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Second Language Acquisition Semester 1, 2004 LING2021SLAT6805

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Title: Second Language Acquisition Semester 1, 2004 LING2021SLAT6805


1
Second Language Acquisition Semester 1,
2004LING2021/SLAT6805
  • Lecture slides and notes
  • Week 1

2
Assessment
  • There will be four pieces of assessment in this
    course.
  • There are three problem sets, each worth 20,
  • and a final assessment worth 40.
  • The final assessment differs for the
    undergraduates and postgraduates.

3
Assessments
  • Problem Set 1 Contrastive analysis
    crosslinguistic transfer
  • Gass Selinker, 2001, pp137-139 Answer problems
    1 2
  • Due Thursday, April 8 in class.
  • Problem Set 2 Krashens Monitor Model
  • Gass Selinker, 2001, pp219-220 Answer problems
    5 6
  • Due Monday, May 10 in EMSAH office
  • Problem Set 3 Input modification
  • Gass Selinker, 2001, pp 306-307 Answer
    problems 3 4
  • Due Thursday, May 27 in class
  • Each is worth 20 of total mark. Double-spaced,
    12 point font

4
Final assessment LING2021
  • Write a short essay defending the statement
    below. Support your argument with evidence from
    the text. Anticipate and address major objections
    to the statement.
  • Teaching grammar is a waste of time.
  • Length 1000 words, double-spaced.
  • 40 of final mark
  • Due Thursday, 18 June in the EMSAH office,
    Michie, Level 4

5
Final assessment SLAT6805
  • Write a paper on the topic How does L2
    grammatical knowledge develop?
  • The development of grammatical knowledge is at
    the core of learning and teaching a second
    language (L2). A number of different
    explanations have been proposed to account for
    how this process happens. These include, but are
    not limited to, the universal grammar approach,
    the cognitivist approach, and the interactionist
    approach.
  • In this paper you should choose from among the
    different approaches we have encountered in the
    readings, selecting from the various approaches
    those elements you believe provide insight into
    how L2 grammar develops. In other words, you
    should present your own theory of second language
    (grammar) acquisition. There is no one correct
    perspective rather, you should combine your own
    experience teaching and learning an L2 with your
    reading of the literature to develop what you
    feel is the most compelling account of L2
    development.
  • In order to address the main question, your
    account will need to answer the following
    subquestions.
  • What is grammatical knowledge? Identify what it
    is that the learner learns and how this knowledge
    relates to other aspects of L2 development (e.g.,
    phonology, vocabulary)
  • How does grammatical knowledge relate to the
    overall ability to use the L2?
  • What are the external conditions needed for
    grammatical knowledge to develop? Identify what
    kind of exposure and experience the learner needs
    to learn grammar.
  • What is the role of instruction in grammatical
    development?
  • Length 1500-2000 words, double-spaced.
    Due Thursday, June 18 in the
    EMSAH office, Michie, Level 4 40 of final
    mark

6
Course introduction
7
Why study second language acquisition?
  • Bi- and multi- lingualism is the norm in the
    world.
  • SLA research informs theory and practice in L2
    teaching and learning.
  • SLA serves as a testing ground for theories of
    language cognition.

8
Scope of SLA research
  • Goal of SLA research Understand how 2nd (3rd,
    4th, etc) languages are learned and used.
  • What does a theory of SLA theory have to account
    for?
  • Process the learner and learning, and the
    teacher and teaching
  • Setting naturalistic versus formal, 'second'
    versus 'foreign' language
  • Individual differences among learners age,
    aptitude, motivation, anxiety, etc.
  • L1 influence

9
SLA and related fields.
  • Linguistics
  • Cognitive psychology (psycholinguistics)
  • Language teaching
  • Cross-cultural communication
  • Language planning/language policy

10
General issues in language learning research (L1
or L2)
  • Is language 'acquired' or 'learned'?
  • What is being acquired?
  • How do we know when and if it is acquired?
  • How do we explain it?

11
What is being acquired?
  • Phonology the sound system
  • Syntax
  • Morphology the lexicon
  • Semantics
  • Pragmatics

12
Phonology the sound system
  • Sound inventory
  • phonemes p b
  • Sound combinations
  • phonotactics bubu boggle vlurk
  • Real-time processes
  • Didja hear the story about.?

13
Syntax (grammar)
  • Prescriptive descriptive grammar
  • Tom met Mary gtgtgt Mary was met by Tom.
  • Who did Mary believe saw Toms belief?

14
Morphology the lexicon
  • Word formation
  • Free and bound morphemes.
  • Inflectional changes
  • calculate gtgt calculated, calculating
  • Derivational changes
  • calculate gtgt calculator

15
Semantics the study of meaning.
  • Referential meaning
  • Fuzzy nature of meaning
  • Structural aspects of meaning

16
Pragmatics knowledge of how to use the language
in social interactions.
  • Implicatures Theres a book on the floor..
  • Speech acts
  • directives beg, command request
  • commissives promise, guarantee
  • declarations marrying, resigning,
    christening

17
Yes or No?
  • A. Any normal child can learn any language with
    equal ease.
  • B. Learning a second language is a matter of
    learning a new set of habits.
  • C. The only reason that some people cannot learn
    a second or foreign language is that they are
    insufficiently motivated.
  • D. All children can learn a second language
    accent free.
  • E. All human beings have an innate capacity to
    learn language.
  • F. Vocabulary is the most important part of
    learning a second language.
  • G. Vocabulary is the most difficult part of
    learning a second language
  • H. Language instruction is a waste of time.
  • I. Learning a second language takes no more time
    than learning a first.

