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Traditional symbols are an essential part of much contemporary Aboriginal art. ... Art Nouveau (French for 'new art') is an international style of art, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Barriers

  • You can pursue any of these starting points or
    devise your own.
  • Avoid the visual cliché (overused image)
  • Ensure that you can access Primary sources for
    your idea.

Dictionary Definition
  • 1) A fence or other obstacle that bars advance or
  • 2) An obstacle or circumstance that keeps people
    or things apart, or prevents communication (class
    barriers a language barrier)
  • 3) Anything that prevents progress or sucesss.

  • You will be able to choose from one of the
    following themes-
  • 1) Barriers in the City
  • 2) Temporary Barriers
  • 3) Emotional Barriers
  • 4) Organic Barriers

Barriers In The City
  • A maze of passages or routes, courtyards and
    walled gardens. Fences around uniform rows of
    gardens and allotments. Doors, windows, walls,
    hedges used to identify property boundaries,
    creating irregular, vibrant patterns in our

Barriers In The City
  • Roads, alleys, cycle paths and railway lines
    intersect cities, highlighting a busy,
    fast-moving lifestyle.

Barriers In The City
  • Boards and steel barriers spring up and surround
    demolition sites, abandoned industrial land,
    rundown estates and wastelands waiting for
    regeneration. These barriers both ensure public
    safety and protect industrial interests.

Barriers In The City
  • As a starting point you may wish to collect
    photos and produce observational drawings of the
  • Doors, windows, fences, buildings, walls, hedges,
    shed, school, church, gate, steel barriers

Patterns in the city
  • Maps/Journeys (London Underground)
  • Mondrian 1872-1944
  • The paintings consist predominately of horizontal
    and vertical black lines crossing each other,
    with coloured squares in between. The pictures
    re completely two dimensional without any depth
    or shading. The painters used only five colours
    black, white, yellow, blue and red.

Patterns in the City
  • Aboriginal Art
  • Traditional symbols are an essential part of much
    contemporary Aboriginal art. Aboriginal peoples
    have long artistic traditions within which they
    use conventional designs and symbols. These
    designs when applied to any surface, whether on
    the body of a person taking part in a ceremony or
    on a shield, have the power to transform the
    object to one with religious significance and
    power. Through the use of designs inherited from
    ancestors, artists continue their connections to
    country and the Dreaming.

Patterns in the City
  • For example, body decoration using ancestral
    designs is an important part of many ceremonies.
    In central Australia inherited designs are
    painted onto the face and body using ochres
    ground to a paste with water and applied in
    stripes or circles. The modern paintings of the
    Central and Western Desert incorporate many of
    these designs. Some of the symbols used are

Doorways and Windows
  • Patrick Caulfield explores colour using
    harmonious and contrasting colours, he uses
    simplified lines when illustrating interiors of

Buildings in the City
Architecture Frank Gerhy Creating the 3.D.
models for the Guggenheim museum in Bilbao,
Spain, Frank Gerhy drew his inspiration from
sculptors such as Constantin Brancusi, rather
than architects or builders. Gerhy expresses a
need to resist conventions and traditions and
instead explores pure freedom in materials and
form. His work combines sculptural forms and
architecture, to create new and unusual buildings
  • Land artists, Andy Goldsworthy and Richard Long
    use natural materials that decay and decompose in
    their work. Ephemeral and transient materials are
    used in their creations, liberating artists to
    observe the effects that decay, erosion and time
    exert on their work.

Patterns in the City Hundertwasser 1928-2000
Patterns in the CityGaudi 1852-1926
  • Gaudí, throughout his life, was fascinated by
    nature. He studied nature's angles and curves and
    incorporated them into his designs. Instead of
    relying on geometric shapes, he mimicked the way
    trees and humans grow and stand upright. Gaudí
    loved for his work to be created by nature as he
    used concrete leaves and vine windows to create
    his ideas for him, so his work is not just
    because of him but because of nature as well.

Futurist Artists Delaunay/DeperoBuildings in the
  • The Futurists glorified the energy and speed of
    modern life together with the dynamism and
    violence of the new technological society. In
    their manifestos, art, poetry, and theatrical
    events, they celebrated automobiles, airplanes,
    machine guns, and other phenomena that they
    associated with modernity they denounced
    moralism and feminism, as well as museums and
    libraries, which they considered static
    institutions of an obsolete culture...

Temporary Barriers
  • Tents, windshields, umbrellas. Fishing nets,
    bird or animal cages. Foil, clinf film,
    cardboard boxes and clear plastic containers.
  • Colourful, patterned fabric, doors and openings
    closing out light. Hats, scarves, gloves and
    boots keeping out the cold.

