
77
Short video on the formation of the Earth
78
The Life of a Star
Cloud of gas Contracts Heats up Fusion
79
If the star is 7x the sun or smaller Swell up to
a red giant Shrink to a white dwarf Slowly cool
and die
80
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova
81
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova
82
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova
83
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova
84
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova
85
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova
86
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova
87
If the star is 7x the sun or larger Swell up to
a red giant Shrink collapse and explode as a
supernova Dies as a rapidly spinning core
88
Or better yet! A black hole!
89
Time for a sing-a-long
90
  • DVD The Right Stuff

The Doppler Shift
91
Lab Spectral Analysis
92
Deep Space
93
The End
94
  • If asked- Travel _at_ speed of light Encarta
    animation (mind warping!)

95
Spring March 21
Summer June 21
Winter Dec 21
Fall Sept. 23
96
North Pole
NP 24hr LI 16hr Eq 12hr SP 0hr
Summer June 21
South Pole
97
North Pole
NP 12hr LI 12hr Eq 12hr SP 12hr
Equinoxes March 21/ Sept23
South Pole
98
North Pole
NP 0hr LI 8hr Eq 12hr SP 24hr
Winter Solstice Dec 21
South Pole
About PowerShow.com