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Research%20Methodology

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Assumptions of Research. Nature Nurture ... Qualitative research is sometimes referred to as 'interpretive,' for this reason. ... Research Traditions. Quantitative ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research%20Methodology


1
Research Methodology
2
  • Research Traditions
  • What is research?
  • Research is the systematic approach to finding
    answers to questions.
  • Questions comes first questions drive
    inquiry questions will inform the kind of
    research we do.
  • Quantitative and Qualitative research traditions
  • Both are empirical, involving the collection of
    original data (from human subjects).
  • Both are drive by identifiable conceptual and
    methodological assumptions.

3
  • Research Traditions
  • Quantitative research emphasizes
  • the systematic measurement and quantification of
    variables
  • the statistical analysis of data
  • the use of mathematic models and causal
    inferencing
  • Qualitative research emphasizes
  • thick description of the interactions of
    individuals and interpretations of these
    interactions
  • heuristic (discovery oriented analysis of data)
  • leading to grounded theory.

4
  • Research Traditions
  • Assumptions about
  • discovery
  • variables
  • data collection
  • data analysis
  • use of data

5
Research Traditions
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Discovery
  • There is a Truth that can be discovered.
  • Individuals socially construct meaning / truth,
    so truth is as relative as the number of
    individuals involved. Qualitative research is
    sometimes referred to as interpretive, for this
    reason.

6
Research Traditions
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Variables
  • Few, parsimonious goal is to isolate a single
    variable so that causation can be established.

7
Research Traditions
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Variables
  • Parsimonious
  • L. parsimonia "sparingness, frugality," from
    pars-, stem of parsi, perf. tense of parcere "to
    spare, save" -monia, suffix signifying action
    or condition
  • Thick description. Goal is to consider all
    variables that might be pertinent.
  • Margaret Mead
  • Claude Lévi-Strauss
  • Hunter Thompson

8
Research Traditions
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Data Collection
  • Deductive Researchers bring a theory to the
    study setting which is then tested in that
    setting.
  • Inductive Theory arises from data hence
    grounded theory grounded in data. Theories
    inform researchers preparation for study, but
    doesnt lock them into particular ways of
    understanding.

9
Research Traditions
Data Collection
  • Competence data
  • error recognition / correction
  • grammatical judgments
  • cord sorting
  • Affective data
  • questionnaires
  • matched-guise techniques
  • diary studies
  • focused introspection
  • Performance data
  • reading aloud
  • completion tasks
  • elicited imitation
  • reconstruction
  • role plays
  • oral interviews
  • composition

10
Research Traditions
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Data Analysis
  • Statistical. Searching for statistically
    significant differences among samples around
    specific variables, in order to understand
    effects of interventions.
  • Heuristic. Searching data variously (taxonomic
    analysis, semantic relationships x is a kind of
    y, etc.) in order to understand a specific
    culture.

11
Research Traditions
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Use of Data
  • By random sampling, generalize results from a
    small sample to a large population.
  • Not interested in generalizability. Results
    inform further study and help build theory (our
    interpretive understanding of a cultural
    setting).

12
  • Statistics
  • Descriptive Statistics
  • The use of numbers to describe results.
  • mean average scores (etc.) from all
    participants
  • SD standard deviation average distance from
    the mean of all points in a data set

13
  • Statistics
  • 1 SD 68 of population (red)
  • 2 SD 95 of population (red and green)
  • 3 SD 99 of population (red, green, and blue)

14
  • Statistics

1 SD 68 of population (green) 2 SD 95 of
population (green and blue) 3 SD 99 of
population (green, blue, and red)
15
  • Statistics Height of US Women 1874 (n
  • 6,588)

mean 63.5 in. SD
2.5 in. 61 in. 66 in. 58.5 in. 68.5 in.
16
  • Statistics Example

17
  • Statistics English Students

2.42 1.28
3.56
18
  • Statistics ESL Students

2.30 1.43
3.17
19
  • Statistics Example

20
  • Statistics
  • 2. Inferential Statistics
  • Analysis of descriptive statistics. How do we
    know if the difference between two data sets
    (means, frequencies, correlations, and so on) is
    significant i.e., attributable to something
    other than chance?
  • A variety of tests used to determine
    significance
  • Anova (analysis of variance)
  • chi-square
  • F-test
  • t-test
  • Pearson product moment correlation

21
  • Statistics
  • Significance means attributable to something
    other than chance.
  • Example old teaching method v. new teaching
    method
  • Experimental method semester-end test scores are
    significantly higher than control method tests
  • If we have set up the study correctly, we may be
    able to conclude that the new method is the cause
    of higher student achievement.

22
  • Statistics
  • Probability. Significance is usually expressed
    in terms of probability, p for example
  • p lt .01
  • p lt .05
  • refer to the probability that differences
    occurred through chance alone (as opposed to the
    influence of the experimental method).

23
  • Statistics
  • p lt .01 means there is less than 1 percent
    probability that chance alone explained our
    result there is more than 99 percent probability
    that something other than chance explained our
    result.
  • p lt .05 means there is less than 5 percent
    probability that chance alone explained our
    result there is more than 95 percent probability
    that something other than chance explained our
    result.
  • p 0.026 means that our inferential analysis has
    determined there to have been a 2.6 percent
    probability that chance alone explained our
    result and a 97.4 percent probability that
    something other than chance explained our result.