Temporary Barriers
  • As a starting point you may wish to collect
    photos and produce observational drawings of the
  • Crisp, sweet wrapper, cardboard boxes, patterned
    fabric, shoe box, hats, gloves, boots, scarves,
    knitwear, mask

Temporary Barriers
  • Pop art is a visual art movement that
    emerged in the mid 1950s in Britain and in
    parallel in the late 1950s in the United States
    Pop art, like pop music, aimed to employ images
    of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art,
    emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any
    given culture. It has also been defined by the
    artists use of mechanical means of reproduction
    or rendering techniques that down play the
    expressive hand of the artist. Pop art at times
    targeted a broad audience, and often claimed to
    do so.

Pop Art
Temporary Shelter
  • You could look at the possibility of homelessness
    and temporary accommodation.
  • You could research and illustrate places where
    homeless people habitat, for eg. bus shelter,
    archway, underground, shop entrance.

Kathy Kollwitz
Temporary ClothingFashion
  • You could look at the possibility of differing
    styles of fashion during various eras.
  • Possible artists you could research are Jean Paul
    Gaultier, Vera Wang, Stella MaCartney.

Temporary ClothingClothing from other Cultures
  • Another avenue you could explore is clothing worn
    in other countries and what various garments
    symbolise and represent in those cultures.
  • For eg. Islamic and religious tradition, African
    garments, Chinese and Japanese clothing.

Patterned Fabric
  • Art Nouveau (French for 'new art') is an
    international style of art, architecture and
    design that peaked in popularity at the beginning
    of the 20th century (1880-1914) and is
    characterised by highly-stylised, flowing,
    curvilinear designs often incorporating floral
    and other plant-inspired motifs Art Nouveau is
    considered a 'total' style, meaning that it
    encompasses a hierarchy of scales in design
    architecture interior design decorative arts
    including jewelry, furniture, textiles, household
    silver and other utensils, and lighting and the
    range of visual arts.

Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Emotional barriers
  • Disagreements and arguments can cause emotional
    barriers. Friends falling out and refusing to
    make contact. Families divided by decisions or
    actions taken by a family member.

Emotional Barriers
  • Objects, letters, photographs, papers. A birth
    certificate, a piece of jewellery, a puzzle, an
    item of childrens clothing or a medal, can
    symbolise unanswered questions about the past,
    acting as barriers to the future.

Emotional Barriers
  • Memories of an event or experience in early life
    can have a profound emotional impact living amid
    conflict, the reality of war, and the experience
    of asylum or migration to start a new life in a
    new country.

Emotional Barriers
  • As a starting point you may wish to collect
    photos and produce observational drawings of the
  • Personal objects, photographs, postcards,
    letters, jewellery, cemetery, church, childrens
    clothing, medal, badges, graves

  • Portraits/Human Figure You may wish to explore
    how various artists look at the representation of
    the face and human body in an emotive way.

Lucien Freud
  • Lucien Freud produced a series of portraits which
    consisted of mark-making, using hatching, cross
    hatching, diagonal lines, and dots.

Jenny Saville
  • You may wish to explore how Jenny Saville
    disfigures the faces to show them in an
    unflattering way.

Chuck Close
  • Chuck Close produced a series of portraits in
    which he fragmented the face. The images are
    made up of minute multicoloured dots, so that the
    viewers attention fluctuates between surface
    pattern and overall picture, which can only be
    read from a distance.

  • You may wish to explore the way in which Picasso
    distorts and fragments the face drawing the
    figure from multiple viewpoints.

Edward Hopper
  • Edward Hopper produced a series of stark urban
    and rural scenes that uses sharp lines and large
    shapes, played upon by unusual lighting to
    capture the lonely mood of his subjects. He
    derived his subject matter from the common
    features of American life gas stations, motels,
    the railroad, or an empty street and its

Joseph Cornell
  • Cornell's most characteristic art works were
    boxed assemblages created from found objects.
    These are simple boxes, usually glass-fronted, in
    which he arranged surprising collections of
    photographs or Victorian bric-à-brac. Many of his
    boxes, such as the famous Medici Slot Machine
    boxes, are interactive and are meant to be

Conflicts of War
  • You may wish to explore various artists who
    illustrated the devastation of war.
  • Futurists artists - Paul Nash, Mark Gertler, Gino
  • Picassos Guernica Bombing of Guernica
  • Kathy Kollwitz Poverty/Death of War

