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Australian Studies

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Title: Australian Studies


1
Australian Studies
  • Economy, Demography, Population, Immigration,
    Education

2
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3
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4
Mabo V Queensland
  • The effective result of the judgement was to make
    irrelevant the declaration of terra nullius, or
    "land belonging to no-one" which had been taken
    to occur from the commencement British
    colonisation in 1788, and to recognise a form of
    native title.

5
Economy
  • Currency
  • Australian Coins 5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, 1 2
  • Australian Notes (Bills) 5, 10, 20, 50, 100
  • Exchange Rate 1 930

6
Economy
  • The Australian dollar is the currency of the
    Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas
    Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk
    Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island
    states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu.

7
Economy
  • In the second half of the twentieth century,
    Australian trade shifted decisively away from
    Europe and North America to Japan and other East
    Asian markets.

8
Economy
  • The economy of Australia is a prosperous, Western
    market economy dominated by its services sector
    (68 of GDP), although the agricultural and
    mining sectors (10 of GDP combined) account for
    57 of the nation's exports.

9
Economy
  • Australia's largest export markets are Japan,
    China, the US, South Korea and New Zealand.

10
Economy
  • In January 2007, there were 10,033,480 people
    employed, with an unemployment rate of 4.6.

11
Economy
  • Rich in natural resources, Australia is a major
    exporter of agricultural products, particularly
    wheat and wool, minerals such as iron-ore and
    gold, and energy in the form of liquefied natural
    gas and coal.

12
Economy
  • Australia's per-capita GDP is slightly higher
    than that of the UK, Germany, and France in terms
    of purchasing power parity.

13
Demographics
  • The population of Australia is growing at a rate
    of 1.4 per year, and officially (by estimation)
    hit 21 million in June 2007.
  • Australia is the 53rd most populous country in
    the world and its population is largely urban.

14
Demographics
  • According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics
    in mid-2006 there were 4,956,863 residents in
    Australia who were born outside Australia,
    representing 24 of the Australian resident
    population.

15
Demographics
  • Most of the estimated 21 million Australians are
    descended from colonial-era settlers and
    post-Federation immigrants from Europe, with
    around 85 of Australia's population being of
    European descent.
  • Significant non-European ethnic minorities
    include Asians (predominately Chinese, Filipino,
    Vietnamese and Indian) at about 9 and indigenous
    Australians, who make up almost 3 of the current
    population.

16
Demographics
  • Since the end of World War II, Australia's
    population has more than doubled, spurred by
    large-scale European immigration during the
    immediate post-war decades.
  • Non-European immigration, mostly from Asia and
    the Middle East, has increased significantly
    since the 1970s due in large part to the
    abolition of the White Australia Policy.

17
Demographics
  • In the 2001 Census, 366,436 respondents declared
    they were Aboriginal (2.07 of all respondents),
    26,088 declared they were Torres Strait Islander
    (0.15) and 17,636 declared they were both
    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (0.10).

18
Demographics
  • 25.8 Roman Catholic, 18.7 Anglican, 19.4 Other
    Christian.
  • 2.1 Buddhist, 1.7 Muslim, 0.4 Jewish, 2.0
    other, 18.7 No Religion, 11.2 Not described.
    (2006 census).

19
Demographics
  • Most common languages other than English
    Italian, Greek, German, Vietnamese, Tagalog,
    Chinese languages, Indian languages, Arabic
    language, Indonesian, Macedonian
  • Indigenous Australian Aboriginal languages,
    Australian Deaf Sign Language.

20
Demographics
  • Single-person urban dwellings (also known as
    'SPUDs') are now the most common - 25 of
    dwellings are for people living alone.
  • There are now more unmarried women than married
    51.4 are now unmarried leading to a society of
    'Freemales.

21
Demographics
  • More and more people are heading west to take
    advantage of the high-paying job opportunities in
    the boom mining towns - these people have been
    termed 'Salary Miners.
  • Over 40 of Australians now have at least one
    parent born overseas, with Africa being one of
    the fastest growing immigrant sources. Largely
    these are white immigrants from South Africa and
    the former Rhodesia.

22
Demographics
  • Australias largest demographic the
    baby-boomers are retiring en masse, with high
    disposable incomes. Key figure the proportion of
    people aged 65 will double within 30 years, from
    12.5 currently to 25.

23
Immigration
  • After World War II, Australia launched a massive
    immigration programme, believing that having
    narrowly avoided a Japanese invasion, Australia
    must "populate or perish.
  • Hundreds of thousands of displaced Europeans
    migrated to Australia and over 1,000,000 British
    Subjects immigrated under the Assisted Migration
    Scheme, colloquially becoming known as Ten Pound
    Poms.
  • The qualifications were very simple if you were
    of European ancestry, reasonably healthy, and
    without a criminal record, you would be accepted

24
Immigration
  • The overall level of immigration has grown
    substantially during the last decade and a half.
  • Net overseas migration increased from 30,042 in
    1992-93 to 177,600 in 2006-07.
  • This is the highest level on record.

25
Immigration
  • The largest components of immigration are the
    skilled migration and family re-union programs.
  • In recent years the mandatory detention of
    unauthorised arrivals by boat has generated great
    levels of controversy.

26
Immigration
  • During 2004-05, a total of 123,424 people
    immigrated to Australia.
  • them, 17,736 were from Africa, 54,804 from Asia,
    21,131 from Oceania, 18,220 from United Kingdom,
    1,506 from South America, and 2,369 from Eastern
    Europe.

27
Education
  • Education in Australia is primarily the
    responsibility of states and territories.
  • Generally, education in Australia follows the
    three-tier model which includes primary education
    (primary schools), followed by secondary
    education (secondary schools/high schools) and
    tertiary education (universities and/or TAFE
    (Technical and Further Education Colleges).

28
Education
  • Education is compulsory up to an age specified by
    legislation this age varies from state to state
    but is generally 15-17, that is prior to
    completing secondary education.
  • Post-compulsory education is regulated within the
    Australian Qualifications Framework, a unified
    system of national qualifications in schools,
    vocational education and training (TAFE) and the
    higher education sector (university).

29
Education
  • The academic year in Australia varies between
    states and institutions, but generally runs from
    late January until mid-December for primary and
    secondary schools and TAFE colleges, and from
    late February until mid-November for universities.

30
Education
  • School is compulsory in Australia between the
    ages of six and fifteen, depending on the state
    and date of birth, with, in recent years, over
    three quarters of students staying on until they
    are eighteen.
  • Government schools educate about two thirds of
    Australian students, with the other third in
    independent schools, a proportion which is rising
    in many parts of Australia.

31
Education
  • There were 39 recognised universities in
    Australia in 2007, of which 37 were public
    institutions and 2 are private.

32
The End
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