18
Interlanguage
  • The systematic knowledge of the L2, particularly
    structural rules, which underlies L2
    comprehension and production.

19
Assumptions about interlanguage (1)
  • 1. The learner constructs the interlanguage
    grammar.

20
Assumptions about interlanguage (2)
  • 2. The learner's grammar is permeable. It is
    influenced by external input and by internal
    processes like transfer from the L1 and
    overgeneralisation.

21
Assumptions about interlanguage (3)
  • 3. The learner's grammar in transitional.
    Learners change, add and delete rules over the
    course of development.

22
Assumptions about interlanguage (4)
  • 4. A learner employs various learning strategies
    to develop his or her interlanguage. These
    strategies include such processes as
    simplification and overgeneralisation.

23
Assumptions about interlanguage (5)
  • 5. The learner's grammar is likely to fossilise.
    Fossilisation occurs when learner's stop learning
    while their internalised grammar contains rules
    different from those of the target system. This
    failure to reach native-like competence is common
    in SLA. It does not happen in L1.

24
Data analysis
  • The interpretation of interlanguage data is
    central to SLA research. Learner productions are
    analysed in the attempt to understand the
    underlying system.

25
What is happening here? Verb ing markers(p 22)
  • (2-20) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-21) Shes sleeping
  • (2-22) Its raining.
  • (2-23) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-24) Hanis sleeping.
  • (2-25) The dog eating. (The dog is eating.)
  • (2-26) Hani watch TV. (Hani is watching TV.)
  • (2-27) Watch TV. (He is watching TV.)
  • (2-28) Read the paper. (He is reading the paper.)
  • (2-29) Drink the coffee. (He is drinking coffee.)

26
What is happening here? What is the IL rule for
the learners use of Verb ing markers?
  • (2-20) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-21) Shes sleeping
  • (2-22) Its raining.
  • (2-23) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-24) Hanis sleeping.
  • (2-25) The dog eating. (The dog is eating.)
  • (2-26) Hani watch TV. (Hani is watching TV.)
  • (2-27) Watch TV. (He is watching TV.)
  • (2-28) Read the paper. (He is reading the paper.)
  • (2-29) Drink the coffee. (He is drinking coffee.)
  • Hypothesis I Put the Verb ing in the sentence
    final position.

27
What is happening here? What is the IL rule for
the learners use of Verb ing markers?
  • (2-20) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-21) Shes sleeping
  • (2-22) Its raining.
  • (2-23) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-24) Hanis sleeping.
  • (2-25) The dog eating. (The dog is eating.)
  • (2-26) Hani watch TV. (Hani is watching TV.)
  • (2-27) Watch TV. (He is watching TV.)
  • (2-28) Read the paper. (He is reading the paper.)
  • (2-29) Drink the coffee. (He is drinking coffee.)
  • Hypothesis II Whenever there is an intended
    progressive, put Verb ing in the sentence final
    position.

28
What is happening here? What is the IL rule for
the learners use of Verb ing markers?
  • (2-20) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-21) Shes sleeping
  • (2-22) Its raining.
  • (2-23) Hes sleeping.
  • (2-24) Hanis sleeping.
  • (2-25) The dog eating. (The dog is eating.)
  • (2-26) Hani watch TV. (Hani is watching TV.)
  • (2-27) ø Watch TV. (He is watching TV.)
  • (2-28) ø Read the paper. (He is reading the
    paper.)
  • (2-29) ø Drink the coffee. (He is drinking
    coffee.)
  • Hypothesis III Simple form of the verb is used
    when there is no overt subject.

29
What is happening here? What is the IL rule for
the learners use of Verb ing markers?
  • (2-20) Hes sleeping. (a)
  • (2-21) Shes sleeping. (a)
  • (2-22) Its raining. (a)
  • (2-23) Hes sleeping. (a)
  • (2-24) Hanis sleeping. (a)
  • (2-25) The dog eating. (a) (The dog is eating.)
  • (2-26) Hani watch TV. (Hani is watching TV.) (b)
  • (2-27) Watch TV. (He is watching TV.) (b)
  • (2-28) Read the paper. (He is reading the paper.)
    (b)
  • (2-29) Drink the coffee. (He is drinking coffee.)
    (b)
  • Hypothesis IV (a) The Verb -ing form is used
    in sentences without overt objects. (b) The
    simple form of the verb is used with transitive
    verbs with overt objects.

30
Data collection
  • Longitudinal
  • Quasi-longitudinal
  • Cross-sectional

31
Data elicitation
  • Standardized language tests
  • Tests from psychology
  • Language-elicitation measures.

32
Standardised language tests
  • TOEFL
  • IELTS
  • Oral Proficiency Interview (OPI)

33
Tests from psychology
  • Questionnaires usually used for assessing
    attitudes, motivation, learning styles.
  • Likert scales
  • Steve Irwin is a goose.
  • 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Strongly disagree Strongly agree

34
Language-elicitation measures.
  • Elicited imitation. The ability to repeat longer
    sentences reflects master of grammatical
    structure.
  • Stimulus The rat the cat the dog bit chased
    died.
  • Response The rat the cat the dog bit chased died.

35
Second Language Acquisition
  • Week 1 End
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