Picassos Guernica
  • The painting is based on the events of April 27,
    1937, when the German airforce, in support of the
    Fascist forces led by Generalissimo Francisco
    Franco, carried out a bombing raid on the Basque
    village of Guernica in northern Spain. At that
    time such a massive bombing campaign was
    unprecedented. The hamlet was pounded with
    high-explosive and incendiary bombs for over
    three hours. The non-combattant townspeople
    including women and children were
    indiscriminately cut-down as they fled their
    crumbling buildings. The town of Guernica burned
    for three days leaving sixteen hundred civilians
    killed or wounded in its smoldering remains. The
    Fascist planners of the bombing campaign knew
    that Guernica had no strategic value as a
    military target, but it was a cultural and
    religious center for Basque identity. The
    devastation was intended to terrorize the
    population and break the spirit of the Basque
    resistance. In effect it was intended to "shock
    and awe" the Basques into submission. The bombing
    of Guernica was a sensation in the world press.
    The Times of London called it the arch-symbol of
    Fascist barbarity.

  • Venetian masks have a long history of protecting
    their wearer's identity. Made for centuries in
    Venice, these distinctive masks were formed from
    paper-mache and wildly decorated with fur,
    fabric, gems, or feathers. Eventually, Venetian
    masks re-emerged as the emblem of Carnevale
    (Venetian Carnival).Venetian masks have been
    worn in Venice, Italy, since antiquity.
    Additionally, the masks served an important
    social purpose of keeping every citizen on an
    equal playing field. Masked, a servant could be
    mistaken for a nobleman?or vice versa. State
    inquisitors and spies could question citizens
    without fear of their true identity being
    discovered (and citizens could answer without
    fear of retribution). The morale of the people
    was maintained through the use of masks?for with
    no faces, everyone had voices.

Venetian Masks
African Masks
  • Many African societies see masks as mediators
    between the living world and the supernatural
    world of the dead, ancestors and other entities.
    Masks became and still become the attribute of a
    dressed up dancer who gave it life and word at
    the time of ceremonies. In producing a mask, a
    sculptor's aim is to depict a person's
    psychological and moral characteristics, rather
    than provide a portrait

African Masks
  • He then paints the mask with pigments such as
    charcoal (to give a black colour), powders made
    from vegetable matter or trees (for ochre/earth
    tones) or mineral powders like clay (to give a
    white colour). African peoples often symbolize
    death by the colour white rather than black at
    the same time, many African cultures see white as
    the colour that links them to their ancestors,
    and it can therefore have a positive meaning.

African Masks
Organic Barriers
  • Skin and fur create a waterproof barrier for
    internal organs. Eggshells, bony shell, feathers
    and fur protect, camouflage and identify species
    of animals, birds and reptiles.
  • Reefs, sand, wave cut platforms, sea cave. River
    tributaries, salt water, fresh water meeting salt

Organic Barriers
  • As a starting point you may wish to collect
    photos and produce observational drawings of the
  • Poppy heads, egg shells, organic labels, bones,
    reefs, shells, sea cave, water, pea pod, fossils,

Karl Blossfeldt
  • Karl Blossfeldt (1865 1932) was a German
    photographer, sculptor, teacher, and artist who
    worked in Berlin, Germany, at the turn of the
    century. He worked with a camera he designed
    himself. That camera allowed him to greatly
    magnify the objects he was capturing, to up to 30
    times their actual size. He spent much of his
    time devoted to the study of nature. In his
    career of more than 30 years, he photographed
    nothing but plants, or rather, sections of
    plants. In many of his photographs, he would zoom
    in so close to a plant that the plant no longer
    looked like a plant. The images he created looked
    more like lovely, abstract forms. His photos
    revealed the amazing detail found in nature.

Elsa Peretti
  • Elsa Peretti is a jewellery designer who has
    designed necklaces of apples, beans, shells.

Sculptures of Organic Forms
  • Barbara Hepworth

Sculptures of Organic Forms
  • Peter Randall-Page

Sculptures of Organic forms
  • Henry Moore

Camouflage on animals
  • You may wish to explore patterns found on
    animals, and insects.
  • For eg. zebra patterns, patterns on butterfly
    wings, snakes, reptiles, turtles, fish.

Jason Scarpace
  • You have eight weeks to prepare for your timed
    test. The exam preparation work is worth 75 of
    the final exam mark.
  • The timed test (Final Piece) is worth 25 of the
    final exam mark.

  • Your sketchbook should take you and the examiner
    on a journey.
  • Aim to produce a minimum of 16 pages in your
  • Good Luck!
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