24
  • Statistics Example

25
  • Statistics Example

So, while the results may be interesting
26
  • Statistics Example

they are not significant i.e., we cant
contribute them to anything other than chance.
27
Research Traditions
  • Quantitative
  • Qualitative

Research Methods
  • Correlation studies
  • Survey research
  • Experimental research
  • Case studies
  • Ethnographic research

28
  • Research Methods
  • Correlation Studies (Quantitative tradition)
  • Purpose to understand relationships among
    characteristics.
  • Issue Correlation is NOT causation. Examples?
  • Cancer
  • clusters

29
  • Research Methods
  • Correlation Studies (Quantitative tradition)
  • Analysis Statistical, based on calculation of
    correlation coefficients.

30
  • Research Methods
  • Correlation Studies (Quantitative tradition)
  • Analysis Statistical, based on calculation of
    correlation coefficients.

31
  • Research Methods
  • Correlation Studies (Quantitative tradition)
  • Example Goldstein, L.M. (1987). Standard
    English The only target for nonnative speakers
    of English? TESOL Quarterly, 21, 417-436.
  • The author examined the use of African American
    English (BVE) among Hispanic students. She found
    that those who had extensive contact with African
    American students used features of BVE more than
    students with less contact.
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vkkcTpfcno-E

32
  • Research Methods
  • Survey Research (Quantitative tradition)
  • Purpose to learn about the characteristics of
    an entire group (population) by asking questions
    of a small component of that group (sample).
  • Issue Random sampling.
  • Analysis statistical, both descriptive
    (percentages, etc.) and inferential (i.e.,
    looking at the relationships or correlations in
    the results.

33
  • Research Methods
  • Survey Research (Quantitative tradition)
  • Example Duran, R.P. (1987). Factors affecting
    development of second language literacy. In S.R.
    Goldman and H.T. Trueba (Eds.), Becoming literate
    in English as a second language (pp. 33-55).
    Norwood NJ Ablex.
  • The author surveyed Hispanic freshmen concerning
    their basic language characteristics, their own
    rating of their academic skills, and their SAT
    scores. As a result of correlation analyses, the
    author found a positive relationship between high
    self-ratings and high SAT scores.

34
  • Research Methods
  • Experimental Research (Quantitative tradition)
  • Purpose to establish a cause / effect
    relationship between an independent variable (IV
    the cause agent) and a dependent variable (DV
    the agent acted upon).
  • Requires experiment and control groups and
    careful control of all but the IV so that
    causation (if any) can be established.

35
  • Research Methods
  • Experimental Research (Quantitative tradition)
  • Issue true-ness of experiment

Control and Experimental Groups? Random Sampling
Pre-Experiment No. Only 1 group, pre- and post-test structure No. Use of extant group
Quasi-Experiment Yes. No. Use of extant groups
True Experiment Yes. Yes.
36
  • Research Methods
  • Experimental Research (Quantitative tradition)
  • Analysis Inferential statistics to determine if
    difference between groups are significant that
    is, caused by the IV, not by chance alone.
  • Example Carrell, P.L. (1985). Facilitating ESL
    reading by teaching text structure. TESOL
    Quarterly, 19, 461-481.
  • The author found that teaching rhetorical
    structures to ESL freshmen resulted in improved
    ability to recall information in related texts.

37
  • Research Methods
  • Case Study Research (Qualitative tradition)
  • Purpose to focus attention on a single entity
    (or a very small number) in a naturalistic
    setting.
  • Data is gathered through interviews,
    observations, diary accounts, text analysis,
    video / audio recording, etc.
  • Analysis heuristic, piecing together patterns
    in the data.

38
  • Research Methods
  • Case Study Research (Qualitative tradition)
  • Example Kravin, H. (1992). Erosion of a
    language in bilingual development. Journal of
    Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 13,
    307-325.
  • The author analyzed the bilingual development of
    a six-year-old Finnish-American child. The study
    is primarily concerned with the processes by
    which one of the childs languages begins to
    dominate the other. The author speculated in
    conclusion that the subordination of Finnish in
    the child is the result of limited linguistic
    input in that language.

39
  • Research Methods
  • Ethnographic Research (Qualitative tradition)
  • Purpose to examine culture, society, schooling,
    etc. for the purpose of understanding the
    processes of acculturation, socialization,
    learning, etc. from the perspective of
    individuals in the setting.
  • Data is gathered through interviews,
    observations, diary accounts, text analysis,
    video / audio recording, and participant
    observation.
  • Analysis heuristic, discovery oriented

40
  • Research Methods
  • Ethnographic Research (Qualitative tradition)
  • Example Hornberger, N.H. (1987). Bilingual
    education success, but policy failure. Language
    in Society, 16, 205-226.
  • The author investigated bilingual education in a
    particular community in Peru through a two-year
    ethnographic study. Findings focus on the
    perceptions of the value of Spanish and Quechua
    among students and their families.

41
  • Are there male/female differences in how
    invitations are extended between native speakers?
    How does non-native speaker behavior compare?
  • Is there a sequence in which second language
    pronouns are acquired? If so, what is it?
  • Does practice with sentence-combining result in
    learners producing longer T-units in their
    classroom compositions?
  • What word-attack skills do learners naturally use
    when they encounter a word they dont know?
  • Is there a relationship between the age at which
    second language instruction begins and the level
    of SL proficiency achieved?
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